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SUMMARY

Objective

To determine effect of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on rate and degree of return to function of the limb and development of degenerative joint disease (DJD) after surgical creation and subsequent stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle.

Animals

12 clinically normal adult large (19.5 to 31.5 kg) dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were anesthetized, and the right CrCL was severed via arthrotomy, destabilizing the stifle. After 3 weeks, the stifle was surgically stabilized. Three weeks later, 6 dogs were subjected to an EMS treatment protocol for the thigh muscles. At 5, 9, 13, and 19 weeks after stifle destabilization, treated (n = 6) and control (n = 6) dogs were evaluated for return of stifle function. Gross and histologic evaluations of the stifles were performed at 19 weeks after stifle destabilization.

Results

Treated dogs had significantly (P = 0.001) better lameness score than did control dogs. There was less palpable crepitation of the stifle in treated dogs (P = 0.06); treated dogs also had significantly (P = 0.01) fewer radiographic signs of bone changes. Thigh circumference was significantly (P = 0.02) larger in treated dogs.There was less gross cartilage damage (P = 0.07) in the EMS-treated dogs, but more medial meniscal damage (P = 0.058, cranial pole; P = 0.051, caudal pole).

Conclusions

Improved lameness scores, larger thigh circumference, and decreased radiographically apparent bony changes observed for the treated group of dogs support the hypothesis that dogs treated by EMS after surgical stabilization of the CrCL-deficient stifle had improved limb function, with less DJD, than did dogs treated with the currently accepted clinical protocol of cage rest and slow return to normal activity. However, results of force plate evaluation did not support the hypothesis. Increased meniscal damage in dogs treated by EMS may be cause for concern. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1473–1478)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs.

SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada.

PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance.

RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis would reduce incidence of postoperative infection among dogs undergoing elective orthopedic procedures.

Design

Randomized, controlled, blinded, intention clinical trial.

Animals

Dogs of any breed, sex, or age undergoing elective orthopedic surgery at a veterinary teaching hospital.

Procedures

Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: treatment with saline solution, treatment with potassium penicillin G, and treatment with cefazolin. Treatments were intended to be administered within 30 minutes prior to surgery; a second dose was administered if surgery lasted > 90 minutes. Dogs were monitored for 10 to 14 days after surgery for evidence of infection.

Results

After the first 112 dogs were enrolled in the study, it was found that infection rate for control dogs (5/32 dogs) was significantly higher than the rate for dogs treated with antimicrobials (3/80 dogs). Therefore, no more dogs were enrolled in the study. A total of 126 dogs completed the study. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that compared with dogs that received antimicrobials prophylactically, dogs that received saline solution developed infections significantly more frequently. Difference in efficacy, however, was not observed between the 2 antimicrobial drugs used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results indicated that perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis decreased postoperative infection rate in dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery, compared with infection rate in control dogs. Cefazolin was not more efficacious than potassium penicillin G in these dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:212–216)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Nine dairy herds (mean size, 149 cows) with bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts of < 300,000 cells/ml and > 80% of cows with Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear somatic cell counts ≤ 4 were selected for study. Each herd was monitored for 12 consecutive months. Duplicate quarter-milk specimens were collected from each cow for bacteriologic culturing at beginning of lactation, cessation of lactation, and at the time of each clinical episode of mastitis. Streptococcus agalactiae was never isolated and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from < 1% of all quarters. There were 554 episodes of clinical mastitis. During the year of study, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis varied from 15.6 to 63.7% of cows among the 9 herds. Mean costs per cow per year in herd for mastitis prevention were: $10 for paper towels, $3 for nonlactating cow treatment, and $10 for teat disinfectants. Mean cost associated with clinical mastitis was $107/episode. Approximately 84% ($90) of the costs attributed to a clinical episode were associated with decreased milk production and nonsalable milk. Costs of medication and professional veterinary fees per clinical episode varied Significantly among the 9 herds. Three of the herds did not have a veterinarian treat a clinical episode of mastitis during the year of study even though 2 of these herds had the first and third highest incidence rates of clinical mastitis. When calculated on a per cow in herd basis, mean costs of $40/cow/year were attributed to clinical mastitis. Our findings suggest that herds that have effectively controlled mastitis caused by contagious pathogens may still have substantial economic losses as a result of clinical mastitis and that losses and even rates of clinical mastitis may vary considerably among such herds.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the efficacy of a Salmonella bacterin and a modified live Salmonella ser. Choleraesuis vaccine on a commercial dairy.

