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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether passive transfer of immunity affects results of diagnostic tests for antibodies against FIV in kittens born to vaccinated queens.

Design—Experimental trial.

Animals—12 specific-pathogen-free queens and their 55 kittens.

Procedure—Queens were vaccinated with a wholevirus FIV vaccine prior to breeding. Serum was obtained from the queens on the day of parturition and from the kittens on days 2 and 7, then weekly until results of tests for antibodies against FIV were negative for 2 consecutive weeks. Milk was collected from the queens daily for the first week and then weekly. Serum and milk were tested for antibodies against FIV with 2 commercial assays.

Results—Antibodies against FIV were detected in serum obtained from the queens on the day of parturition and in the milk throughout lactation. All kittens tested positive for antibodies against FIV at 2 days of age. At 8 weeks of age, 30 (55%) kittens tested positive with 1 of the commercial assays, and 35 (64%) tested positive with the other. All kittens tested negative for antibodies against FIV by 12 weeks of age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that kittens readily absorb antibodies against FIV in colostrum from vaccinated queens and that these antibodies may interfere with results of commercially available tests for FIV infection past the age of weaning. Currently licensed diagnostic tests for FIV infection are unable to distinguish among kittens with antibodies against FIV as a result of infection, passive transfer from infected queens, and passive transfer from vaccinated queens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1554–1557)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effect of vaccination against FIV on results of serologic assays for FIV infection.

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—26 specific-pathogen-free cats, 102 laboratory- reared cats (42 unvaccinated and uninfected, 41 vaccinated and uninfected, and 19 infected with FIV), and 22 client-owned cats infected with FIV.

Procedure—To determine the onset and duration of anti-FIV antibody production in cats following vaccination with a whole-virus vaccine, serum was obtained from the 26 specific-pathogen-free cats prior to vaccination and weekly for 10 weeks, then monthly for 52 weeks, after vaccination; serum was tested for anti-FIV antibodies with lateral flow and microwell plate ELISAs. To determine the diagnostic performance of serologic assays for FIV infection, plasma from uninfected, unvaccinated cats; uninfected, vaccinated cats; and FIV-infected cats was tested for FIV antibodies with the 2 ELISAs, a western blot assay, and an immunofluorescence antibody assay and for FIV antigen with an ELISA.

Results—Anti-FIV antibodies were detected in all 26 vaccinated cats 1 year after vaccination. Sensitivity of the antibody assays for FIV infection was high (98% to 100%). Specificity was high in unvaccinated cats (90% to 100%) but poor in vaccinated cats (0% to 54%). None of the vaccinated or infected cats had detectable FIV antigen in plasma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that vaccination against FIV causes false-positive results for at least 1 year with currently available serologic assays for FIV infection. Negative FIV antibody assay results are highly reliable for detection of uninfected cats, but positive results should be interpreted with caution. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1558–1561)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To estimate the number of unowned free-roaming cats in a college community in the southern United States and identify the characteristics of community residents who feed these cats.

Design—Cross-sectional, random-digit telephone survey.

Sample Population—587 households in Alachua County, Florida, surveyed between March 1 and May 10, 1999.

Procedure—Telephone surveys were conducted, and respondents were asked questions about feeding of unowned free-roaming cats.

Results—70 (12%) households fed free-roaming cats; mean ± SD number of free-roaming cats fed per household was 3.6 ± 1.9. Households that fed free-roaming cats were more likely to own pet cats than were households that did not feed free-roaming cats; however, 30 of 70 (43%) households feeding free-roaming cats did not own cats or dogs. Although the percentage of pet cats that were neutered was high (90%), only 8 (11%) households that fed free-roaming cats attempted to have such cats neutered. The free-roaming cat population was estimated to represent approximately 44% of the population of cats in the county.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that unowned free-roaming cats may represent a substantial portion of the total cat population in a region. Public policies and education programs aimed at reducing cat overpopulation should include provisions for neutering unowned free-roaming cats, and efforts should target the general public, not only pet owners, because not all households that feed unowned free-roaming cats own pets. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:202–205)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize the clients served by and the cats and dogs admitted to nonprofit spay-neuter clinics.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE 2,154 dogs and 1,902 cats that were owned by 3,768 survey respondents and admitted to 22 nonprofit spay-neuter clinics across the United States between April 29, 2013, and January 24, 2014.

