Objective—To compare tibial plateau angle (TPA) in dogs with unilateral versus bilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture, to compare right versus left TPA in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture, and to determine whether TPA can be used to predict whether a dog with unilateral CCL rupture would subsequently rupture the contralateral CCL.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—150 dogs with unilateral (n = 58) or bilateral (92) CCL rupture.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed and TPA was recorded. Dogs with unilateral CCL rupture that were not known to have ruptured the contralateral ligament were followed up for a minimum of 2 years.
Results—Dogs with unilateral CCL rupture were significantly older (median, 7.0 years) than dogs with bilateral CCL rupture (median, 4.5 years). Median TPA for dogs with unilateral CCL rupture (26°) was not significantly different from median TPA for dogs with bilateral rupture (27° in both the right and left limbs), and right and left TPAs were not significantly different in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture. There was no correlation between TPA and the time interval between diagnosis of the initial and subsequent CCL ruptures in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that TPA in the range studied (mostly < 35°) was not a useful predictor of contralateral CCL rupture among dogs with unilateral CCL rupture, although age may be a risk factor for development of bilateral CCL rupture. The incidence of bilateral CCL rupture may be higher than previously reported.
Objective—To identify risk factors for rectal tears in horses; assess the effect of initiating cause on tear location, size, and distance from anus; and determine short-term survival rate among horses with various grades of rectal tears.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records for horses with a rectal tear were reviewed, and data including age; sex; breed; cause, location, and size of the tear and its distance from the anus; tear grade; treatment; and outcome (short-term survival [ie, survival to discharge from the hospital] vs nonsurvival) were recorded. Data for age, sex, and breed of horses with rectal tears were compared with data for all horses evaluated at the hospital during the same interval to determine risk factors for rectal tears.
Results—Arabians, American Miniature Horses, mares, and horses > 9 years of age were more likely to develop a rectal tear than other breeds, males, or younger horses. Dystocia had a significant influence on rectal tear size. Location of a rectal tear and its distance from the anus were not associated with cause. Applied treatments for grade 1, 2, and 3 rectal tears were effective, unlike treatments for grade 4 rectal tears. Irrespective of treatment, the overall short-term survival rate among horses with grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 rectal tears was 100%, 100%, 38%, and 2%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accurate identification of risk factors could help practitioners and owners implement adequate measures to prevent the development of rectal tears in horses.
Objective—To determine the outcome of penetrating injuries to the central region of the foot in equids and identify factors that may affect treatment and outcome.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—63 equids (61 horses, 1 pony, and 1 mule).
Procedures—Records of equids incurring puncture wounds through the frog (cuneus ungulae) or collateral sulci of the foot between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. Evaluated factors that were hypothesized to affect outcome included signalment, degree of lameness, foot affected, duration between injury and admission, and treatment. Injuries were graded from 1 (< 1 inch; involving superficial corium only) to 4 (involving a synovial structure) on the basis of severity of penetration as determined by radiographic evidence or findings on synoviocentesis at the time of admission.
Results—Overall, 60% (38/63) of equids returned to soundness. Thirteen equids were euthanized on the basis of synovial structure involvement and financial constraints. Of 35 equids that were treated conservatively, which may have included undergoing a surgical procedure with the horse standing, 32 (91.4%) returned to their previous level of soundness. Fifteen equids underwent surgical treatment under general anesthesia, of which 6 (40%) became sound for intended use. Ten of 34 (29%) equids with synovial structure involvement regained soundness. Equids treated earlier after injury had a better prognosis. Equids with a hind foot injury had a more favorable outcome than those with a forefoot injury.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that penetrating injuries located centrally in the foot of equids without involvement of a synovial structure have a favorable prognosis, especially if managed early. Penetration of a synovial structure provided a poor prognosis.
Objective—To determine whether high liver enzyme activities were negatively associated with outcome in sick neonatal foals as compared with foals that did not have high liver enzyme activities.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—147 foals < 30 days old with high γ-glutamyltransferase activity, high sorbitol dehydrogenase activity, or both (case foals) and 263 foals < 30 days old with γ-glutamyltransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities within reference limits (control foals).
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, physical examination findings, and results of hematologic and serum biochemical analyses performed at the time of admission to a veterinary medical teaching hospital.
