OBJECTIVE To compare pursestring, Witzel (seromuscular inversion), and seromuscular incision jejunostomy tube placement techniques in vitro.
SAMPLE Jejunal specimens from 10 dogs.
PROCEDURES Jejunal segments (50 cm) were harvested immediately prior to euthanasia from 10 mixed-breed dogs Specimens were harvested with the orad and aborad ends clamped and stored in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution–soaked towels during instrumentation. Three jejunostomy tubes were placed via 3 techniques (pursestring, Witzel, and seromuscular incision), and 2 double lumen central venous catheters were placed at each intestinal end for luminal filling and leak testing. Intestinal luminal area was measured ultrasonographically with specimens suspended in a warm undyed saline solution bath with the intestinal lumen filled with dyed saline solution (intraluminal pressure, 6 mm Hg). Leak testing was performed by means of infusion of dyed saline solution (4 mL/min) until each jejunostomy site failed. Intestinal luminal area and leakage pressure were compared between the 3 tube placement techniques.
RESULTS The Witzel and seromuscular incision techniques decreased the intestinal luminal area measured at the tube insertion site, albeit nonsignificantly. For the seromuscular incision technique, a significant decrease in intestinal luminal area at the intraluminal site of measurement was found. For 2/30 specimens (1/10 pursestring and 1/10 seromuscular incision), failure occurred at pressures within the range of previously reported peak peristaltic pressure for dogs. Failure occurred at supraphysiologic peristaltic pressures for the remaining 28 specimens, including all 10 specimens for the Witzel technique.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this in vitro study, all specimens for the Witzel technique withstood physiologic peristaltic pressures during leak testing. Both tunneling techniques (Witzel and seromuscular incision) created a decrease in intestinal luminal area. Further investigation, including in vivo testing, is indicated to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings.
Objective—To determine the effects of various presale radiographic findings for Thoroughbreds sold at a yearling sale on 2-year-old racing performance of those horses.
Procedures—Thoroughbreds offered for sale at a Thoroughbred sales facility in Kentucky were selected via a randomization procedure. Effects of various presale radiographic findings on the following measures of 2-year-old racing performance were determined: having started a race and having placed (ie, finished in first, second, or third place) in a race at least once, total amount of money earned, and amount of money earned per start.
Results—Of the 397 horses, 192 (48%) started in at least 1 race during the 2-year-old racing year. The odds of failure to start a race as a 2-year-old were 1.78 times as great for horses with forelimb proximal sesamoid bone osteophytes or enthesophytes as for horses without this finding (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 3.16). The odds of failure to start a race as a 2-year-old were 2.02 times as great for horses with hind limb proximal phalanx osteochondral fragments as for horses without this finding (95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 4.31), although this result was not significant. Radiographic findings did not have an effect on total amount of money earned, amount of money earned per start, or whether horses placed in a race.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Presale radiographic detection of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone osteophytes or enthesophytes or hind limb proximal phalanx osteochondral fragments in yearlings were associated with failure to start a race during the 2-year-old racing year in study horses.
Objective—To determine the effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance (speed) on purchase price of 2-year-old in-training Thoroughbreds and to compare the distance exercised within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales between horses with high yearling sale purchase prices versus those with low yearling sale purchase prices and between horses with lameness during training and those without lameness during training.
Procedures—Thoroughbreds purchased at a yearling sale were trained prior to resale at 2-year-old in-training sales. Amount of exercise and lameness status during training and speed of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales were determined. Data were analyzed via the Wilcoxon rank sum test and ANOVA.
Results—Median purchase price of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales was $37,000. The 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price was associated with yearling sale purchase price and distance galloped within 60 days prior to and speed recorded at 2-year-old in-training sales.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with high yearling sale purchase prices typically had high 2-year-old in-training sale purchase prices, had low distances galloped within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales, and were classified as fast at 2-year-old in-training sales. Lameness alone was not associated with 2-year-old in-training sales purchase price. However, lameness was associated with a low distance galloped before 2-year-old in-training sales, particularly for horses with a high yearling sale purchase price; this finding suggested that yearling sale purchase price can affect training management decisions for horses with lameness.
