Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 28 of 28 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jennifer L. Davis x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Sporadic bacterial cystitis in both dogs and humans is often caused by Escherichia coli. In humans, nitrofurantoin is a first-line antimicrobial for the treatment of bacterial cystitis but in dogs a lack of available data may be part of the reason it is only recommended as a second-line treatment. The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics and urine concentrations of nitrofurantoin monohydrate-macrocrystalline in dogs.

ANIMALS

8 healthy female hound dogs.

PROCEDURES

From July 26 to July 28, 2021, dogs received a single oral dose of nitrofurantoin monohydrate-macrocrystalline 100 mg with food. Blood and urine were collected at predetermined times. Nitrofurantoin concentrations were assayed by UPLC-MS/MS and plasma data were analyzed using noncompartmental methods.

RESULTS

Plasma concentrations were low for all dogs with a mean ± SD maximum concentration (Cmax) of 0.242 ± 0.098 μg/mL (range, 0.14 to 0.42 µg/mL) occurring between 2 and 24 hours. Urine concentrations were manyfold higher than for plasma. Cmax in urine was 134 ± 54 µg/mL (range, 49.1 to 218 µg/mL) occurring between 6 and 36 hours. As seen in other species, nitrofurantoin concentrated in urine with concentrations being 500 times higher than the concentration in plasma.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that nitrofurantoin monohydrate-macrocrystalline formulation of nitrofurantoin should be effective in treating bacterial cystitis caused by susceptible uropathogens.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Plasma cytokine adsorption has shown benefit as an adjunctive therapy in human sepsis but has yet to be investigated in horses. We hypothesized that ex vivo filtration of equine plasma with a novel cytokine adsorption device would significantly reduce concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokines. We also hypothesized that the device would adsorb medications commonly used to treat sepsis.

ANIMALS

8 horses owned by North Carolina State University.

METHODS

Four liters of heparinized whole blood was collected from healthy adult horses (n = 8) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/mL) for 6 hours (37 °C.) from June 4, 2023, to December 15, 2023. Plasma was filtered through a cytokine adsorption device or sham circuit. Samples were collected at 11 time points for multiplex cytokine analysis. Chemistry analysis was performed before and after filtration. To investigate the impact of the device on medication concentrations, equine plasma containing potassium penicillin, gentamicin, and flunixin meglumine was filtered through the cytokine adsorption device or sham for 6 hours. Drug concentrations before and after filtration were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefiltration versus postfiltration sample concentrations were analyzed by Student paired t test using GraphPad Prism 9.0 (P < .05).

RESULTS

Filtration of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated equine plasma (n = 8) for 6 hours resulted in significant mean reductions in the cytokines IL-10, IL-5, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1β, as well as albumin. Drug concentrations of potassium penicillin, gentamicin, and flunixin meglumine were also significantly reduced by filtration.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This work provides proof of concept for further investigation of extracorporeal cytokine adsorption as a potential adjunct treatment for equine sepsis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine opinions of faculty members with clinical appointments, clinical veterinarians, residents, and interns at a US veterinary teaching hospital regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial-resistant infections.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample—71 veterinarians.

Procedures—An online questionnaire was sent to all veterinarians with clinical service responsibilities at the North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital (n = 167). The survey included 23 questions regarding demographic information, educational experiences, current prescribing practices, and personal opinions related to antimicrobial selection, antimicrobial use, restrictions on antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance.

Results—Of the 167 veterinarians eligible to participate, 71 (43%) responded. When respondents were asked to rate their level of concern (very concerned = 1; not concerned = 5) about antimicrobial-resistant infections, most (41/70 [59%]) assigned a score of 1, with mean score for all respondents being 1.5. Most survey participants rated their immediate colleagues (mean score, 1.9) as more concerned than other veterinary medical professionals (mean score, 2.3) and their clients (mean score, 3.4). Fifty-nine of 67 (88%) respondents felt that antimicrobials were overprescribed at the hospital, and 32 of 69 (46%) respondents felt uncomfortable prescribing at least one class of antimicrobials (eg, carbapenems or glycopeptides) because of public health concerns.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that veterinarians at this teaching hospital were concerned about antimicrobial resistance, thought antimicrobials were overprescribed, and supported restricting use of certain antimicrobial classes in companion animals. Findings may be useful in educating future veterinarians and altering prescribing habits and antimicrobial distribution systems in veterinary hospitals.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association