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Objective–To determine detection rates for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), Mycoplasma spp, fungi, and bacteria in flush samples and biopsy specimens from the nasal cavities of cats with and without chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).

Design–Prospective study.

Animals–10 CRS-affected cats and 7 cats without signs of respiratory tract disease.

Procedures–Nasal flush samples and biopsy specimens were collected from all cats for bacterial (aerobic and anaerobic), fungal, and mycoplasmal cultures; additional biopsy specimens were collected for virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (to detect FHV-1 DNA).

Results–Aerobic bacteria were detected in flush samples from 5 of 7 control cats; culture of flush samples from CRS-affected cats yielded aerobic bacteria (9/10 cats), anaerobic bacteria (3/10), and Mycoplasma spp (2/10). No fungal organisms were isolated from any cat. Potential pathogens were isolated significantly more often from CRS-affected cats than from control cats. Bacterial culture of biopsy specimens yielded aerobic bacteria (2/7 control cats and 4/10 CRS-affected cats) and anaerobic bacteria (2/10 CRS-affected cats). Although FHV-1 was not detected in nasal biopsy specimens from control or CRS-affected cats, FHV-1 DNA was detected via PCR assay in specimens from 4 of 7 control cats and 3 of 10 CRS-affected cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–Compared with findings in control cats, anaerobic bacteria, Mycoplasma spp, and a variety of potentially pathogenic organisms were detected more commonly in samples from cats with CRS. In both groups, FHV-1 was detected via PCR assay as a nonviable organism or in noncultivable amounts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:579–585)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To investigate the correlation of cumulative rhinoscopic findings of hyperemia, mucus accumulation, and turbinate destruction with the type and severity of inflammatory infiltrates in nasal biopsy specimens of cats with or without upper respiratory tract disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—Cats with (n = 11) and without (6) upper respiratory tract disease and cats with unknown medical histories (27).

Procedures—Lesions of hyperemia, mucus accumulation, and turbinate destruction detected rhinoscopically were each scored (scale, 0 [absent] to 3 [severe]), and a cumulative rhinoscopic score for each nasal cavity was calculated. Fifty biopsy specimens were examined histologically, and inflammatory infiltrates (lymphoplasmacytic or neutrophilic) were graded as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. Cumulative rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades were compared for each specimen-cavity combination.

Results—In cats of known disease status, there was a positive but weak correlation between cumulative rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades in biopsy specimens. In cats of unknown disease status, there was no similar correlation. Biopsy specimens with minimal inflammation were commonly obtained from nasal cavities with low rhinoscopic scores; specimens with moderate or severe inflammatory changes were frequently obtained from cavities that appeared normal rhinoscopically. Type of inflammatory infiltrates was not correlated with rhinoscopic signs of inflammation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The correlation of rhinoscopic findings with inflammation severity in nasal biopsy specimens (determined histologically) was weak or lacking in cats of known and unknown disease status, respectively. Results indicated that rhinoscopy with biopsy provides more complete evaluation of nasal disease than rhinoscopy alone in cats. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 395–400)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To describe and evaluate outcomes of a multidisciplinary, minimally invasive approach combining lacrimoscopy and fluoroscopically guided stenting for management of nasolacrimal apparatus (NLA) obstruction in dogs.

DESIGN Prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial.

ANIMALS 16 client-owned dogs with confirmed NLA obstruction.

PROCEDURES Dogs underwent CT contrast dacryocystorhinography, rhinoscopy, and lacrimoscopy. Whenever possible, the NLA was stented, typically with fluoroscopic guidance.

RESULTS Median duration of clinical signs prior to treatment was 3.2 months (range, 0.2 to 14 months). Causes of NLA obstruction were a foreign body (n = 5), dacryocystitis (4), stenosis secondary to fibrosis (3), granulation tissue (1), or granulation tissue in association with a small foreign body (1); a cause was not identified in 2 dogs. Stents were placed in 14 of 16 (88%) dogs for a median duration of 5.6 weeks (range, 1.3 to 9.4 weeks). Stenting was not possible in 2 dogs with stenosis of the NLA secondary to granulation tissue or fibrosis. Owners of all 16 dogs reported at least 60% clinical improvement with median improvement rated as 95%, and owners of 8 dogs reporting complete resolution of signs. Two dogs required antimicrobial administration because of dacryocystitis that persisted after stent removal; a foreign body was not found in either dog.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall clinical response and owner-rated improvement for dogs with NLA obstruction that underwent lacrimoscopy and fluoroscopically guided stenting were high, especially given that these dogs had failed to respond to conventional treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether infection with or exposure to Bartonella spp was associated with idiopathic rhinitis in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge and 63 age- and weight-matched control dogs without nasal discharge and no clinical signs of bartonellosis.

