Objective—To determine the percentage of pet cats still wearing collars and having functional microchips 6 months after application.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—538 client-owned cats.
Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to wear 1 of 3 types of collars: plastic buckle, breakaway plastic buckle safety, and elastic stretch safety. Each cat was fitted with the assigned collar, and a microchip was inserted SC between the scapulae. Owners completed questionnaires about their experiences and expectations of collars at enrollment and at the conclusion of the study.
Results—391 of the 538 (72.7%) cats successfully wore their collars for the entire 6-month study period. Owners' initial expectations of the cats' tolerance of the collar and the number of times the collar was reapplied on the cats' necks were the most important factors predicting success. Type of collar likely influenced how often collars needed to be reapplied. Eighteen (3.3%) cats caught a forelimb in their collar or caught their collar on an object or in their mouth. Of the 478 microchips that were scanned at the conclusion of the study, 477 (99.8%) were functional.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most cats successfully wore their collars. Because even house cats can become lost, veterinarians should recommend that all cats wear identification collars since they are the most obvious means of identifying an owned pet. For some cats, collars may frequently come off and become lost; therefore, microchips are an important form of backup identification. Owners should select a collar that their cat will tolerate and should check it often to ensure a proper fit.
Objective—To evaluate the use of the anesthetic
combination tiletamine, zolazepam, ketamine, and
xylazine (TKX) for anesthesia of feral cats at largescale
Animals—7,502 feral cats.
Procedure—Cats were trapped by their caretakers
for a feral cat neutering program from July 1996 to
August 2000. The anesthetic combination TKX was
injected IM into cats while they remained in their
traps. Each milliliter of TKX contained 50 mg of tiletamine,
50 mg of zolazepam, 80 mg of ketamine, and
20 mg of xylazine. Females were spayed by veterinarians,
whereas males were castrated by veterinarians
or veterinary students. Yohimbine (0.5 mg, IV)
was administered at the end of the procedure. Logs
were kept of the individual drug doses, signalment of
the cats, and any complications encountered. These
data were analyzed retrospectively (1996 to 1999)
and prospectively (2000).
Results—Of the 5,766 cats for which dosing records
were complete, 4,584 (79.5%) received a single
dose of TKX. The mean initial dose of TKX was 0.24
± 0.04 ml/cat, and the total mean dose of TKX was
0.27 ± 0.09 ml. Overall mortality rate was 0.35%
(26/7,502) cats, and the death rate attributable solely
to potential anesthetic deaths was 0.23% (17/7,502)
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of TKX
for large-scale feral cat neutering clinics has several
benefits. The TKX combination is inexpensive, provides
predictable results, can be administered quickly and
easily in a small volume, and is associated with a low
mortality rate in feral cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;
Objective—To determine the frequency of enteropathogens in dogs entering an animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea.
Animals—100 dogs evaluated at an open-admission municipal animal shelter in Florida.
Procedures—Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours after admission from 50 dogs with normal feces and 50 dogs with diarrhea. Feces were tested by fecal flotation, antigen testing, PCR assay, and electron microscopy for selected enteropathogens.
Results—13 enteropathogens were identified. Dogs with diarrhea were significantly more likely to be infected with ≥ 1 enteropathogens (96%) than were dogs with normal feces (78%). Only Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin A gene was significantly more common in dogs with diarrhea (64%) than in dogs with normal feces (40%). Other enteropathogens identified in dogs with and without diarrhea included hookworms (58% and 48%, respectively), Giardia spp (22% and 16%, respectively), canine enteric coronavirus (2% and 18%, respectively), whipworms (12% and 8%, respectively), Cryptosporidium spp (12% and 2%, respectively), ascarids (8% and 8%, respectively), Salmonella spp (2% and 6%, respectively), Cystoisospora spp (2% and 4%, respectively), canine distemper virus (8% and 0%, respectively), Dipylidium caninum (2% and 2%, respectively), canine parvovirus (2% and 2%, respectively), and rotavirus (2% and 0%, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs entered the shelter with a variety of enteropathogens, many of which are pathogenic or zoonotic. Most infections were not associated with diarrhea or any specific dog characteristics, making it difficult to predict the risk of nfection for individual animals. Guidelines for preventive measures and empirical treatments that are logistically and financially feasible for use in shelters should be developed for control of the most common and important enteropathogens.
Objective—To determine seroprevalence of dirofilariasis in dogs and seroprevalences of dirofilariasis, FeLV infection, and FIV infection in cats exported from the Gulf Coast region following the 2005 hurricanes.
