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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effects of orally administered glucosamine hydrochloride (GIAm)–chondroitin sulfate (sCS) and GIAM–CS–S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) on chemically induced synovitis in the radiocarpal joint of dogs.

Animals

32 adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

For 21 days, all dogs received a sham capsule (3 groups) or GIAm-CS (prior treatment group) in a double-blinded study. Unilateral carpal synovitis was induced by injecting the right radiocarpal joint with chymopapain and the left radiocarpal joint (control joint) with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Joints were injected on alternate days for 3 injections. After induction of synovitis, 2 groups receiving sham treatment were given GIAm-CS or GIAm-CS–SAMe. Another group continued to receive sham capsules (control group). Joint inflammation was quantified, using nuclear scintigraphy, before injection of joints and days 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48 after injection. Lameness evaluations were performed daily.

Results

Dogs given GIAm-CS before induction of synovitis had significantly less scintigraphic activity in the soft-tissue phase 48 days after joint injection, significantly less uptake in the bone phase 41 and 48 days after joint injection, and significantly lower lameness scores on days 12 to 19, 23, and 24 after injection, compared with other groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Analysis of results of this study suggest that prior treatment with GIAm-CS for 21 days had a protective effect against chemically induced synovitis and associated bone remodeling. Prior treatment with GIAm-CS also reduced lameness in dogs with induced synovitis. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1552–1557)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of oral administration of robenacoxib on inhibition of anterior chamber paracentesis (ACP)-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) and assess whether robenacoxib can cross an intact BAB in healthy cats.

ANIMALS 12 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats.

PROCEDURES Cats received robenacoxib (6-mg tablet in a treat, PO; n = 6) or a control treatment (treat without any drug, PO; 6) once daily for 3 days, beginning 1 day before ACP. One eye of each cat served as an untreated control, whereas the other underwent ACP, during which a 30-gauge needle was used to aspirate 100 μL of aqueous humor for determination of robenacoxib concentration. Both eyes of each cat underwent anterior chamber fluorophotometry at 0 (immediately before), 6, 24, and 48 hours after ACP. Fluorescein concentration and percentage fluorescein increase were used to assess extent of ACP-induced BAB breakdown and compared between cats that did and did not receive robenacoxib.

RESULTS Extent of BAB breakdown induced by ACP did not differ significantly between cats that did and did not receive robenacoxib. Low concentrations of robenacoxib were detected in the aqueous humor (mean, 5.32 ng/mL; range, 0.9 to 16 ng/mL) for 5 of the 6 cats that received the drug.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that oral administration of robenacoxib did not significantly decrease extent of BAB breakdown in healthy cats. Detection of low robenacoxib concentrations in the aqueous humor for most treated cats indicated that the drug can cross an intact BAB.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To document and compare preoperative and postoperative stance analysis measurements in animals with naturally occurring patellar luxation.

ANIMALS

131 client-owned dogs surgically treated for naturally occurring unilateral or bilateral patella luxation between March 30, 2015, and February 12, 2020.

PROCEDURES

Weight bearing as a percent body weight on each limb was recorded with the use of a platform device for analyzing stance (PetSafe Stance Analyzer; LiteCure LLC, Companion Animal Health) preoperatively and postoperatively for all dogs. Signalment, limb affected, lameness grade, luxation direction, luxation grade, and surgical procedure were collected from patient records and assessed for the effects of these variables on weight bearing preoperatively or at the first or second postoperative recheck examination.

RESULTS

There were 61 males and 70 females, with a mean age and body weight of 4.62 years and 13.01 kg, included in the study. As age increased, body weight decreased in these dogs (P = .025). There was a statistically significant improvement in lameness after surgery (P = .008) at the second postoperative recheck examination. Lameness significantly decreased as postoperative time increased (P < .001, r = 0.503). As age increased, lameness at the initial visit decreased compared to younger dogs but not significantly (P = .062). There was no significant effect of preoperative luxation grade, luxation direction, surgical procedure, or sex when comparing initial lameness or lameness at recheck examination.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Surgical correction of patella luxation improves lameness as measured by postoperative stance analysis. Preoperative luxation grade or direction, surgical procedure performed, and sex of the animal did not significantly affect outcome in this group of dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of cefazolin after IV injection of cefazolin (22 mg/kg) and after simultaneous IV and IM injections of cefazolin (total dose, 44 mg/kg) to dogs.

ANIMALS 12 adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Dogs (6/group) were assigned to receive a single injection of cefazolin (IV group; 22 mg/kg, IV) or simultaneous injections (IV + IM group; 22 mg/kg, IV, and 22 mg/kg, IM). Interstitial fluid was collected over a 5-hour period by use of ultrafiltration probes for pharmacokinetic analysis.