Results—Case foals were significantly more likely to die or be euthanized, compared with control foals (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 3.85). Case foals were significantly more likely than control foals to have sepsis, and septic foals were significantly less likely to survive than were nonseptic foals. For case foals, other factors associated with a greater likelihood of nonsurvival were higher anion gap and higher logarithm of aspartate aminotransferase activity. When sepsis status was controlled for, the presence of high liver enzyme activities was not significantly associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that high liver enzyme activities were common in sick neonatal foals, especially foals with sepsis. Foals with high liver enzyme activities were more likely to be septic, and septic foals were less likely to survive than were foals without sepsis. However, high liver enzyme activities alone were not a useful negative prognostic indicator.
Objective—To determine the incidence of complications and identify risk factors associated with development of complications following routine castration of equids.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—311 horses, 10 mules, and 3 donkeys.
Procedures—Medical records of equids undergoing routine castration were reviewed. Age, breed, surgical techniques (closed vs semiclosed castration and use of ligatures), anesthesia method (general IV anesthesia vs standing sedation with local anesthesia) and repeated administration of IV anesthetic agents, administration of antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory drugs, and details regarding development, management, and outcome of complications were recorded. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Associations between additional doses of anesthetic agents during surgery and development of complications were analyzed with a Jonckheere-Terpstra test.
Results—33 of 324 (10.2%) equids developed a complication after surgery; 32 recovered and 1 was euthanized because of eventration. Equids that underwent semiclosed castration had significantly higher odds of developing a complication (OR, 4.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.09 to 10.6) than did those that underwent closed castration. Equids that received additional doses of anesthetic agents to maintain adequate general anesthesia developed complications more frequently than those that did not require this treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of complications was low, and most evaluated variables were not significantly associated with development of complications following castration in equids. However, findings suggested that the choice of surgical technique (closed vs semiclosed) is an important factor in this regard. Future studies should investigate whether duration of surgery is associated with complications following castration in equids.
OBJECTIVE To assess incidence of incisional infection in horses following management with 1 of 3 protective dressings after exploratory celiotomy for treatment of acute signs of abdominal pain (ie, colic) and determine the risk of complications associated with each wound management approach.
DESIGN Prospective, randomized, controlled study.
ANIMALS 85 horses.
PROCEDURES Horses were assigned to 3 groups. After standardized abdominal closure, a sterile cotton towel (group 1) or polyhexamethylene biguanide–impregnated dressing (group 2) was secured over the incision site with 4 or 5 cruciate sutures of nonabsorbable monofilament, or sterile gauze was placed over the site and secured with an iodine-impregnated adhesive drape (group 3). Demographic and clinicopathologic data, intraoperative and postoperative variables, and development of complications were recorded and compared among groups by statistical methods. Follow-up information was collected 30 and 90 days after surgery. Incidence and odds of incisional complications were calculated.
RESULTS 75 horses completed the study. Group 3 typically had dressing displacement necessitating removal during anesthetic recovery; dressings were in place for a mean of 44 and 31 hours for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Purulent or persistent serosanguinous incisional discharge (ie, infection) was detected in 11 of 75 (15%) horses (2/24, 0/26, and 9/25 from groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Odds of incisional complications were significantly greater for group 3 than for groups 1 or 2.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that risk of infection after celiotomy for treatment of colic is lower for incisions covered with sterile towels or polyhexamethylene biguanide–impregnated dressings secured with sutures than for incisions covered with gauze secured with iodine-impregnated adhesive drapes.
Objective—To determine the effects of stress in cats with feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) by evaluating bladder permeability, sympathetic nervous system function, and urine cortisol:creatinine (C:Cr) ratios during periods of stress and after environmental enrichment.
Animals—13 cats with FIC and 12 healthy cats.
Procedure—Cats subjected to an acute-onset moderate stressor for 8 days received IV injections of fluorescein. Serum fluorescein concentrations were determined and compared with those of controls to evaluate bladder permeability, and urine C:Cr ratios were compared to evaluate function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were analyzed in a subset of cats. After 8 days of moderate stress, cats were moved to an enriched environment, and tests were repeated after 21 days.