Animals—1,958 dogs and 1,289 cats exported from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas between August 20 and December 31, 2005.
Procedures—141 animal welfare groups in 37 states and Alberta, Canada, reported results of serologic testing. Risk factors for infection, including age, sex, neuter status, breed, and state of rescue, were examined by means of univariate and multivariate logistic regression.
Results—Seroprevalence of dirofilariasis in dogs was 48.8%. Sexually intact dogs were 1.6 times as likely to have dirofilariasis as were neutered dogs, dogs in the ancient breed group were 2.2 times as likely and dogs in the guarding breed group were 1.7 times as likely to have dirofilariasis as were dogs in the herding breed group, and dogs from Mississippi were significantly less likely to have dirofilariasis than were dogs from Texas. Seroprevalences of dirofilariasis, FeLV infection, and FIV infection in cats were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 3.6%, respectively. Seroprevalence of FIV infection was significantly higher in adult cats than in juveniles and in males than in females.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs and cats exported from the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricane disaster area had disease rates similar to those for animals in the region prior to the hurricanes.
Objective—To evaluate the use of adult cat serum as
an immunoglobulin supplement in kittens with failure
of passive transfer.
Design—Randomized controlled study.
Animals—11 specific pathogen-free queens and their
Procedure—Kittens were removed from the queens at
birth, prior to suckling colostrum, and randomly
assigned to 1 of 4 groups: colostrum-deprived,
colostrum-fed, colostrum-deprived and administration
of pooled adult cat serum IP, and colostrum-deprived
and administration of pooled adult serum SC.
Colostrum-fed kittens were returned to the queen and
allowed to suckle normally. Colostrum-deprived kittens
were isolated from the queen and fed a kitten milk
replacer for 2 days to prevent absorption of colostral
IgG. All colostrum-deprived kittens were returned to
the queen on day 3. Serum IgG concentrations were
measured by radial immunodiffusion in the kittens at
birth and 2 days and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after birth.
Results—None of the kittens had detectable
serum IgG at birth. Both IP and SC administration
of adult cat serum resulted in peak serum IgG concentrations
equivalent to those in kittens that suckled
normally. Untreated colostrum-deprived kittens
did not achieve serum IgG concentrations comparable
to those for kittens in the other groups until 6
weeks of age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that adult cat serum may be used as an
immunoglobulin supplement in colostrum-deprived kittens.
Although the minimum concentration of IgG necessary
to protect kittens from infection is unknown,
concentrations achieved were comparable to those in
kittens that suckled normally. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1401–1405)
Objective—To determine the proportion of dogs entering an animal shelter with protective antibody titers (PATs) for canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and identify factors associated with having a PAT.
Animals—431 dogs admitted to an open-admission municipal animal shelter in north central Florida with a history of infectious disease outbreaks.
Procedures—Blood was collected from dogs on the day of admission to the shelter. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were measured by virus neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. Age, sex, neuter status, address of origin, source (stray or previously owned), health status (healthy or not healthy), and outcome (adoption, euthanasia, or reclaimed by owner) data were also collected.
Results—Overall, 64.5% (278/431) of dogs had insufficient titers for antibodies against CDV, CPV, or both. A total of 153 (35.5%) dogs had PATs for both CDV and CPV, 33 (7.7%) had PATs for CDV but not CPV, 136 (31.5%) had PATs for CPV but not CDV, and 109 (25.3%) did not have PATs for either virus. Older dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV and CPV. Neutered dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV. Factors not associated with having a PAT included source, health status, and type of community from which the dog originated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs had insufficient antibody titers for CDV, CPV, or both at the time of admission to the animal shelter. Findings support current guidelines recommending vaccination of all dogs immediately upon admission to shelters, regardless of source or physical condition.
Objective—To determine the earliest day of gestation at which relaxin could be detected in pregnant queens by use of a commercially available point-of-care test designed for use in dogs, and to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the test for pregnancy detection on any specified day of gestation.
Animals—162 female cats (24 queens from a breeding colony, 128 stray and feral queens undergoing ovariohysterectomy, and 10 ovariohysterectomized cats).
