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  • Author or Editor: Kenneth W Hinchcliff x
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Summary

Six nontrained mares were subjected to steady-state, submaximal treadmill exercise to examine the effect of exercise on the plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (anp) in arterial, compared with mixed venous, blood. Horses ran on a treadmill up a 6° grade for 20 minutes at a speed calculated to require a power equivalent to 80% of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo 2MAX). Arterial and mixed venous blood samples were collected simultaneously from the carotid and pulmonary arteries of horses at rest and at 10 and 20 minutes of exercise. Plasma was stored at − 80 C and was later thawed; anp was extracted, and its concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Exercise caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in arterial and venous plasma anp concentrations. Mean ± sem arterial anp concentration increased from 25.2 ± 4.4 pg/ml at rest to 52.7 ± 5.2 pg/ml at 10 minutes of exercise and 62.5 ± 5.2 pg/ml at 20 minutes of exercise. Mean venous anp concentration increased from 24.8 ± 4.3 pg/ml at rest to 67.2 ± 14.5 pg/ml at 10 minutes of exercise and 65.3 ± 13.5 pg/ml at 20 minutes of exercise. Significant differences were not evident between arterial or mixed venous anp concentration at rest or during exercise, indicating that anp either is not metabolized in the lungs or is released from the left atrium at a rate matching that of pulmonary metabolism.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Changes in clotting time (ct) and fibrinolytic actvity (fa) were evaluated in 6 mature, female horses during exercise. Two trials were performed on consecutive days, using a randomized crossover design. Each mare was assigned to either an exercise trial or a control trial on the first day, and to the alternate trial 24 hours later. Mares exercised for 20 minutes on a treadmill at an elevation of 2° and a velocity of 5 m/s. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before exercise, at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 minutes during exercise, and 15 minutes after cessation of exercise. Blood was placed into plain glass tubes for determination of CT, and into chilled, citrated tubes for determination of FA, plasminogen/plasmin complex activity (plg), one-stage prothrombin time (ospt), activated partial thromboplastin time (aptt), and antithrombin-III (at-III) activity. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the control and exercise groups for ct, fa, and plg. During exercise, clotting time decreased from 21.5 ± 1.6 minutes to 9.9 ± 1.6 minutes (mean ± sd; P < 0.05), without significant changes in ospt, aptt, or at-III. Fibrinolytic activity and plg increased (P < 0.05) during exercise. Changes in ct, fa, and plg were significant at 4 minutes of exercise, remained altered until the end of exercise, and returned to baseline values by 45 minutes of recovery. Clotting time, ospt, aptt, fa, at-III, and plg did not change (P > 0.05) during control trials.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of IV administration of enalaprilat on cardiorespiratory and hematologic variables as well as inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in exercising horses.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were trained by running on a treadmill for 5 weeks. Training was continued throughout the study period, and each horse also ran 2 simulated races at 120% of maximum oxygen consumption. Three horses were randomly selected to receive treatment 1 (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution), and the remaining 3 horses received treatment 2 (enalaprilat; 0.5 mg/kg of body weight, IV) before each simulated race. Treatment groups were reversed for the second simulated race. Cardiorespiratory and hematologic data were obtained before, during, and throughout the 1-hour period after each simulated race. Inhibition of ACE activity was determined during and after each race in each horse.

Results—Exercise resulted in significant increases in all hemodynamic variables and respiratory rate. The pH and PO2 of arterial blood decreased during simulated races, whereas PCO2 remained unchanged. Systemic and pulmonary blood pressure measurements and arterial pH, PO2, and PCO2 returned to baseline values by 60 minutes after simulated races. Enalaprilat inhibited ACE activity to < 25% of baseline activity without changing cardiorespiratory or blood gas values, compared with horses administered saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enalaprilat administration almost completely inhibited ACE activity in horses without changing the hemodynamic responses to intense exercise and is unlikely to be of value in preventing exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1008–1013)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the anesthetic, cardiorespiratory, and metabolic effects of 4 IV anesthetic regimens in Thoroughbred horses recuperating from a brief period of maximal exercise.

Animals—6 adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—Horses were preconditioned by exercising them on a treadmill. Each horse ran 4 simulated races, with a minimum of 14 days between races. Races were run at a treadmill speed that caused horses to exercise at 120% of their maximal oxygen consumption. Horses ran until fatigued or for a maximum of 2 minutes. Two minutes after exercise, horses received a combination of xylazine hydrochloride (2.2 mg/kg of body weight) and acepromazine maleate (0.04 mg/kg) IV. Five minutes after exercise, horses received 1 of the following 4 IV anesthetic regimens: ketamine hydrochloride (2.2 mg/kg); ketamine (2.2 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.1 mg/kg); tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride (1 mg/kg); and guaifenesin (50 mg/kg) and thiopental sodium (5 mg/kg). Treatments were randomized. Cardiopulmonary indices were measured, and samples of blood were collected before and at specific times for 90 minutes after each race.

