Objective—To determine whether plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations can be used to discriminate cardiac from noncardiac causes of dyspnea in cats.
Design—Prospective, multicenter study.
Animals—Client-owned cats with dyspnea attributable to congestive heart failure (D-CHF; n = 31) or to noncardiac causes (D-NCC; n = 12).
Procedures—For each cat, plasma cTnI concentration was analyzed by use of a solid-phase radial partition immunoassay; values in cats with D-CHF and D-NCC were compared. A receiver operating characteristic curve was analyzed to determine the accuracy of plasma cTnI concentration for diagnosis of D-CHF.
Results—Median plasma concentration of cTnI in cats with D-CHF (1.59 ng/mL; range, 0.20 to 30.24 ng/mL) was significantly higher than in cats with D-NCC (0.165 ng/mL; range, 0.01 to 1.42 ng/mL). With regard to the accuracy of plasma cTnI concentration for diagnosis of D-CHF, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84. At plasma concentrations ≥ 0.2 ng/mL, cTnI had 100% sensitivity but only 58% specificity for identification of CHF as the cause of dyspnea. At plasma concentrations ≥ 1.43 ng/mL, cTnI had 100% specificity and 58% sensitivity for identification of CHF as the cause of dyspnea.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the derived diagnostic limits, CHF as the cause of dyspnea could be ruled in or ruled out without additional diagnostic testing in > 50% of the study cats. Measurement of plasma cTnI concentration may be clinically useful for differentiation of cardiac from noncardiac causes of dyspnea in cats.
OBJECTIVE To survey practicing veterinarians regarding their perceptions of and experiences with cases of suspected or confirmed animal abuse and related state laws.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
POPULATION Members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN; n = 34,144) who were in veterinary practice at the time of the survey.
PROCEDURES A survey was designed and distributed online to all VIN members from January 26 to February 28, 2015. Responses were compiled, and binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that influenced decisions or perceptions regarding animal abuse encounters and related legislation.
RESULTS 1,209 completed surveys were received (3.5% response rate); 1,155 (95.5%) surveys were submitted by currently practicing veterinarians. One thousand five (87.0%) practicing veterinarians reported having encountered at least 1 case of animal abuse while in practice; 561 (55.8%) of these veterinarians indicated that they had reported at least 1 case. The most common reasons selected for reporting abuse were to protect the animal, ethical beliefs, and to protect other animals in the household. The most common reasons selected for not reporting the abuse were uncertainty that the animal had been abused, belief that client education would be better, and belief that the injury or illness was accidental versus intentional. Most respondents were unaware of the current status of laws in their state regarding animal abuse reporting.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested a need for state and national veterinary and humane-law enforcement organizations to increase communication and education efforts on recognition and reporting by veterinarians of animal abuse and the related laws.
OBJECTIVE To determine attitudes of small animal practitioners toward veterinary clinical trials and variables influencing their likelihood of participating in such trials.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE Small animal practitioners with membership in 1 of 2 online veterinary communities (n = 163 and 652).
PROCEDURES An online survey was developed for each of 2 veterinary communities, and invitations to participate were sent via email. Each survey included questions designed to collect information on the respondents’ willingness to enroll their patients in clinical trials and to recommend participation to clients for their pets.
RESULTS More than 80% of respondents to each survey indicated that they spend no time in clinical research. A high proportion of respondents were likely or extremely likely to recommend clinical trial participation to clients for their pets when those trials involved treatments licensed in other countries, novel treatments, respected investigators, or sponsoring by academic institutions, among other reasons. Reasons for not recommending participation included distance, time restrictions, and lack of awareness of ongoing clinical trials; 28% of respondents indicated that they did not usually learn about such clinical trials. Most respondents (79% to 92%) rated their recommendation of a trial as important to their client's willingness to participate.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Participation in veterinary clinical trials by small animal practitioners and their clients and patients appeared low. Efforts should be increased to raise practitioner awareness of clinical trials for which patients might qualify. Specific elements of trial design were identified that could be modified to increase participation.
To describe the current standard of care among specialists for the routine diagnostic evaluation and medical management of stable tracheal collapse in dogs, identifying gaps between practice and scientific evidence to facilitate the development of future prospective studies. A secondary objective was to describe the perceived incidence of selected comorbid disorders in dogs with tracheal collapse and the diagnostic tests performed to evaluate for those disorders.
180 veterinary specialists in 22 countries.
An electronic survey was sent to 4 specialty listservs to target diplomates. Respondents completed multiple-choice and free-response questions related to the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a theoretical stable dog with suspected tracheal collapse.