Objective—To estimate prevalences of various presale radiographic findings and of presale arthroscopy in horses offered for sale at the 2006 Keeneland September yearling sale and to compare sales prices between yearlings with and without various presale radiographic findings or a history of arthroscopy.
Animals—397 Thoroughbred yearlings.
Procedures—Presale radiographs and health records were examined to estimate prevalences of various radiographic findings and presale arthroscopy. Sales price records were used to compare sales prices between yearlings with and without various presale radiographic findings or a history of arthroscopy.
Results—In the forelimbs, the most common radiographic findings were vascular channels in the proximal sesamoid bones (23%), enthesophytes or osteophytes in the radiocarpal joint (22%), and osteochondritis lesions involving the sagittal ridge of the third metacarpal bone (20%). In the hind limbs, the most common radiographic findings were enthesophytes or osteophytes involving the proximal sesamoid bones (39%), abnormalities of the distodorsal aspect of the third metatarsal bone (36%), enthesophytes or osteophytes involving the distal intertarsal joint (27%), and osteochondritis lesions involving the stifle joint (8%). Thirteen percent of horses had a history of presale arthroscopy. Median sales price was significantly lower in horses with fragments of the proximal phalanx than in horses without. Median sales price was significantly higher in horses with a history of presale arthroscopy than in horses without.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results revealed significant associations between a diagnosis of fragments of the proximal phalanx, presale arthroscopy, and sales price in Thoroughbred yearlings.
Objective—To examine the relationship between abdominal surgery and nosocomial Salmonella infections and the relationship between high caseload in combination with abdominal surgery and nosocomial Salmonella infections in hospitalized horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract disease.
Procedures—To accomplish the first objective, 1 to 4 control horses were matched with each nosocomial case horse on the basis of admission date of a primary case horse. The frequency of abdominal surgery and other investigated exposure factors were compared between nosocomial case horses and control horses. For the second objective, 4 control horses were matched with each nosocomial case horse on the basis of year of admission. The frequency of high caseload (≥ 26 inpatients), abdominal surgery, and other factors was compared between nosocomial case horses and control horses.
Results—The odds of nosocomial Salmonella infection were 8 times as high (odds ratio = 8.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.11, 60.24) in horses that underwent abdominal surgery, compared with the odds for horses that did not undergo surgery. High caseload alone or in combination with abdominal surgery was not associated with increased risk of nosocomial Salmonella infection.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abdominal surgery was identified as a risk factor for nosocomial Salmonella infections in horses. Horses that undergo abdominal surgery require enhanced infection control and preventative care. Risk of nosocomial Salmonella infections may be reduced by implementation of biosecurity measures (such as the use of plastic boots, gloves, and footbaths) immediately after surgery.
Objective—To estimate prevalence of and identify
risk factors for fecal Salmonella shedding among hospitalized
horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract
Animals—465 hospitalized horses with gastrointestinal
Procedure—Horses were classified as positive or
negative for fecal Salmonella shedding during hospitalization
by means of standard aerobic bacteriologic
methods. The relationship between investigated
exposure factors and fecal Salmonella shedding was
examined by means of logistic regression.
Results—The overall prevalence of fecal Salmonella
shedding was 13%. Salmonella serotype Newport
was the most commonly isolated serotype (12/60
[20%]), followed by Anatum (8/60 [13%]), Java (13%),
and Saint-paul (13%). Foals with gastrointestinal tract
disease were 3.27 times as likely to be shedding
Salmonella organisms as were adult horses with gastrointestinal
tract disease. Adult horses that had been
treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization
were 3.09 times as likely to be shedding
Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that had
not been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization.
Adult horses that underwent abdominal
surgery were 2.09 times as likely to be shedding
Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that did
not undergo abdominal surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that a history of exposure to antimicrobial drugs
prior to hospitalization and abdominal surgery during
hospitalization were associated with Salmonella
shedding in adult horses with gastrointestinal tract
disease. Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease
were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms than
were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:275–281)