Objective–To determine detection rates for feline
herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), Mycoplasma spp, fungi,
and bacteria in flush samples and biopsy specimens
from the nasal cavities of cats with and without chronic
Animals–10 CRS-affected cats and 7 cats without
signs of respiratory tract disease.
Procedures–Nasal flush samples and biopsy specimens
were collected from all cats for bacterial (aerobic
and anaerobic), fungal, and mycoplasmal cultures;
additional biopsy specimens were collected for virus
isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay
(to detect FHV-1 DNA).
Results–Aerobic bacteria were detected in flush samples
from 5 of 7 control cats; culture of flush samples
from CRS-affected cats yielded aerobic bacteria (9/10
cats), anaerobic bacteria (3/10), and Mycoplasma spp
(2/10). No fungal organisms were isolated from any cat.
Potential pathogens were isolated significantly more
often from CRS-affected cats than from control cats.
Bacterial culture of biopsy specimens yielded aerobic
bacteria (2/7 control cats and 4/10 CRS-affected cats)
and anaerobic bacteria (2/10 CRS-affected cats).
Although FHV-1 was not detected in nasal biopsy specimens
from control or CRS-affected cats, FHV-1 DNA
was detected via PCR assay in specimens from 4 of 7
control cats and 3 of 10 CRS-affected cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–Compared with
findings in control cats, anaerobic bacteria, Mycoplasma
spp, and a variety of potentially pathogenic organisms
were detected more commonly in samples from cats
with CRS. In both groups, FHV-1 was detected via PCR
assay as a nonviable organism or in noncultivable
amounts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:579–585)
Objective—To investigate the correlation of cumulative
rhinoscopic findings of hyperemia, mucus accumulation,
and turbinate destruction with the type and
severity of inflammatory infiltrates in nasal biopsy
specimens of cats with or without upper respiratory
Animals—Cats with (n = 11) and without (6) upper
respiratory tract disease and cats with unknown medical
Procedures—Lesions of hyperemia, mucus accumulation,
and turbinate destruction detected rhinoscopically
were each scored (scale, 0 [absent] to 3
[severe]), and a cumulative rhinoscopic score for each
nasal cavity was calculated. Fifty biopsy specimens
were examined histologically, and inflammatory infiltrates
(lymphoplasmacytic or neutrophilic) were graded
as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. Cumulative
rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades were
compared for each specimen-cavity combination.
Results—In cats of known disease status, there was a
positive but weak correlation between cumulative
rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades in biopsy
specimens. In cats of unknown disease status, there
was no similar correlation. Biopsy specimens with minimal
inflammation were commonly obtained from nasal
cavities with low rhinoscopic scores; specimens with
moderate or severe inflammatory changes were frequently
obtained from cavities that appeared normal
rhinoscopically. Type of inflammatory infiltrates was not
correlated with rhinoscopic signs of inflammation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The correlation
of rhinoscopic findings with inflammation severity
in nasal biopsy specimens (determined histologically)
was weak or lacking in cats of known and
unknown disease status, respectively. Results indicated
that rhinoscopy with biopsy provides more
complete evaluation of nasal disease than rhinoscopy
alone in cats. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:
OBJECTIVE To describe and evaluate outcomes of a multidisciplinary, minimally invasive approach combining lacrimoscopy and fluoroscopically guided stenting for management of nasolacrimal apparatus (NLA) obstruction in dogs.
DESIGN Prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial.
ANIMALS 16 client-owned dogs with confirmed NLA obstruction.
PROCEDURES Dogs underwent CT contrast dacryocystorhinography, rhinoscopy, and lacrimoscopy. Whenever possible, the NLA was stented, typically with fluoroscopic guidance.
RESULTS Median duration of clinical signs prior to treatment was 3.2 months (range, 0.2 to 14 months). Causes of NLA obstruction were a foreign body (n = 5), dacryocystitis (4), stenosis secondary to fibrosis (3), granulation tissue (1), or granulation tissue in association with a small foreign body (1); a cause was not identified in 2 dogs. Stents were placed in 14 of 16 (88%) dogs for a median duration of 5.6 weeks (range, 1.3 to 9.4 weeks). Stenting was not possible in 2 dogs with stenosis of the NLA secondary to granulation tissue or fibrosis. Owners of all 16 dogs reported at least 60% clinical improvement with median improvement rated as 95%, and owners of 8 dogs reporting complete resolution of signs. Two dogs required antimicrobial administration because of dacryocystitis that persisted after stent removal; a foreign body was not found in either dog.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall clinical response and owner-rated improvement for dogs with NLA obstruction that underwent lacrimoscopy and fluoroscopically guided stenting were high, especially given that these dogs had failed to respond to conventional treatment.
Objective—To determine whether infection with or exposure to Bartonella spp was associated with idiopathic rhinitis in dogs.