Most respondents routinely utilized radiography, tracheobronchoscopy, and fluoroscopy to diagnose tracheal collapse and performed airway sampling, sedated airway examination, and echocardiograms to rule out comorbidities. The most frequently perceived comorbid disorders included chronic bronchitis, bronchomalacia, and myxomatous mitral valve disease. Respondents most often prescribed opioid antitussives, glucocorticoids, anxiolytics, and antibiotics as treatments. Less frequently, they utilized bronchodilators and nonopioid medications for cough.
Despite a lack of published guidelines, specialists have similar approaches in their diagnostic and therapeutic approach to a stable dog with suspected tracheal collapse and believe evaluating for comorbid disorders is important. A description of a typical diagnostic approach and knowledge of realistic treatment goals will assist the general practitioner managing dogs with stable tracheal collapse. Additionally, gaps between current practices established via this survey and data supporting those practices exist, specifically concerning the use of antibiotics and nonopioid medications for cough, representing areas for further study.
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of oral administration of Yunnan Baiyao on platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis in healthy horses.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES In a randomized blinded crossover study that included a 4-week washout period between treatments, horses were orally administered a paste containing Yunnan Baiyao (15 mg/kg) or placebo at 12-hour intervals for 3 days. Blood samples were collected before start of treatment (time 0) and at 24 and 72 hours for a CBC, measurement of fibrinogen concentration, coagulation screening tests, and a panel of assays to assess platelet activation (including ADP- and collagen-induced aggregation and closure times, flow-cytometric variables of platelet-leukocyte aggregates, platelet membrane P-selectin and phosphatidylserine expression, and microparticle release), von Willebrand factor (vWF) concentration, and cofactor activity. In addition, thrombelastography was used to evaluate fibrin formation in tissue factor–activated whole blood and plasma and to assess tissue plasminogen activator–induced plasma fibrinolysis. For each treatment, values obtained before and 72 hours after start of administration were compared by use of Wilcoxon signed rank tests.
RESULTS Yunnan Baiyao treatment had no significant effect on any hemostatic variable, compared with results for the placebo treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of Yunnan Baiyao at a dosage typically used in clinical practice had no effect on in vitro measures of platelet or vWF function and no enhancement of fibrin-clot formation or stability. Any hemostatic actions of Yunnan Baiyao may require higher dosages or result from cell-surface interactions at sites of vascular and tissue injury not examined in this study.
Objective—To evaluate the clinical course of dogs with hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency) and to determine whether factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) was associated with severity of clinical signs and outcome.
Sample—Respondent information for 39 client-owned dogs with FVIII deficiency.
Procedures—Information was obtained via a survey distributed to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine and American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care email list serves and to the Veterinary Information Network community to identify dogs with hemophilia A (FVIII:C ≤ 20%). Severity of FVIII deficiency was classified as mild (FVIII:C, 6% to 20%), moderate (FVIII:C, 2% to 5%), or severe (FVIII:C, < 2%).
Results—Data for 39 dogs (38 males and 1 female) were compiled. Mixed-breed dogs, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers were most commonly affected. In most (34/39) dogs, disease was diagnosed at < 1 year of age. Bleeding associated with teething, minor trauma, vaccination, and elective surgical procedures most commonly prompted FVIII:C testing. Affected dogs had similar signs of spontaneous hemorrhage regardless of the magnitude of FVIII deficiency. Four dogs were euthanized without treatment at the time of diagnosis. Thirty dogs received ≥ 1 blood transfusion; FVIII:C did not appear to influence transfusion requirements.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs with hemophilia A have variations in clinical course of the disease and may have a good long-term prognosis. Residual FVIII:C may not be useful for predicting severity of clinical signs, transfusion needs, or long-term prognosis.
OBJECTIVE To describe ultrasonographic findings and outcomes for dogs with suspected migrating intrathoracic grass awns.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 43 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Records for dogs with suspected migrating intrathoracic grass awns examined between 2010 and 2013 were reviewed. Ultrasonographic images and additional information such as signalment and pleural fluid analysis, radiographic, bronchoscopic, and CT findings were collected. Surgical treatments and outcomes were also reviewed.