Results—Serum fluorescein concentrations were significantly higher in cats with FIC at all time points. In the cats in which plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined, concentrations of dihydroxyphenylalanine, norepinephrine, and dihyroxyphenylglycol were significantly higher in cats with FIC at all time points, whereas no differences in urine C:Cr ratio between groups were observed.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Cats with FIC appeared to have altered bladder permeability, most notably during the period of initial stress. The increase in plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine concentration suggests that there may be stress-induced increase in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in catecholamine synthesis. In contrast, no effects of stress on C:Cr ratios were observed, which suggests there was dissociation between the sympathetic nervous system and HPA-axis responses to stress.
Objective—To compare sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination and 3 chromogen tests for detection of occult blood in cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) excrement.
Animals—20 adult cockatiels.
Procedures—Pooled blood from birds was divided into whole blood and lysate aliquots. Excrement was mixed with each aliquot in vitro to yield 6 hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations (range, 0.375 to 12.0 mg of Hb/g of excrement). For the in vivo portion of the study, birds were serially gavaged with each aliquot separately at 5 doses of Hb (range, 2.5 to 40 mg/kg). Three chromogen tests and cytologic examination were used to test excrement samples for occult blood. Sensitivity, specificity, and observer agreement were calculated.
Results—In vitro specificity ranged from 85%to 100% for the 3 chromogen tests and was 100% for cytologic examination. Sensitivity was 0% to 35% for cytologic examination and 100% for the 3 chromogen tests on samples containing ≥ 1.5 mg of Hb/g of excrement. In vivo specificity was 100%, 90%, 65%, and 45% for cytologic examination and the 3 chromogen tests, respectively. Sensitivity was 0% to 5% for cytologic examination and ≥ 75% for all 3 chromogen tests after birds received doses of Hb ≥ 20 mg/kg. Observer agreement was lowest for cytologic examination.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chromogen tests were more useful than cytologic examination for detection of occult blood in cockatiel excrement. The best combination of sensitivity, specificity, and observer agreement was obtained by use of a chromogen test.
Objective—To determine concentrations of α-tocopherol in serum and CSF of healthy horses following administration of supplemental vitamin E in feed.
Animals—10 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Horses were allocated to receive supplemental d-α-tocopherol (1,000 U/d [group A; n = 5] or 10,000 U/d [group B; 5]) in feed for 10 days. Blood samples were collected before (baseline), during, and at intervals for 10 days after discontinuation of vitamin E administration for assessment of serum α-tocopherol concentration. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected prior to and 24 hours after cessation of vitamin E administration. α-Tocopherol concentrations in serum and CSF samples were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography; changes in those values during the treatment period were compared between groups, and the relationship of serum and CSF α-tocopherol concentrations was evaluated.
Results—In both groups, serum α-tocopherol concentration increased significantly from baseline during vitamin E administration; values in group B were significantly greater than those in group A during and after treatment. At the end of vitamin E administration, CSF α-tocopherol concentration was not significantly greater than the baseline value in either group; however, the increase in CSF concentration was significant when the group data were combined and analyzed. Serum and CSF α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly correlated at baseline for all horses, but were not strongly correlated after 10 days of vitamin E administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy horses, daily oral administration of supplemental vitamin E in feed resulted in increases in serum and CSF α-tocopherol concentrations.
Objective—To identify associations among change in body weight, behavioral stress score, food intake score, and development of upper respiratory tract infection (URI) among cats admitted to an animal shelter.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—60 adult cats admitted to an animal shelter.
Procedures—Body weight was measured on days 0 (intake), 7, 14, and 21. Behavioral stress and food intake were scored daily for the first 7 days; cats were monitored daily for URI.
Results—49 of the 60 (82%) cats lost weight during at least 1 week while in the shelter. Fifteen (25%) cats lost ≥ 10% of their body weight while in the shelter. Thirty-five of the 60 (58%) cats developed URI prior to exiting the shelter, and only 4 cats remained at least 21 days without developing URI. Cats with high stress scores during the first week were 5.6 times as likely to develop URI as were cats with low stress scores. Food intake and stress scores were negatively correlated (r = −0.98).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats admitted to an animal shelter were likely to lose weight while in the shelter and likely to develop URI, and that cats that had high stress scores were more likely to develop URI.