Results—Each regimen induced lateral recumbency. The quality of induction and anesthesia after ketamine administration was significantly worse than after other regimens, and the duration of anesthesia was significantly shorter. Time to lateral recumbency was significantly longer after ketamine or guaifenesinthiopental administration than after ketaminediazepam or tiletamine-zolazepam administration. Arterial blood pressures after guaifenesin-thiopental administration were significantly lower than after the other regimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia can be safely induced in sedated horses immediately after maximal exercise. Ketamine-diazepam and tiletamine- zolazepam induced good quality anesthesia with acceptable perturbations in cardiopulmonary and metabolic indices. Ketamine alone and guaifenesinthiopental regimens are not recommended. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1545–1552)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum concentrations of total magnesium (tMg) and ionized magnesium (iMg), concentrations of magnesium (Mg) in muscle, intracellular Mg (icMg) concentrations, urinary Mg excretion (EMg), Mg clearance (CMg), and fractional clearance of Mg (FCMg) in horses fed diets with Mg content above and below National Research Council recommendations.

Animals—9 young female horses.

Procedures—6 horses were fed a reduced-Mg diet for 29 days followed by an Mg-supplemented diet for 24 days. Control horses (n = 3) were fed grass hay exclusively. Blood, urine, and tissue samples were collected, and an Mg retention test was performed before and after restriction and supplementation of Mg intake. Serum tMg, serum iMg, muscle Mg, icMg, and urine Mg concentrations were measured, and 24-hour EMg, CMg, and FCMg were calculated.

Results—Reductions in urinary 24-hour EMg, CMg, and FCMg were evident after 13 days of feeding a reduced-Mg diet. Serum tMg and iMg concentrations, muscle Mg content, and results of the Mg retention test were not affected by feeding the Mg-deficient diet. Spot urine sample FCMg accurately reflected FCMg calculated from 6- and 24-hour pooled urine samples. Mean ± SD FCtMg of horses eating grass hay was 29 ± 8%, whereas mean FCtMg for horses fed a reduced-Mg diet for 29 days was 6 ± 3%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The 24-hour EMg was the most sensitive indicator of reduced Mg intake in horses. Spot sample FCMg can be conveniently used to identify horses consuming a diet deficient in Mg. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:422–430)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of a single bout of exercise and increased substrate availability after exercise on gene expression and content of the glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) protein in equine skeletal muscle.

Animals—6 healthy adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—The study was designed in a balanced, randomized, 3-way crossover fashion. During 2 trials, horses were exercised at 45% of their maximal rate of oxygen consumption for 60 minutes after which 1 group received water (10 mL/kg), and the other group received glucose (2 g/kg, 20% solution) by nasogastric intubation. During 1 trial, horses stood on the treadmill (sham exercise) and then received water (10 mL/kg) by nasogastric intubation. Muscle glycogen concentration and muscle GLUT-4 protein and mRNA content were determined before exercise and at 5 minutes and 4, 8, and 24 hours after exercise.

Results—Although exercise resulted in a 30% reduction in muscle glycogen concentration, no significant difference was detected in muscle GLUT-4 protein or mRNA content before and after exercise. Glycogen replenishment was similar in both exercised groups and was not complete at 24 hours after exercise. Horses that received glucose had significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations for 3 hours after exercise, but no effect of hyperglycemia was detected on muscle GLUT-4 protein or mRNA content.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under the conditions of this study, neither exercise nor the combination of exercise followed by hyperglycemia induced translation or transcription of the GLUT-4 protein in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1401–1408)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To determine effects of feeding diets with various soluble-carbohydrate (CHO) content on rates of muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise in horses.

Animals—7 fit horses.

Procedures—In a 3-way crossover study, horses received each of 3 isocaloric diets (a high soluble CHO [HC] diet, a low soluble CHO [LC] diet, or a mixed soluble CHO [MC] diet). For each diet, horses were subjected to glycogen-depleting exercise, followed by feeding of the HC, LC, or MC diet at 8-hour intervals for 72 hours.

