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To determine and compare biochemical reference intervals for sunshine bass (hybrid striped bass) from 3 culture systems.


Observational comparison study.


Clinically normal sunshine bass (reciprocal hybrid striped bass, female Morone chrysops × male M saxatilis) raised in high-density recirculating systems (80 g/L), low-density tanks (5 g/L) with biofilters, and cages (70 g/L) in a fresh water pond.


Biochemical reference intervals were determined for fish from the different production systems following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Reference intervals from the 3 groups were compared.


Reference intervals were significantly different between sunshine bass in the various culture systems. Though most of the differences in reference intervals were minor, fish in the high-density recirculating system had higher concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, and phosphorus, and lower chloride values. There were no significant differences in glucose concentrations among the 3 groups of fish, and no differences in cortisol concentrations between fish in tanks and cages.


Separate reference intervals should be developed for hybrid striped bass in different culture systems.

Clinical Relevance

Determining biochemical reference intervals for hybrid striped bass provides a tool to assess the health status of these fish. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:624–627)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether pharmacokinetic analysis of data derived from a single IV dose of iohexol could be used to predict creatinine clearance and evaluate simplified methods for predicting serum clearance of iohexol with data derived from 2 or 3 blood samples in clinically normal foals.

Animals—10 healthy foals.

Procedure—Serum disposition of iohexol and exogenous creatinine clearance was determined simultaneously in each foal (5 males and 5 females). A 3-compartment model of iohexol serum disposition was selected via standard methods. Iohexol clearance calculated from the model was compared with creatinine clearance. Separate limited-sample models were created with various combinations of sample times from the terminal slope of the plasma versus time profile for iohexol. Correction factors were determined for the limited-sample models, and iohexol clearance calculated via each method was compared with exogenous creatinine clearance by use of method comparison techniques.

Results—Mean exogenous creatinine clearance was 2.17 mL/min/kg. The disposition of iohexol was best described by a 3-compartment open model. Mean clearance value for iohexol was 2.15 mL/min/kg and was not significantly different from mean creatinine clearance. A method for predicting serum iohexol clearance based on a 2-sample protocol (3- and 4-hour samples) was developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Iohexol clearance can be used to predict exogenous creatinine clearance and can be determined from 2 blood samples taken after IV injection of iohexol. Appropriate correction factors for adult horses and horses with abnormal glomerular filtration rate need to be determined. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1486–1490)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate anesthetic effects of 4 drug combinations used for total intravenous anesthesia of horses undergoing surgical removal of an abdominal testis.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—32 healthy cryptorchid horses.

Procedure—Horses were sedated with xylazine and butorphanol and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: induction of anesthesia with ketamine and diazepam and maintenance with bolus administration of ketamine and xylazine (KD/KX); induction and maintenance of anesthesia with bolus administration of tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine, and detomidine (TKD); induction and maintenance of anesthesia with continuous infusion of xylazine, guaifenesin, and ketamine; and induction and maintenance of anesthesia with continuous infusion of guaifenesin and thiopental. Horses that moved 3 consecutive times in response to surgical stimulation or for which surgery time was > 60 minutes were administered an inhalant anesthetic, and data from these horses were excluded from analysis.

Results—Quality of induction was not significantly different among groups. Muscle relaxation and analgesia scores were lowest for horses given KD/KX, but significant differences among groups were not detected. Horses anesthetized with TKD had a significantly greater number of attempts to stand, compared with the other groups, and mean quality of recovery from anesthesia for horses in the TKD group was significantly worse than for the other groups. Anesthesia, surgery, and recovery times were not significantly different among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that all 4 drug combinations can be used to induce short-term anesthesia for abdominal cryptorchidectomy in horses. However, horses receiving TKD had a poorer recovery from anesthesia, often requiring assistance to stand. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:869–873)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association