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Objective

To determine anatomic landmarks for a lateral approach for arthrocentesis of the proximopalmarolateral aspect of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint in horses and the likelihood of entering synovial structures other than the DIP joint through this approach.

Design

Prospective study.

Sample Population

Paired forelimbs of 8 cadavers and 12 horses.

Procedure

Anatomic preparations were used to determine anatomic landmarks. Positive-contrast arthrography was used to determine which structures were entered.

Results

Landmarks for the lateral approach included a depression in the proximal border of the lateral ungular cartilage and the palmar border of the middle phalanx. Use of the lateral approach for arthrography resulted in deposition of contrast material exclusively in the DIP joint in only 13 of 20 limbs, whereas use of the dorsal approach resulted in deposition of contrast material exclusively in the DIP joint in 20 of 20 limbs.

Clinical Implications

The lateral approach is an alternative to the conventional dorsal approach to the DIP joint in horses; however, inadvertent entry into adjacent synovial structures is a possible complication. The lateral approach provides an additional portal for through-and-through lavage and arthroscopic access to the palmar aspect of the DIP joint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1413–1418)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To assess tendon morphology and non-reducible crosslink concentration, and associations of these findings with horse age and previously reported mechanical and ultrasonographic findings.

Sample Population

Superficial digital flexor tendon samples were obtained from 23 horses aged 2 to 23 years. The tendons had undergone ultrasonography and were submitted to biomechanical testing in the physiologic range prior to sample acquisition.

Procedure

Samples were sectioned in a transverse plane; then dorsal, palmar, central, lateral, and medial regions were evaluated for fascicle cross-sectional area (CSA), septal width, and vessel density (the product of vessel numbers and vessel CSA per field). Contiguous samples were analyzed for collagen crosslinking.

Results

Central fascicles were significantly larger than fascicles in other tendon regions. Fascicle CSA decreased significantly with increasing age. Because total tendon CSA is unrelated to increasing age, fascicle numbers appeared to increase with increasing age. Regional or age effects on septal width were not found. There was no age or regional effect on vessel numbers, density, or fractional area.

Fascicle CSA was positively correlated with total tendon CSA; fascicle CSA was negatively correlated with elastic modulus. Hydroxypiridinium concentration tended to increase with increasing horse age; this effect was associated with a positive correlation between hydroxypiridinium values and elastic modulus.

Conclusions

Equine superficial digital flexor tendon undergoes an increase in structural organization and an increase in nonreducible crosslinks with maturation and aging. These changes are associated with an increase in elastic modulus. (Am J Vet Res 1997; 58:425–430)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine prevalence and severity of systemic arterial hypertension and proteinuria in dogs with naturally developing hyperadrenocorticism and to determine whether these abnormalities resolve with adequate management of the disease.

Design—

Case series and cohort study.

Animals—

77 dogs with naturally developing hyperadrenocorticism examined once; 15 dogs examined before and after treatment.

Results—

Among dogs examined only once, hypertension was diagnosed in 21 of 26 dogs with untreated pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), 17 of 21 with inadequately controlled PDH, 8 of 16 with well-controlled PDH, 10 of 10 with an untreated adrenocortical tumor, and 0 of 4 that had undergone adrenalectomy because of an adrenocortical tumor. Untreated dogs and dogs with inadequately controlled PDH had significantly higher blood pressures than did other dogs. Proteinuria was documented in 12 of 26 dogs with untreated PDH, 5 of 16 with inadequately controlled PDH, 3 of 14 with well-controlled PDH, 5 of 8 with an untreated adrenocortical tumor, and 1 of 3 that had undergone adrenalectomy. Dogs with untreated PDH and dogs with an untreated adrenocortical tumor had higher urine protein/creatinine ratios than did dogs with well-controlled PDH. Among dogs evaluated before and after treatment, blood pressure and urine protein/creatinine ratio did not change in 8 dogs with inadequately controlled hyperadrenocorticism, but decreased in 7 dogs with well-controlled disease.

Clinical Implications—

Results suggest that systemic hypertension and proteinuria are common in dogs with untreated hyperadrenocorticism and that successful treatment of hyperadrenocorticism will result in resolution of these abnormalities in many, but not all, dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1724–1729)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The forefimb superficial digital flexor (sdf) tendons of 6 Thoroughbreds were examined clinically and ultrasonographically during the first 4 months of race training. Sonograms were interpreted clinically and by use of computer-aided analysis. Tendon tissue from all horses was examined histologically at the end of the study.

Computer-aided analysis of sonograms of the sdf tendons revealed trends toward an increase in mean cross-sectional area and a decrease in mean echogenicity over time with training. An inverse relation was found between increase in cross-sectional area and decrease in mean echogenicity over time in training. Two of the trained horses developed clinical signs of mid sdf tendonitis. Ultrasonography revealed an increase in cross-sectional area and decrease in mean echogenicity of clinically affected areas of the sdf tendons of 1 horse, compared with changes observed prior to the onset of tendonitis (these changes were not statistically significant). Blood vessels and lymphatics supplying the clinically and ultrasonographically affected tendon sites were large and thick-walled. These changes were not observed in the tendons of the other horses at the end of the study.

The authors conclude that equine sdf tendons adapt to the early months of race training by increasing in size and decreasing in echogencity, as determined by ultrasonography.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research