Animals—450 cows in late gestation and 80 calves.

Procedure—Group-1 cows (n = 150) were vaccinated once with a modified live S Choleraesuis (serogroup C1) strain 54 (SC54) vaccine, group-2 cows (150) were vaccinated on enrollment and 30 days later with a Salmonella ser. Montevideo (serogroup C1) bacterin, and group-3 cows (150) served as unvaccinated controls. One gallon of colostrum harvested from the first 80 cows to calve was fed to each calf. Outcome assessments included fecal shedding of Salmonella spp for the first 10 days after parturition (cows) or birth (calves), milk production, involuntary culling rate, mastitis incidence, antimicrobial use, and mortality rate.

Results—Salmonellae were isolated from 306 of 309 (99%) cows and 64 of 74 (86.5%) calves. Shedding frequency was less in SC54-vaccinated cows and calves that received colostrum from those cows, compared with the other groups, and vaccination was specifically associated with less shedding of serogroup C1 salmonellae. Production data were similar among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination of pregnant cows with an autogenous Salmonella bacterin had no effect on fecal shedding of salmonellae, whereas vaccination with a modified live S Choleraesuis vaccine reduced the frequency of fecal shedding of serogroup C1 salmonellae during the peripartum period. A commercial S Choleraesuis vaccine licensed for use in swine may be more efficacious than autogenous Salmonella bacterins on dairies infected with serogroup C1 salmonellae. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1897–1902)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine whether eprinomectin was effective against mange caused by Chorioptes bovis and Sarcoptes bovis in cattle.

Animals

80 cows naturally infested with C bovis and 30 cattle experimentally infested with S bovis.

Procedure

6 trials were performed to determine efficacy against C bovis, and 2 trials were performed to determine efficacy against S bovis. In each trial, a group of untreated animals or of animals treated with vehicle alone was compared with a group of animals treated with a 0.5% formulation of eprinomectin applied topically (500 μg/kg). Number of mites in skin scrapings was determined prior to treatment and at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. Severity of skin lesions was evaluated when skin scrapings were obtained. In 5 trials, animals were weighed before and 56 days after treatment.

