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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of treatment with platelet- and leukocyte-rich plasma (PRP) on future 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old racing performance of yearling Thoroughbreds with proximal sesamoid bone inflammation and associated suspensory ligament branch (SLB) desmitis.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—39 yearling Thoroughbreds.

Procedures—Yearling Thoroughbreds with radiographic evidence of performance-limiting proximal sesamoid bone inflammation and ultrasonographic evidence of associated SLB desmitis were identified and randomly assigned to undergo PRP (treatment group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control group) injection at the affected SLB-proximal sesamoid bone junction. Race records of horses for the 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old racing years were obtained. Data regarding amount of money earned and number of races started were used as outcome measures, and results for groups were compared.

Results—Horses treated with PRP were significantly more likely to start at least 1 race during the 2-year-old racing year than were horses treated with saline solution; no significant differences were detected between groups regarding that variable for the 3- and 4-year-old racing years. No significant differences between groups were detected regarding earnings for any racing year.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although PRP-treated horses were more likely to start a race during the 2-year-old racing year versus control group horses, results for horses in each group were not significantly different for the 3- and 4-year-old racing years. Therefore, the PRP treatment protocol evaluated in this study did not seem to improve future racing performance of yearling Thoroughbreds with proximal sesamoid bone inflammation and associated SLB desmitis, compared with injection of saline solution.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To quantify the number of horses with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection identified in the United States from January 2003 through December 2012.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample—State veterinary diagnostic laboratory records of 2,237 C pseudotuberculosis culture-positive samples from horses.

Procedures—44 state veterinary diagnostic laboratories throughout the United States were invited by mail to participate in the study. Data requested included the number of C pseudotuberculosis culture-positive samples from horses identified per year, geographic location from which the C pseudotuberculosis culture-positive sample was submitted, month and year of sample submission, breed and age of horses, and category of clinical manifestation (ie, internal infection, external infection, or ulcerative lymphangitis).

Results—Of the 44 invited laboratories, 15 agreed to participate and provided data on affected horses from 23 states. The proportion of C pseudotuberculosis culture-positive samples submitted during 2011 through 2012 (1,213/2,237 [54%]) was significantly greater than that for the period from 2003 through 2010 (1,024/2,237 [46%]). Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was recovered from horses in states where the disease has not been previously recognized as endemic. Affected horses were identified year-round. The greatest proportion of C pseudotuberculosis culture-positive samples was identified during November, December, and January (789/2,237 [35%]). No significant association between the clinical form of disease and age or breed of horse was observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The occurrence of C pseudotuberculosis infection in horses increased during the 10-year period, and affected horses were identified throughout the United States. Further studies to determine changes in annual incidence and to identify potential changing climatic conditions or vector populations associated with disease transmission are warranted to help control the occurrence and spread of C pseudotuberculosis infection in horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of 2 acute-phase proteins (serum amyloid A [SAA] and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein [LBP]) in serum samples obtained from horses with colic and identify relationships among these acute-phase proteins and clinical data.

Animals—765 horses with naturally developing gastrointestinal tract diseases characterized by colic (ie, clinical signs indicative of abdominal pain) and 79 healthy control horses; all horses were examined at 2 university teaching hospitals.

Procedure—Serum concentrations of SAA and LBP were determined by immunoturbidometric and dotblot assays, respectively.

Results—SAA and LBP concentrations were determined for 718 and 765 horses with colic, respectively. Concentrations of SAA were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors, and horses with enteritis or colitis and conditions characterized by chronic inflammation (eg, abdominal abscesses, peritonitis, or rectal tears) had SAA concentrations significantly greater than those for horses with other conditions. Serum concentrations of LBP did not correlate with outcome, disease process, or portion of the gastrointestinal tract affected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Circulating concentrations of SAA were significantly higher at admission in horses with colic attributable to conditions having a primary inflammatory cause (eg, enteritis, colitis, peritonitis, or abdominal abscesses) and were higher in horses that failed to survive the episode of colic, compared with concentrations in horses that survived. Serum concentrations of LBP did not correlate with survival. Analysis of these findings suggests that evaluation of SAA concentrations may be of use in identifying horses with colic attributable to diseases that have inflammation as a primary component of pathogenesis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1509–1516)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assay in the detection and quantitation of virulent Rhodococcus equi.

