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  • Author or Editor: Jan S. Suchodolski x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether hypertriglyceridemia in healthy Miniature Schnauzers is associated with high serum liver enzyme activities.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—65 Miniature Schnauzers with serum triglyceride concentrations within the reference range (group 1), 20 Miniature Schnauzers with slightly high serum triglyceride concentrations (group 2), and 20 Miniature Schnauzers with moderately to severely high serum triglyceride concentrations (group 3).

Procedures—Questionnaires regarding each dog's medical history were completed, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and G-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities were measured.

Results—Median serum ALP activity was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 or 2 dogs, but was not significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 dogs. Median serum ALT activity was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 dogs, but was not significantly different between any of the other groups. Compared with group 1 dogs, group 2 and 3 dogs were significantly more likely to have high serum ALP activity (odds ratio, 26.2 and 192.6, respectively). Group 3 dogs also were significantly more likely to have high serum ALT activity (odds ratio, 8.0), serum AST activity (odds ratio, 3.7), and serum GGT activity (odds ratio, 11.3), compared with group 1 dogs. Group 3 dogs were significantly more likely (odds ratio, 31.0) to have ≥ 2 high serum liver enzyme activities than were group 1 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia was associated with high serum liver enzyme activities in Miniature Schnauzers.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate serum feline-specific pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI) concentrations and abdominal ultrasonographic findings in cats with trauma resulting from high-rise syndrome.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—34 client-owned cats.

Procedures—From cats evaluated because of high-rise syndrome between March and October 2009, a blood sample was obtained for measurement of serum fPLI concentration within 12 hours after the fall and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the first blood collection. Pancreatitis was diagnosed in cats with an fPLI concentration > 5.4 μg/L. Each cat had abdominal ultrasonography performed twice 48 hours apart, and pancreatic trauma was assessed via detection of pancreatic enlargement, hypoechoic or heteroechoic pancreatic parenchyma, hyperechoic mesentery, and peritoneal effusion. Cats were assigned 1 point for each abnormality present, and a cumulative score ≥ 3 was considered suggestive of traumatic pancreatitis.

Results—Traumatic pancreatitis was diagnosed in 9 and 8 cats on the basis of serum fPLI concentration and ultrasonographic findings, respectively. For cats with pancreatitis, fPLI concentration was significantly higher at 12 and 24 hours after the fall than at 48 and 72 hours after the fall, and serum fPLI concentration decreased as time after the fall increased. Significant agreement existed between the use of serum fPLI concentration and abdominal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of traumatic pancreatitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with high-rise syndrome often had serum fPLI concentrations > 5.4 μg/L within 12 hours after the fall, and concurrent evaluation of those cats via abdominal ultrasonography twice, 48 hours apart, improved detection of traumatic pancreatitis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop and analytically validate a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for measurement of endogenous trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentrations in canine serum and to assess serum trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentrations in dogs with chronic hepatitis.

SAMPLE

Serum samples obtained from 20 dogs with histopathologically confirmed chronic hepatitis and 20 healthy control dogs.

PROCEDURES

A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentration was developed and assessed for analytic sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility. Serum concentration of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline in dogs with chronic hepatitis and healthy control dogs was measured.

RESULTS

Observed-to-expected ratios for dilutional parallelism ranged from 72.7% to 111.5% (mean ± SD, 91.3 ± 19.6%). Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 2.1% to 3.0% and 3.2% to 5.3%, respectively. Relative error ranged from −2.3% to 7.8%. Trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentrations were significantly lower in serum obtained from dogs with chronic hepatitis (median, 0.24 ng/mL; range, 0.06 to 1.84 ng/mL) than in serum obtained from healthy control dogs (median, 0.78 ng/mL; range, 0.14 to 4.90 ng/mL).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The method described here for the quantification of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentration in canine serum was found to be sensitive, specific, precise, accurate, and reproducible. Dogs with chronic hepatitis had significantly lower serum trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline concentrations than did healthy control dogs, possibly as a result of altered hepatic metabolism of amino acids.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of leukoreduction on N-methylhistamine (NMH; a stable histamine metabolite) concentration in units of canine whole blood during storage and incubation at room temperature (approx 22 °C) to simulate temperature conditions during transfusion.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult Walker Hounds.

PROCEDURES

A standard unit of blood (450 mL) was obtained from each dog twice, with at least 28 days between donations. Blood units collected from 4 dogs during the first donation underwent leukoreduction, whereas the blood units collected from the other 4 dogs did not undergo leukoreduction, prior to storage at 4 °C. The alternate treatment was applied to blood units collected during the second donation. A sample from each unit was obtained for determination of plasma NMH concentration the day of donation (before and after leukoreduction when applicable) and before and after incubation at room temperature for 5 hours on days 14 and 28 of storage.

RESULTS

Units that underwent leukoreduction had substantially lower leukocyte and platelet counts than nonleukoreduced units. Plasma NMH concentration increased immediately after leukoreduction but did not change significantly during the subsequent 28 days of storage, nor did it differ between units that did and did not undergo leukoreduction.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Leukoreduction and simulated transfusion temperature did not affect the histamine load in units of canine whole blood during the first 28 days of storage. Further research is necessary to determine whether histamine contributes to the development and severity of blood transfusion reactions in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic diarrhea, to identify cutoff values for fecal calprotectin concentrations for use in differentiating dogs with chronic diarrhea and a canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) < 12 from dogs with chronic diarrhea and a CCECAI ≥ 12, and to evaluate the association between histologic evidence of intestinal mucosal changes and fecal calprotectin concentrations in dogs with chronic diarrhea.

Sample—Fecal samples from 96 adult dogs (27 dogs with chronic diarrhea and 69 healthy control dogs).

Procedures—Severity of clinical signs was evaluated on the basis of the CCECAI scoring system. Endoscopy was performed in all dogs with chronic diarrhea, and mucosal biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically. Fecal calprotectin concentration was quantified via radioimmunoassay.

Results—Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea than in healthy control dogs. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were also significantly higher in dogs with a CCECAI ≥ 12, compared with concentrations for dogs with a CCECAI between 4 and 11. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea associated with histologic lesions, compared with concentrations in control dogs, and were significantly correlated with the severity of histologic intestinal lesions. Among dogs with chronic diarrhea, the best cutoff fecal calprotectin concentration for predicting a CCECAI ≥ 12 was 48.9 μg/g (sensitivity, 53.3%; specificity, 91.7%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fecal calprotectin may be a useful biomarker in dogs with chronic diarrhea, especially dogs with histologic lesions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD).

Procedures—Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated.

Results—Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association