Procedures—24 queens were monitored for pregnancy. Blood samples were collected daily and tested for relaxin until 2 consecutive positive test results were obtained. The earliest day of pregnancy detection was estimated by counting backward from the day of parturition to the day of the first positive test. The uteri, ovaries, and any fetuses of 128 stray and feral queens undergoing ovariohysterectomy were examined grossly, and gestational day in pregnant queens was determined on the basis of fetal crown-rump length. Blood samples from these queens and from 10 cats ovariohysterectomized prior to the study were collected for relaxin testing.
Results—Pregnancy was detected by use of the relaxin test kit as early as gestational day 20; sensitivity of the test was 100% on and after gestational day 29. False-positive results were detected in 3 queens, 2 of which had large (approx 2 × 3-cm) ovarian cysts, resulting in a specificity of 95.9%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A commercially available relaxin test kit designed for use in dogs can be used to reliably detect pregnancy in cats.
Objective—To determine prevalence of FeLV infection
and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency
virus (FIV) in unowned free-roaming cats.
Design—Cross-sectional serologic survey.
Animals—733 unowned free-roaming cats in
Raleigh, NC, and 1,143 unowned free-roaming cats in
Results—In Raleigh, overall prevalence of FeLV infection
was 5.3%, and overall seroprevalence for FIV
was 2.3%. In Gainesville, overall prevalence of FeLV
infection was 3.7%, and overall seroprevalence for
FIV was 4.3%. Overall, FeLV prevalence was 4.3%,
and seroprevalence for FIV was 3.5%. Prevalence of
FeLV infection was not significantly different between
males (4.9%) and females (3.8%), although seroprevalence
for FIV was significantly higher in male
cats (6.3%) than in female cats (1.5%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prevalence of
FeLV infection and seroprevalence for FIV in unowned
free-roaming cats in Raleigh and Gainesville are similar
to prevalence rates reported for owned cats in the
United States. Male cats are at increased risk for
exposure to FIV, compared with female cats. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:620–622)
Objective—To determine the relationship between
parturition date and fetal skeletal mineralization
detected radiographically in cats.
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Animals—31 queens and their 49 pregnancies.
Procedure—Seventeen pregnant queens were
radiographed with a computed radiography system
every 2 to 3 days from 1 week after pregnancy was
identified by abdominal palpation until parturition.
Radiographs were evaluated to determine the first
identifiable mineralization of 16 bony structures
and teeth during each pregnancy. This information
was used to establish a table of expected parturition
dates on the basis of fetal mineralization.
Single radiographs from an additional 32 pregnant
cats were evaluated, and predictions of parturition
dates were made on the basis of the mineralization
Results—Mineralization was first detected 25 to 29
days prior to parturition (dpp). Mineralization was
determined for the spinal column (22 to 27 dpp), skull
(21 to 27 dpp), ribs (20 to 25 dpp), scapula (17 to 24
dpp), humerus (20 to 24 dpp), femur (19 to 23 dpp),
radius (15 to 22 dpp), tibia (15 to 21 dpp), ulna (5 to 21
dpp), pelvis (8 to 20 dpp), fibula (0 to 17 dpp), tail (8 to
16 dpp), metacarpals and metatarsals (3 to 14 dpp),
phalanges (0 to 11 dpp), calcaneus (0 to 10 dpp), and
teeth (1 to 6 dpp). Date of parturition was predictable
within 3 days in 75% of cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Identification
of bony structures in the fetus is useful in estimating
the time to parturition in queens. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To compare survival times for cats with hyperthyroidism treated with iodine 131, methimazole, or both and identify factors associated with survival time.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedure—Medical records of cats in which hyperthyroidism had been confirmed on the basis of high serum thyroxine concentration, results of thyroid scintigraphy, or both were reviewed.
Results—55 (33%) cats were treated with 131I alone, 65 (39%) were treated with methimazole followed by 131I, and 47 (28%) were treated with methimazole alone. Twenty-four of 166 (14%) cats had preexisting renal disease, and 115 (69%) had preexisting hepatic disease. Age was positively correlated (r = 0.4) with survival time, with older cats more likely to live longer. Cats with preexisting renal disease had significantly shorter survival times than did cats without preexisting renal disease. When cats with preexisting renal disease were excluded, median survival time for cats treated with methimazole alone (2.0 years; interquartile range [IQR], 1 to 3.9 years) was significantly shorter than median survival time for cats treated with 131I alone (4.0 years; IQR, 3.0 to 4.8 years) or methimazole followed by 131I (5.3 years; IQR, 2.2 to 6.5 years).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that age, preexisting renal disease, and treatment type were associated with survival time in cats undergoing medical treatment of hyperthyroidism.