RESULTS Transthoracic or transesophageal ultrasonography revealed grass awns in the pleural space (n = 13) or pulmonary parenchyma (10) of 23 dogs. Surgical removal of grass awns was successful on the first attempt in 21 of these 23 dogs (including 11/23 that had intraoperative ultrasonography performed to aid localization and removal of the awn). In the remaining 2 dogs, a second surgery was required. Twenty dogs with evidence of migrating intrathoracic grass awns had no foreign body identified on initial ultrasonographic evaluation and were treated medically; 16 developed draining fistulas, and awns identified ultrasonographically at follow-up visits were subsequently removed from the sublumbar region (n = 10) or thoracic wall (6). The remaining 4 dogs had no grass awn visualized. Clinical signs resolved in all dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Transthoracic, transesophageal, and intraoperative ultrasonography were useful for localization and removal of migrating intrathoracic grass awns. Ultrasonography may be considered a valuable and readily available diagnostic tool for monitoring dogs with suspected migrating intrathoracic grass awns.
To compare the differences in the healing of surgically created full-thickness wounds in dogs treated with a novel extracellular matrix (ECM) dressing as compared with a standard wound management protocol and to investigate the effect of antibiotics in these 2 populations.
15 purpose-bred Beagles, 8 female spayed and 7 males neutered, operated on, and monitored between March 14, 2022, and April 18, 2022.
Four 2 X 2-cm full-thickness skin wounds were created on the trunks of each dog. The right-sided wounds were treated with the novel ECM wound dressing, and the left-sided wounds served as the controls. Wound planimetry and qualitative wound scores were obtained at 12 time points. Wound biopsies for histopathologic assessment of wound repair and wound inflammation were obtained at 6 time points.
Wounds treated with ECM had higher percent epithelization at days 7, 9, 12, and 18 postoperatively (P < .001) and better histologic repair scores (P = .024) than wounds treated by the standard protocol. Subjective wound assessment scores of wounds treated with ECM did not differ from those treated by the standard protocol at any time point.
Wounds treated with the novel ECM dressing epithelialized more rapidly than wounds treated by a standard protocol.
To describe the acquisition and pitfalls of a 3-view transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) protocol in anesthetized, dorsally recumbent dogs.
8 beagles, 1 to 2 years old, 7.4 to 11.2 kg.
Dogs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and placed in dorsal recumbency. A TEE probe was advanced, and 3 views were performed: midesophageal 4-chamber and long axis (ME 4C and ME LAX) and caudal esophageal short axis (CE SAX) at the level of the papillary muscles. Probe insertion depth, flexion, omniplane angle, and image acquisition time were recorded. Two observers assessed 24 video clips each and identified anatomical structures.
The ME 4C and ME LAX were obtained at 35 (30 to 40) cm insertion depth, omniplane at 0° and 103° (90 to 116), respectively. Views were obtained in ≤30 seconds once the TEE was in the cervical esophagus. Left-sided structures were identified in all cases, whereas right-sided structures were not always simultaneously obtained in the ME 4C, requiring further probe manipulation. All structures were identified on ME LAX. CE SAX was obtained at 40 (35 to 45) cm, omniplane at 0°, and in 15 (10 to 90) seconds. A true SAX view (circular left ventricle at the level of papillary muscles) could not be obtained in all dogs.
A 3-view TEE protocol using core views as those described in humans may be applicable to dogs under general anesthesia and in dorsal recumbency. The CE SAX view at the level of the papillary muscles appears more difficult to obtain with consistency than midesophageal views.
To describe the clinical presentation and outcome in dogs diagnosed with Trypanosoma cruzi infection in nonendemic areas and to survey veterinary cardiologists in North America for Chagas disease awareness.
12 client-owned dogs; 83 respondents from a veterinary cardiology listserv.
A retrospective, multicenter medical records review to identify dogs diagnosed with American trypanosomiasis between December 2010 and December 2020. An anonymous online survey was conducted August 9 to 22, 2022.
Diagnosis was made using indirect fluorescent antibody titer (n = 9), quantitative PCR assay (1), or postmortem histopathology (2). Time spent in Texas was < 1 year (n = 7) or 2 to 8 years (5). Time in nonendemic areas prior to diagnosis was < 1 year (n = 10) and > 3 years (2). Eleven had cardiac abnormalities. Of the 12 dogs, 5 had died unexpectedly (range, 1 to 108 days after diagnosis), 4 were still alive at last follow-up (range, 60 to 369 days after diagnosis), 2 were euthanized because of heart disease (1 and 98 days after diagnosis), and 1 was lost to follow-up. Survey results were obtained from 83 cardiologists in North America, of which the self-reported knowledge about Chagas disease was limited in 49% (41/83) and 69% (57/83) expressed interest in learning resources.
Results highlight the potential for encountering dogs with T cruzi infection in nonendemic areas and need for raising awareness about Chagas disease in North America.