Animals—44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge and 63 age- and weight-matched control dogs without nasal discharge and no clinical signs of bartonellosis.
Procedures—Serum was tested for antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii with indirect fluorescent antibody assays. Blood was tested for Bartonella DNA with a PCR assay.
Results—Results of the antibody and PCR assays were negative for all 44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge. One control dog had antibodies against B henselae; a second control dog had positive PCR assay results. We did not detect a significant association between assay results and group designation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The present study failed to confirm an association between idiopathic rhinitis and exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs. Findings do not rule out the possibility that Bartonella infection may cause nasal discharge in some dogs, but the failure to find any evidence of exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge suggested that Bartonella infection was not a common cause of the disease.
Objective—To correlate gene transcription of
cytokines and chemokines with histologic inflammation
in nasal biopsy specimens of cats.
Animals—25 study cats and 4 specific pathogen–free
Procedure—One nasal biopsy specimen from each
cat was submitted for routine histologic evaluation; a
second was submitted for evaluation by use of a
quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction
analysis with a fluorogenic probe (ie, TaqMan) for
detection of cytokines and chemokines (interleukin
[IL]-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IL-16, IL-18, interferon
[IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and the regulated
on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted
[RANTES] protein). Specimens were grouped histologically
by degree of inflammation (none, mild,
moderate, or severe). Linearized TaqMan signals for
each gene were compared among histologic groups.
Results—Nasal biopsy specimens from specific
pathogen–free cats were histologically normal, and
cytokine transcription was low in these samples. As
nasal inflammation in study cats worsened from
absent (n = 3) to mild (4) to moderate (8) or severe
(10), progressively and significantly increasing transcription
of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and the
RANTES protein was detected. Transcription of IL-4, IL-
5, IL-16, and IL-18 did not correlate with worsened histologic
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transcription
of specific cytokines and chemokines in nasal tissue
of cats progressively increased with severity of histologic
evidence of inflammation, and IL-6, IL-10, IL-12
p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and the RANTES protein were
markers of inflammation. Our data suggest that the
nasal cavity of cats is biased toward a Th1 cytokine
profile that is augmented by inflammation. (Am J Vet
Objective—To compare clinical features of cryptococcosis among cats and dogs in California, determine whether the distribution of involved tissues differs from distribution reported previously in a study in southeastern Australia, and identify Cryptococcus spp isolated from the study population.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—62 cats and 31 dogs with cryptococcosis.
Procedures—Medical records of cats and dogs with cryptococcosis were reviewed. Information collected included geographic location, species, signalment, and tissues or organs involved. Cryptococcosis was confirmed via serology, cytology, histology, or microbial culture, and molecular typing was performed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine significant associations among variables. Other comparisons were evaluated via χ2 or unpaired t tests.
Results—American Cocker Spaniels were overrepresented, compared with other dog breeds. Serum cryptococcal antigen test results were positive in 51 of 53 cats and 15 of 18 dogs tested. Cryptococcus gattii was more commonly detected in cats (7/9 for which species identification was performed), and Cryptococcus neoformans was more commonly detected in dogs (6/8). Six of 7 C gattii isolates from cats were molecular type VGIII. Distribution of involved tissues was different between cats and dogs in California and between populations of the present study and those of the previously reported Australian study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Strains of Cryptococcus spp appeared to have host specificity in dogs and cats. Differences in lesion distribution between geographic locations may reflect strain differences or referral bias. Antigen assays alone may not be sufficient for diagnosis of cryptococcosis in cats and dogs.
Objective—To describe clinicopathologic features of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for resection of primary lung tumors via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or open thoracotomy (OT) and to compare short-term outcomes for dogs following these procedures.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—46 medium- to large-breed dogs with primary lung tumors.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent a lung lobectomy via VATS (n = 22) or OT (24) for resection of primary lung tumors between 2004 and 2012 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they weighed > 10 kg (22 lb) and resection of a primary lung tumor was confirmed histologically. Tumor volumes were calculated from preoperative CT scans where available. Surgical time, completeness of excision, time in the ICU, indwelling thoracic drain time, postoperative and total hospitalization time, incidence of major complications, and short-term survival rate were evaluated.
Results—VATS was performed with a 3-port (n = 12) or 4-port (10) technique and 1-lung ventilation (22). In 2 of 22 (9%) dogs, VATS was converted to OT. All dogs survived to discharge from the hospital. There were no significant differences between the VATS and OT groups with regard to most variables. Surgery time was significantly longer for VATS than for OT (median, 120 vs 95 minutes, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In medium- to large-breed dogs, short-term outcomes for dogs that underwent VATS for lung lobectomy were comparable to those of dogs that underwent OT. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of surgical approach on indices of postoperative pain and long-term outcomes.