Results—Feeding the HC diet resulted in a significantly higher glycemic response for 72 hours and significantly greater muscle glycogen concentration at 48 and 72 hours after exercise, compared with results after feeding the MC and LC diets. Muscle glycogen concentrations similar to baseline concentrations were detected in samples obtained 72 hours after exercise in horses when fed the HC diet. Rate of glycogen synthesis was significantly higher when horses were fed the HC diet, compared with values when horses were fed the MC and LC diets. Glycogen synthase activity was inversely related to glycogen content. Protein content of glucose transporter-4 was the lowest at 72 hours after exercise when horses were fed the HC diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muscle glycogen synthesis was slower after glycogen-depleting exercise in horses, compared with synthesis in humans. Feeding HC meals after strenuous exercise hastened replenishment of muscle glycogen content, compared with results for feeding of LC and MC diets, by increasing availability of blood glucose to skeletal muscles. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:916–923)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine sedative, cardiorespiratory and metabolic effects of xylazine hydrochloride, detomidine hydrochloride, and a combination of xylazine and acepromazine administered IV at twice the standard doses in Thoroughbred horses recuperating from a brief period of maximal exercise.

Animals

6 adult Thoroughbreds,

Procedure

Horses were preconditioned by exercising them on a treadmill to establish a uniform level of fitness. Each horse ran 4 simulated races, with a minimum of 14 days between races. Simulated races were run at a treadmill speed that caused horses to exercise at 120% of their maximal oxygen consumption. Horses ran until they were fatigued or for a maximum of 2 minutes. One minute after the end of exercise, horses were treated IV with xylazine (2.2 mg/kg of body weight), detomidine (0.04 mg/kg), a combination of xylazine (2.2 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.04 mg/kg), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Treatments were randomized so that each horse received each treatment once, in random order. Cardiopulmonary indices were measured, and samples of arterial and venous blood were collected immediately before and at specific times for 90 minutes after the end of each race.

Results

All sedatives produced effective sedation. The cardiopulmonary depression that was induced was qualitatively similar to that induced by administration of these sedatives to resting horses and was not severe. Sedative administration after exercise prolonged the exercise-induced increase in body temperature.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Administration of xylazine, detomidine, or a combination of xylazine-acepromazine at twice the standard doses produced safe and effective sedation in horses that had just undergone a brief, intense bout of exercise. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1271–1279)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine electrocardiographic characteristics of endurance-trained Alaskan sled dogs.

Design

Case series.

Animals

319 Alaskan sled dogs entered to compete in the 1994 Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.

Procedure

ECG were recorded while dogs were standing and were analyzed digitally.

Results

Amplitudes of P waves (median, 0.40 mV; fifth to 95th percentile range, 0.11 to 0.61 mV) and R waves in lead II (median, 3.02 mV; fifth to 95th percentile range, 1.49 to 4.40 mV) were high; durations of P waves in lead II (median, 61 milliseconds; fifth to 95th percentile range, 36 to 96 milliseconds), QRS complexes (median, 64 milliseconds; fifth to 95th percentile range, 52 to 80 milliseconds), and QT intervals (median, 236 milliseconds; fifth to 95th percentile range, 208 to 277 milliseconds) were prolonged. Median value for mean axis of ventricular depolarization was 57° (fifth to 95th percentile range, 19 to 90°). Atrial and ventricular premature depolarizations were observed in 3 (0.9%) and 4 (1.3%) of 319 dogs, respectively, and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia was detected in 1 (0.3%).

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that electrocardiographic characteristics of endurance-trained Alaskan sled dogs differ from those reported for nonsled dogs, probably as a result of effects of endurance training on heart size. Some of these characteristics could be mistaken as evidence of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1138–1141)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To describe changes in renal function of horses after oral and IV administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and to determine whether changes are dose dependent.

Animals

6 Standardbred mares.

Procedure

Blood and urine samples for determination of renal function were collected immediately before and at hourly intervals for 12 hours after administration of each of 3 oral doses (1,500, 1,000, and 250 mg/kg of body weight, in 3 L of water) and 1 IV dose (250 mg/kg, 5% solution) of NaHCO3, or water (3 L orally).

Results

NaHCO3 induced increases in urine flow; electrolyte-free water reabsorption; urine concentrations of sodium and bicarbonate; fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate; urinary excretion and clearance of sodium and bicarbonate; urine pH and anion gap; and mean plasma concentration of antidiuretic hormone. NaHCO3 induced attenuation in reduction with time of urine excretion and clearance of potassium, chloride, and osmoles, and induced reduction in urine osmolality. Plasma aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and glomerular filtration rate were not modified.

Conclusions

Renal responses to NaHCO3 load emphasize conservation of plasma volume and re-establishment of acid-base balance over control of hyperosmolality by means of diuresis, natriuresis, and increased bicarbonaturia. These responses imply a large fluid shift from the extravascular space to the vascular compartment, which was eliminated via diuresis, thus preventing hypervolemia. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:664–671)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research