Results

Mite counts for treated cattle were significantly less than counts for control cattle from day 14 onwards in trials to determine efficacy against C bovis and from day 7 onwards in trials to determine efficacy against S bovis. Mites were not detected in scrapings collected from treated cattle on day 56. Mean weight gain of treated cattle was not significantly different from mean weight gain of control cattle in trials evaluating efficacy against C bovis but was significantly greater in trials evaluating efficacy against S bovis.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Eprinomectin was highly effective against C bovis and S bovis. Because eprinomectin can be administered to lactating cows, it may be useful for controlling mange in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1257–1259)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bilateral midbody hemimandibular osteotomies were performed between premolars 3 and 4 in 18 adult dogs. Hemimandibles were repaired by use of monocortically applied bone plates (n = 6), an interdental fixator composed of an Erich arch bar and acrylic (n = 6), or a type I external skeletal fixator (n = 6). At the immediate postoperative evaluation, hemimandibles stabilized with interdental fixators had an osteotomy gap distance (mean ± SEM, 1.6 ± 0.2 mm) that was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than for hemimandibles stabilized with external skeletal fixators (1.2 ± 0.3 mm). Osteotomy gap distance of hemimandibles stabilized with external skeletal fixators (1.5 ± 0.2 mm) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater at weeks 4 (1.1 ± 0.2 mm) and 8 (0.8 ± 0.3 mm) after surgery than the osteotomy gap distance of hemimandibles stabilized by application of bone plates. By week 16, significant differences in osteotomy gap distance were not detected between groups. Immediately after surgery, mandibular alignment measurements were not significantly different for dogs with bone plates (0.3 ± 0.1 mm), interdental fixators (0.3 ± 0.1 mm), and external skeletal fixators (0.9 ± 0.5 mm). Mandibular alignment scores were not significantly different between treatment groups during the remaining postoperative period. Occlusal measurements were not significantly different between evaluations performed before surgery and 16 weeks after surgery, regardless of treatment group. Radiographic evidence of healing in hemimandibles stabilized with external skeletal fixators was significantly (P < 0.05) less at 4 and 8 weeks, compared with hemimandibles stabilized with bone plates and interdental fixators; however, radiographic evidence of bone healing was not significantly different between fixation groups at 16 weeks. Radiographic evidence of implant loosening was seen in 1 of 12 (8%) hemimandibles receiving bone plates, 1 of 12 (8%) hemimandibles receiving interdental fixators, and 4 of 12 (33%) hemimandibles receiving external skeletal fixators. Periosteotomy callus was radiographically evident in 11 of 18 (61%) hemimandibles at 4 and 8 weeks only, but significant differences in periosteotomy callus surface area were not detected between groups. Of 24 hemimandibles stabilized with interdental and external skeletal fixators, 22 (92%) had callus formation that progressively matured into trabecular bone by 16 weeks. At 4 weeks, bone healing characterization scores of hemimandibles stabilized with bone plates were significantly (P < 0.05) less than (ie, had greater stability) bone healing characterization scores of hemimandibles stabilized with interdental and external skeletal fixators, but at 8 and 16 weeks, bone healing characterization scores between treatment groups were not significantly different. Histopathologic or radiographic evaluation did not reveal evidence of pulp disease or pathologic changes of teeth, which would have been associated with root resection at the osteotomy site, application of acrylic to the crown surface, or placement of external fixator pins and cortical screws. On the basis of the fact that the dogs appeared clinically normal and were able to masticate, analgesics were discontinued by 24 hours after surgery. Analysis of data indicated that an interdental fixator composed of an Erich arch bar and acrylic may be a viable method for fracture repair of mandibles.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cardiovascular and respiratory changes that accompany markedly long periods (12 hours) of halothane anesthesia were characterized. Eight spontaneously breathing horses were studied while they were positioned in left lateral recumbency and anesthetized only with halothane in oxygen maintained at a constant end-tidal concentration of 1.06% (equivalent to 1.2 times the minimal alveolar concentration for horses). Results of circulatory and respiratory measurements during the first 5 hours of constant conditions were similar to those previously reported from this laboratory (ie, a time-related significant increase in systemic arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, left ventricular work, pcv, plasma total solids concentration, and little change in respiratory system function). Beyond 5 hours of anesthesia, arterial blood pressure did not further increase, but remained above baseline. Cardiac output continued to increase, because heart rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Peak inspiratory gas flow increased significantly (P < 0.05) in later stages of anesthesia. There was a significant decrease in inspiratory time beginning at 4 hours. Although PaO2 and PaCO2 did not significantly change during the 12 hours of study, P v ̄ O 2 increased significantly (P < 0.05) and progressively with time, beginning 6 hours after the beginning of constant conditions. Metabolic acidosis increased with time (significantly [P < 0.05] starting at 9 hours), despite supplemental iv administered NaHCO3, Plasma concentrations of eicosanoids: 6-ketoprostaglandin F (pgf a stable metabolite of pgi 1), pgf , pge, and thromboxane (TxB2, a stable metabolite of TxA2) were measured in 5 of the 8 horses before and during anesthesia. Significant changes from preanesthetic values were not detected. Dynamic thoracic wall and lung compliances decreased with time.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether treatment with selamectin would reduce clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) in dogs and cats housed in flea-infested environments.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—22 dogs and 17 cats confirmed to have FAD.

Procedure—Animals were housed in carpeted pens capable of supporting the flea life cycle and infested with 100 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on days –13 and –2 and on alternate weeks with 10 to 20 fleas. On day 0, 11 dogs and 8 cats were treated with selamectin (6 mg/kg [2.7 mg/lb]). Dogs were retreated on day 30; cats were retreated on days 30 and 60. All animals were examined periodically for clinical signs of FAD. Flea counts were conducted at weekly intervals.

Results—Throughout the study, geometric mean flea counts exceeded 100 for control animals and were ≤ 11 for selamectin-treated animals. Selamectin-treated cats had significant improvements in the severity of miliary lesions and scaling or crusting on days 42 and 84, compared with conditions on day –8, and in severity of excoriation on day 42. In contrast, control cats did not have any significant improvements in any of the clinical signs of FAD. Selamectin-treated dogs had significant improvements in all clinical signs on days 28 and 61, but in control dogs, severity of clinical signs of FAD was not significantly different from baseline severity at any time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that topical administration of selamectin, even without the use of supplementary environmental control measures and with minimal therapeutic intervention, can reduce the severity of clinical signs of FAD in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:639–644)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association