PROCEDURES Participating clinics distributed surveys to clients during each of 4 quarterly study weeks. The survey collected descriptive information about clients' pets and households as well as their decision-making regarding sterilization of their pets. For each of the study weeks, clinics reported the total number of surgeries, including those involving shelter animals, feral cats, and other owned animals.

RESULTS Respondents indicated that 49% of dogs and 77% of cats had not been examined previously by a veterinarian, except during vaccine clinics. Among animals ≥ 4 months of age, 1,144 of 1,416 (81%) cats and 572 of 1,794 (32%) dogs had not received a rabies vaccination. Previous litters were reported for 204 of 716 (28%) queens and 153 of 904 (17%) bitches. Most clients' (53%) household income was < $30,000 annually. Common reasons for clinic choice included cost; friend, neighbor, or family recommendation; and good reputation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Nonprofit spay-neuter clinics predominantly served low-income clients and animals lacking regular veterinary care, in addition to animals from shelters and community cats. These clinics increase access to services needed for animal population control and public health.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the seroprevalences of and seroconversion rates for FeLV and FIV infection in cats treated for bite wounds and cutaneous abscesses and to evaluate compliance with recommendations to determine the retrovirus infection status of cats at acquisition and 60 days after a high-risk event.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—967 cats from 134 veterinary practices in 30 states.

Procedures—Cats with bite wounds or abscesses were evaluated by use of a point-of-care immunoassay for blood-borne FeLV antigen and FIV antibody. Veterinarians were asked to retest cats approximately 60 days later to determine whether seronegative cats had seroconverted after injury.

Results—The combined FeLV-FIV status of only 96 (9.9%) cats was known prior to wound treatment. At the time of treatment, 187 (19.3%) cats were seropositive for 1 or both viruses. Age (adult), sex (male), history of cutaneous wounds, and outdoor access were significantly associated with seropositivity. At 73 of 134 (54.5%) veterinary practices, retesting of cats for retrovirus infection status was recommended to owners of 478 cats. Only 64 (13.4%) cats were retested; of these, 3 of 58 (5.2%) cats that were initially seronegative for FIV antibody seroconverted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A high proportion of cats with abscesses or bite wounds were seropositive for FeLV antigen or FIV antibody. Compliance with recommendations to test cats for retrovirus infection status at acquisition or after treatment for injury was low. The FeLV-FIV infection status of cats with potential fight wounds should be determined at time of treatment and again 60 days later.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe the characteristics and frequency of gross uterine anomalies in cats and dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.

Design—Prospective and retrospective case series.

Animals—53,258 cats and 32,660 dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy at 26 clinics in the United States and Canada during 2007.

Procedures—Clinics prospectively reported gross anomalies and submitted tissues from abnormal reproductive tracts identified during surgery. Records from a feral cat spay-neuter clinic were evaluated retrospectively.

Results—Suspected congenital anomalies of the uterus were identified in 0.09% (49/53,258) of female cats and 0.05% (15/32,660) of female dogs. Uterine anomalies identified included unicornuate uterus (33 cats and 11 dogs), segmental agenesis of 1 uterine horn (15 cats and 3 dogs), and uterine horn hypoplasia (1 cat and 1 dog). Ipsilateral renal agenesis was present in 29.4% (10/34) of cats and 50.0% (6/12) of dogs with uterine anomalies in which kidneys were evaluated. Mummified ectopic fetuses were identified in 4 cats with uterine anomalies. Both ovaries and both uterine tubes were present in most animals with uterine anomalies.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urogenital anomalies were twice as common in cats as in dogs. Identification of uterine developmental anomalies in dogs and cats should trigger evaluation of both kidneys and both ovaries because ipsilateral renal agenesis is common, but both ovaries are likely to be present and should be removed during ovariohysterectomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To test efficacy and safety of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) administration in dogs and cats with naturally developing chronic renal failure.


