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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare complications between a modified incisional gastropexy (MIG) technique and standard incisional gastropexy (SIG).

ANIMALS

347 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Dogs that had undergone SIG or MIG from March 2005 through April 2019 were identified through a medical record search of the University of Missouri Veterinary Health Center. The MIG technique is identical to SIG except 2 additional simple interrupted sutures are added, 1 cranial and 1 caudal to the continuous suture line, going full thickness into the stomach to ensure engagement of submucosa. Medical record information was used to identify intraoperative, postoperative, and short-term complications, and telephone or email communication to pet owners and/or referring veterinarians was used to identify complications (short-term and long-term) after discontinuance of care at the University of Missouri Veterinary Health Center. Intraoperative, postoperative, short-term, and long-term complications were analyzed in aggregate within 6 matched groupings: (1) gastropexy for gastric dilatation-volvulus, (2) prophylactic gastropexy without other procedures, (3) gastropexy with ovariohysterectomy, (4) gastropexy with castration, (5) gastropexy with splenectomy, and (6) gastropexy with celiotomy other than splenectomy. Overall rates of complications potentially attributed to gastropexy were compared between SIG and MIG using the Fisher exact test. Overall rates of complications not attributed to gastropexy were compared between SIG and MIG using the χ2 test.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences in overall complication rates between SIG and MIG.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Surgeons who feel that engagement of gastric submucosa is important for gastropexy success may use the MIG technique with minimal fear of complications. However, superiority of one technique over the other cannot be determined on the basis of this study.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of 4 methods to assess colostral IgG concentration in dairy cows and determine the optimal cutpoint for each method.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—160 Holstein dairy cows.

Procedures—171 composite colostrum samples collected within 2 hours after parturition were used in the study. Test methods used to estimate colostral IgG concentration consisted of weight of the first milking, 2 hydrometers, and an electronic refractometer. Results of the test methods were compared with colostral IgG concentration determined by means of radial immunodiffusion. For each method, sensitivity and specificity for detecting colostral IgG concentration < 50 g/L were calculated across a range of potential cutpoints, and the optimal cutpoint for each test was selected to maximize sensitivity and specificity.

Results—At the optimal cutpoint for each method, sensitivity for weight of the first milking (0.42) was significantly lower than sensitivity for each of the other 3 methods (hydrometer 1, 0.75; hydrometer 2, 0.76; refractometer, 0.75), but no significant differences were identified among the other 3 methods with regard to sensitivity. Specificities at the optimal cutpoint were similar for all 4 methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that use of either hydrometer or the electronic refractometer was an acceptable method of screening colostrum for low IgG concentration; however, the manufacturer-defined scale for both hydrometers overestimated colostral IgG concentration. Use of weight of the first milking as a screening test to identify bovine colostrum with inadequate IgG concentration could not be justified because of the low sensitivity.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the magnitude of the change in colloid oncotic pressure (COP) associated with general anesthesia in dogs undergoing a variety of elective procedures.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—50 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, preanesthetic and postanesthetic PCV, plasma total solids (TS) concentration, and COP were determined. The procedures requiring anesthesia, volume of crystalloid fluids administered IV, duration of anesthesia, age, weight, and sex were recorded.

Results—Postanesthetic PCV (mean ± SD, 41.8 ± 5.4%), TS concentration (6.3 ± 0.8 g/dL), and COP (19.4 ± 3.6 mm Hg) were significantly decreased, compared with preanesthetic values (48.8 ± 5.9%, 7.2 ± 0.7 g/dL, and 24.4 ± 4.2 mm Hg, respectively). None of the variables tested could be used to reliably predict changes in COP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that COP in healthy dogs may decrease by 5 mm Hg on average after general anesthesia and that this decrease may not be reliably predicted by the volume of fluids administered IV during anesthesia or by the concurrent measured decrease in TS concentration.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

To address the limitations of traditional IACUC review of clinical research studies involving client-owned animals, the AVMA issued a policy describing the use of a veterinary clinical studies committee (VCSC), analogous to an institutional review board, as a way to ensure the adequate review and oversight of such studies. While IACUC composition, review, approval processes, and responsibilities are well established, uniform guidance for VCSCs is not readily available and not included in the guidance for IACUCs. In this manuscript we describe suggested best practices for scientific and ethical review of veterinary clinical research studies, regardless of the specific research setting. This resource complements the AVMA policy mentioned above by providing additional thoughts on aspects of VCSCs, including considerations necessary for the adequate review and oversight of clinical research studies using client-owned animals by VCSCs or IACUCs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

4 alpacas and 2 llamas (11 months to 11 years old) from 2 properties were examined for lethargy (6/6), salivation and regurgitation (4/6), and recumbency (3/6). Signs developed approximately 48 to 72 hours after accidental access to black oil sunflower seeds.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

3 alpacas died suddenly prior to treatment and were necropsied. One llama survived, and 1 alpaca and 1 llama died after days of medical treatment. All 3 treated animals had systemic inflammatory signs including tachycardia, fever, and hematologic changes. Biochemical anomalies included azotemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypoalbuminemia. Necropsy identified numerous sunflower seeds in the gastrointestinal tract of all 5 animals that died, with pulmonary congestion (5/5 animals), mild centrilobular vacuolar hepatic degeneration (4/5), and erosions of the esophagus (3/5) and first (3/5) and third (1/5) compartments of the forestomach. Renal tubular necrosis was found in the 2 animals that died on day 4 of treatment.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

One llama responded successfully to intensive medical management including supplemented IV fluid therapy, oral and partial parenteral nutrition, and administration of antimicrobials, furosemide, and insulin and was clinically normal with plasma biochemical analysis values within reference range 12 weeks later. Vitamin D, oxalates, heavy metals, and mycotoxins were excluded as the cause of clinical signs on the basis of screening of uneaten seeds and tissue samples and gastric content from the treated llama that died.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Inadvertent large volume black oil sunflower seed ingestion resulted in a high mortality rate in camelids. A specific toxic principle was not identified. Feeding this product to camelids is not recommended to avoid the risk of accidental overingestion and subsequent disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:406–414)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association