Procedures—Serum was tested for antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii with indirect fluorescent antibody assays. Blood was tested for Bartonella DNA with a PCR assay.

Results—Results of the antibody and PCR assays were negative for all 44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge. One control dog had antibodies against B henselae; a second control dog had positive PCR assay results. We did not detect a significant association between assay results and group designation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The present study failed to confirm an association between idiopathic rhinitis and exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs. Findings do not rule out the possibility that Bartonella infection may cause nasal discharge in some dogs, but the failure to find any evidence of exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge suggested that Bartonella infection was not a common cause of the disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To correlate gene transcription of cytokines and chemokines with histologic inflammation in nasal biopsy specimens of cats.

Animals—25 study cats and 4 specific pathogen–free cats.

Procedure—One nasal biopsy specimen from each cat was submitted for routine histologic evaluation; a second was submitted for evaluation by use of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis with a fluorogenic probe (ie, TaqMan) for detection of cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IL-16, IL-18, interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and the regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES] protein). Specimens were grouped histologically by degree of inflammation (none, mild, moderate, or severe). Linearized TaqMan signals for each gene were compared among histologic groups.

Results—Nasal biopsy specimens from specific pathogen–free cats were histologically normal, and cytokine transcription was low in these samples. As nasal inflammation in study cats worsened from absent (n = 3) to mild (4) to moderate (8) or severe (10), progressively and significantly increasing transcription of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and the RANTES protein was detected. Transcription of IL-4, IL- 5, IL-16, and IL-18 did not correlate with worsened histologic inflammation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transcription of specific cytokines and chemokines in nasal tissue of cats progressively increased with severity of histologic evidence of inflammation, and IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and the RANTES protein were markers of inflammation. Our data suggest that the nasal cavity of cats is biased toward a Th1 cytokine profile that is augmented by inflammation. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:996–1001)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare clinical features of cryptococcosis among cats and dogs in California, determine whether the distribution of involved tissues differs from distribution reported previously in a study in southeastern Australia, and identify Cryptococcus spp isolated from the study population.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—62 cats and 31 dogs with cryptococcosis.

Procedures—Medical records of cats and dogs with cryptococcosis were reviewed. Information collected included geographic location, species, signalment, and tissues or organs involved. Cryptococcosis was confirmed via serology, cytology, histology, or microbial culture, and molecular typing was performed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine significant associations among variables. Other comparisons were evaluated via χ2 or unpaired t tests.

Results—American Cocker Spaniels were overrepresented, compared with other dog breeds. Serum cryptococcal antigen test results were positive in 51 of 53 cats and 15 of 18 dogs tested. Cryptococcus gattii was more commonly detected in cats (7/9 for which species identification was performed), and Cryptococcus neoformans was more commonly detected in dogs (6/8). Six of 7 C gattii isolates from cats were molecular type VGIII. Distribution of involved tissues was different between cats and dogs in California and between populations of the present study and those of the previously reported Australian study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Strains of Cryptococcus spp appeared to have host specificity in dogs and cats. Differences in lesion distribution between geographic locations may reflect strain differences or referral bias. Antigen assays alone may not be sufficient for diagnosis of cryptococcosis in cats and dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe clinicopathologic features of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for resection of primary lung tumors via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or open thoracotomy (OT) and to compare short-term outcomes for dogs following these procedures.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—46 medium- to large-breed dogs with primary lung tumors.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent a lung lobectomy via VATS (n = 22) or OT (24) for resection of primary lung tumors between 2004 and 2012 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they weighed > 10 kg (22 lb) and resection of a primary lung tumor was confirmed histologically. Tumor volumes were calculated from preoperative CT scans where available. Surgical time, completeness of excision, time in the ICU, indwelling thoracic drain time, postoperative and total hospitalization time, incidence of major complications, and short-term survival rate were evaluated.

Results—VATS was performed with a 3-port (n = 12) or 4-port (10) technique and 1-lung ventilation (22). In 2 of 22 (9%) dogs, VATS was converted to OT. All dogs survived to discharge from the hospital. There were no significant differences between the VATS and OT groups with regard to most variables. Surgery time was significantly longer for VATS than for OT (median, 120 vs 95 minutes, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In medium- to large-breed dogs, short-term outcomes for dogs that underwent VATS for lung lobectomy were comparable to those of dogs that underwent OT. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of surgical approach on indices of postoperative pain and long-term outcomes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association