Sample Population—1 virulent, 2 intermediately virulent, and 2 avirulent strains of R equi and 16 isolates of bacteria genetically related to R equi.

Procedure—The QPCR assay was evaluated for detection and quantitation of the virulence-associated gene (vapA) of R equi in pure culture and in samples of tracheobronchial fluid, which were inoculated with known numbers of virulent R equi. Results were compared with those derived via quantitative microbial culture and standard polymerase chain reaction methods.

Results—The QPCR assay detected the vapAgene in pure culture of R equi and in tracheobronchial fluid samples that contained as few as 20 CFUs of virulent R equi/mL and accurately quantitated virulent R equi to 103 CFUs/mL of fluid. The assay was highly specific for detection of the vapA gene of virulent R equi and was more sensitive than standard polymerase chain reaction for detection of R equi in tracheobronchial fluid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The QPCR assay appears to be a rapid and reliable method for detecting and quantitating virulent R equi. The accuracy of the QPCR assay is comparable to that of quantitative microbial culture. The increased sensitivity of the QPCR method in detection of virulent R equi should facilitate rapid and accurate diagnosis of R equi pneumonia in foals. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:755–761)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the temporality of dates of breeding and abortion classified as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) among mares with abortions during early gestation.

Animals—2,314 mares confirmed pregnant at approximately 28 days after breeding from 36 farms in central Kentucky, including 515 mares that had earlyterm abortions.

Procedure—Farm veterinarians and managers were interviewed to obtain data for each mare that was known to be pregnant to determine pregnancy status, breeding date, last date known to be pregnant, and date of abortion.

Results—Mares bred prior to April 1, 2001, appeared to be at greatest risk of early-term abortion, both among and within individual farms. Mares bred in mid-February appeared to be at greatest risk of abortion, with an estimated weekly incidence rate of abortion of 66% (95% CI, 52% to 80%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mares in central Kentucky bred between mid-February and early March were observed to be at greatest risk of early-term abortion, and risk gradually decreased to a background incidence of abortion of approximately 11%. Mares bred after April 1, 2001, appeared to be at markedly less risk, indicating that exposure to the cause of MRLS likely occurred prior to this date. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1792–1797)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate spatial risks associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) during 2001 among horses in a specific study population and partition the herd effects into those attributable to herd location and those that were spatially random and likely attributable to herd management.

Animals—Pregnant broodmares from 62 farms in 7 counties in central Kentucky.

Procedure—Veterinarians provided the 2001 abortion incidence proportions for each farm included in the study. Farms were georeferenced and data were analyzed by use of a fully Bayesian risk-mapping technique.

Results—Large farm-to-farm variation in MRLS incidence proportions was identified. The farm-to-farm variation was largely attributed to spatial location rather than to spatially random herd effects

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that there are considerable data to support an ecologic cause and potential ecologic risk factors for MRLS. Veterinary practitioners with more detailed knowledge of the ecology in the 7 counties in Kentucky that were investigated may provide additional data that would assist in the deduction of the causal factor of MRLS via informal geographic information systems analyses and suggest factors for inclusion in further investigations. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:17–20)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the correlation between halftime of liquid-phase gastric emptying (T50), determined with nuclear scintigraphy using technetium Tc 99m pentetate, and absorption variables of orally administered acetaminophen.

Animals—6 mature horses.