Case series.


6 client-owned dogs and 11 client-owned cats with chronic renal failure.


r-HuEPO was administered intravenously or subcutaneously. Erythropoietic effects were monitored by determining CBC, performing cytologic examination of bone marrow aspirates, and measuring serum iron concentration before and during treatment. Development of adverse effects was monitored by performing sequential clinical assessments, CBC, and serum biochemical tests and by measuring indirect blood pressure and anti-r-HuEPO antibody titers.


Administration of r-HuEPO increased RBC and reticulocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, and Hct comparably in dogs and cats. Assessments of clinical well-being, including appetite, energy, weight gain, alertness, strength, and playfulness, were improved variably. Adverse effects, including anemia, anti-r-HuEPO antibody production, seizures, systemic hypertension, and iron deficiency, were demonstrated inconsistently in dogs and cats.

Clinical Implications

Anemia contributes to clinical manifestations of chronic renal failure in dogs and cats. Administration of r-HuEPO has the potential to resolve anemia and improve clinical well-being. However, its administration poses risks of antibody production and adverse effects associated with correction of RBC mass. Use of r-HuEPO in dogs and cats requires conscientious assessment of risks and benefits until homologous forms of erythropoietin are available. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:521-528)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in neonatal kittens and compare the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in young and adult cats.

Animals—7 adult cats and 111 kittens (2 to 8 weeks old).

Procedure—A single dose of 5 mg of enrofloxacin/kg was administered to adults (IV) and kittens (IV, SC, or PO). Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were determined.

Results—The half-life of enrofloxacin administered IV in 2-, 6-, and 8-week-old kittens was significantly shorter and its elimination rate significantly greater than that detected in adults. The apparent volumes of distribution were lower at 2 to 4 weeks and greater at 6 to 8 weeks. This resulted in lower peak plasma concentration (Cmax) at 6 to 8 weeks; however, initial plasma concentration was within the therapeutic range after IV administration at all ages. Compared with IV administration, SC injection of enrofloxacin in 2-weekold kittens resulted in similar Cmax, half-life, clearance, and area under the curve values. Enrofloxacin administered via SC injection was well absorbed in 6- and 8- week-old kittens, but greater clearance and apparent volume of distribution resulted in lower plasma concentrations. Oral administration of enrofloxacin resulted in poor bioavailability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In neonatal kittens, IV and SC administration of enrofloxacin provided an effective route of administration. Oral administration of enrofloxacin in kittens did not result in therapeutic drug concentrations. Doses may need to be increased to achieve therapeutic drug concentrations in 6- to 8-week-old kittens. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:350–356)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether passive transfer of IgG in neonatal kittens affects plasma opsonic capacity and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses to bacteria in vitro.

Animals—22 kittens from 6 specific pathogen-free queens.

Procedure—Kittens were randomized at birth into the following treatment groups: colostrum-fed, colostrum-deprived, or colostrum-deprived supplemented with feline or equine IgG. Blood samples were collected at intervals from birth to 56 days of age. Plasma IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion assay. Neutrophil function was assessed by a flow cytometry assay providing simultaneous measurement of bacteria-induced phagocytosis and oxidative burst. The opsonic capacity of kitten plasma was determined in an opsonophagocytosis assay with bacteria incubated in untreated or heat-inactivated plasma.

Results—Among treatment groups, there were no significant differences in neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses to bacteria or opsonic capacity of plasma. In all samples of plasma, inactivation of complement and other heat-labile opsonins significantly reduced the opsonic capacity. Plasma IgG concentrations in kittens did not correlate with neutrophil function or plasma opsonic capacity before or after inactivation of complement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The plasma opsonic capacity and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst responses in vitro of kittens receiving passive transfer of IgG via colostrum intake or IgG supplementation and those deprived of colostrum were similar. The alternate complement pathway or other heat-labile opsonins may be more important than IgG in bacterial opsonization and phagocytosis. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:538–543)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research