Procedure—Technetium Tc 99m pentetate (10 mCi) and acetaminophen (20 mg/kg of body weight) were administered simultaneously in 200 ml of water. Serial left and right lateral images of the stomach region were obtained with a gamma camera, and T50 determined separately for counts obtained from the left side, the right side and the geometric mean. Power exponential curves were used for estimation of T50 and modified R2 values for estimation of goodness of fit of the data. Serial serum samples were taken, and acetaminophen concentration was determined, using fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax), time to reach maximum serum concentration (Tmax), area under the curve for 240 minutes and the absorption constant (Ka) were determined, using a parameter estimation program. Correlations were calculated, using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

Results—Correlations between T50 and Tmax and between T50 and Ka were significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tmax and Ka are valuable variables in the assessment of liquidphase gastric emptying using acetaminophen absorption. Acetaminophen absorption may be a valuable alternative to nuclear scintigraphy in the determination of gastric emptying rates in equine patients with normally functioning small intestine. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:310–315)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the correlation between the half-time of liquid-phase gastric emptying (T50) determined by use of nuclear scintigraphy, using technetium Tc 99m pentetate, and absorption variables of orally administered acetaminophen in horses with experimentally delayed gastric emptying.

Animals—6 mature horses.

Procedure—Delayed gastric emptying was induced by IV injection of atropine sulfate. Twenty minutes later, acetaminophen and technetium Tc 99m pentetate were administered simultaneously via nasogastric tube. Serial lateral images of the stomach region were obtained, using a gamma camera. Power exponential curves were used for estimation of T50 and modified R2 values for estimation of goodness-of-fit of the data. Serial serum samples were obtained, and acetaminophen concentration was determined, using fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax), time to reach maximum serum concentration (Tmax), area under the curve for 480 minutes, and the appearance rate constant were determined, using a parameter estimation program. Correlations were calculated, using a Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

Results—A significant correlation was detected between T50 determined by use of scintigraphy and Tmax determined by use of acetaminophen absorption. Correlation between T50 and other absorption variables of acetaminophen was not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The acetaminophen absorption method was a valid technique in this model of delayed gastric emptying in horses. The method may be a valuable tool for use in research as well as in clinical evaluation of gastric emptying in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:170–174)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate quality of duodenal tissue specimens obtained endoscopically from dogs and cats and submitted to 1 of 2 diagnostic laboratories for evaluation.

Design—Case series.

Sample Population—Slides from 50 consecutive canine and 50 consecutive feline endoscopically obtained duodenal tissue specimens submitted to laboratory 1 and 49 consecutive canine and 46 consecutive feline specimens submitted to laboratory 2.

Procedure—Slides were examined independently by 3 investigators, and each tissue piece on each slide was classified as clearly inadequate, questionable, or clearly adequate on the basis of 4 criteria. An overall score was then assigned to the slide.

Results—Slides from laboratory 1 were more likely to be scored as clearly adequate and less likely to be scored as clearly inadequate than slides from laboratory 2. Clearly adequate slides from laboratory 1 had a higher number of clearly adequate pieces of tissue than did clearly adequate slides from laboratory 2. Slides scored as clearly adequate had a higher number of individual tissue pieces than did slides scored as clearly inadequate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the quality of endoscopically obtained duodenal tissue specimens submitted to laboratories can vary, possibly because of differences in experience of individuals collecting biopsy specimens. Results suggest that at least 8 individual tissue pieces should be submitted when performing endoscopic biopsy of the duodenum in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:474–479)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the association between high-speed exercise and risk of injury while racing among Thoroughbreds in Kentucky.

Design—Matched case-control study.

Animals—206 Thoroughbreds that sustained a musculoskeletal injury while racing and 412 Thoroughbreds that were not injured during the same races.

Procedure—Data regarding official timed workouts and races and the Beyer's numbers for the 3 races before the race during which injury occurred were extracted from past performance charts and compared between injured horses and control horses.

Results—For injured horses, cumulative distance of high-speed exercise during the 1- and 2-month periods prior to the race in which injury occurred was significantly less than that of control horses; for either period, a difference of 10 furlongs was associated with approximately 2-fold greater risk of injury. Beyer's numbers were significantly higher for injured horses than for control horses. These effects remained significant after adjusting for age and results of prerace physical inspection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Kentucky, injured horses had significantly less cumulative highspeed exercise than did control horses during the 1- and 2-month periods prior to the race in which injury occurred. These results differ from those observed in California. The association of injury with cumulative high-speed exercise appears to vary among regions in the United States. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 216:1273–1278)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association