RESULTS Mean cefazolin concentration in the interstitial fluid at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after injection was 39.6, 29.1, 21.2, 10.3, 6.4, and 2.7 μg/mL, respectively, for the IV group and 38.3, 53.3, 46.4, 31.7, 19.1, and 8.9 μg/mL, respectively, for the IV + IM group. Mean area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, maximum concentration, half-life, and time to maximum concentration was 74.99 and 154.16 h·μg/mL, 37.3 and 51.5 μg/mL, 0.96 and 1.11 hours, and 1.28 and 1.65 hours, respectively, for the IV and IV + IM groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cefazolin concentrations in interstitial fluid of dogs were maintained at > 4 μg/mL for 4 hours after a single IV injection and for 5 hours after simultaneous IV and IM injections. Therefore, simultaneous IV and IM administration of cefazolin 30 to 60 minutes before surgery should provide interstitial fluid concentrations effective against the most common commensal organisms (Staphylococcus spp and Streptococcus spp) on the skin of dogs for surgical procedures lasting ≤ 4 hours.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of simultaneous intra-articular and IV injection of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints.

ANIMALS 22 client-owned dogs (12 placebo-treated [control] dogs and 10 treated dogs).

PROCEDURES Dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints that caused signs of lameness or discomfort were characterized on the basis of results of orthopedic examination, goniometry, lameness score, the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), a visual analogue scale, and results obtained by use of a pressure-sensing walkway at week 0 (baseline). Dogs received a simultaneous intraarticular and IV injection of SVF and PRP or a placebo. Dogs were examined again 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injection.

RESULTS CBPI scores were significantly lower for the treatment group at week 24, compared with scores for the control group. Mean visual analogue scale score for the treatment group was significantly higher at week 0 than at weeks 4, 8, or 24. Dogs with baseline peak vertical force (PVF) in the lowest 25th percentile were compared, and the treatment group had a significantly higher PVF than did the control group. After the SVF-PRP injection, fewer dogs in the treated group than in the control group had lameness confirmed during examination.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints treated with SVF and PRP, improvements in CBPI and PVF were evident at some time points, compared with results for the control group.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure the effect of cold compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs.

Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were sedated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV). Three 24-gauge thermocouple needles were inserted to a depth of 0.5 (superficial), 1.0 (middle), and 1.5 (deep) cm into a shaved, lumbar, epaxial region to measure tissue temperature. Cold (–16.8°C) compresses were applied with gravity dependence for periods of 5, 10, and 20 minutes. Tissue temperature was recorded before compress application and at intervals for up to 80 minutes after application. Control data were collected while dogs received identical sedation but with no cold compress.

Results—Mean temperature associated with 5 minutes of application at the superficial depth was significantly decreased, compared with control temperatures. Application for 10 and 20 minutes significantly reduced the temperature at all depths, compared with controls and 5 minutes of application. Twenty minutes of application significantly decreased temperature at only the middle depth, compared with 10 minutes of application.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—With this method of cold treatment, increasing application time from 10 to 20 minutes caused a further significant temperature change at only the middle tissue depth; however, for maximal cooling, the minimum time of application should be 20 minutes. Possible changes in tissue temperature and adverse effects of application > 20 minutes require further evaluation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure the effect of warm compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs.

Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were sedated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV). Three 24-gauge thermocouple needles were inserted to a depth of 0.5 cm (superficial), 1.0 cm (middle), and 1.5 cm (deep) into a shaved, lumbar, epaxial region to measure tissue temperature. Warm (47°C) compresses were applied with gravity dependence for periods of 5, 10, and 20 minutes. Tissue temperature was recorded before compress application and at intervals for up to 80 minutes after application. Control data were collected while dogs received identical sedation but with no warm compress.

Results—Mean temperature associated with 5 minutes of heat application at the superficial, middle, and deep depths was significantly increased, compared with the control temperature. Application for 10 minutes significantly increased the temperature at all depths, compared with 5 minutes of application. Mean temperature associated with 20 minutes of application was not different at the superficial or middle depths, compared with 10 minutes of application. Temperature at the deep depth associated with 10 minutes of application was significantly higher, compared with 20 minutes of application, but all temperature increases at this depth were minimal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that application of a warm compress should be performed for 10 minutes. Changes in temperature at a tissue depth of 1.5 cm were minimal or not detected. The optimal compress temperature to achieve therapeutic benefits was not determined.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for elective ovariohysterectomy or orchiectomy.

Animals—10 healthy dogs undergoing routine elective surgery.

Procedures—A CGMS was placed and used to obtain calculated glucose measurements before, during, and after anesthesia in each dog. Periodically, CGMS measurements were compared with concurrent measurements of glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood obtained with a portable chemistry analyzer (PCA).

Results—CGMS-calculated glucose measurements were significantly different from PCA blood glucose measurements during most of the anesthetic period. The CGMS values differed from PCA values by > 20% in 54 of 126 (42.9%) paired measurements obtained during the anesthetic period. Hypoglycemia was evident in CGMS measurements 25 of 126 (19.8%) times during anesthesia. By comparison, only 1 incident of hypoglycemia was detected with the PCA during the same period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the CGMS for routine monitoring of interstitial glucose concentration as an indicator of blood glucose concentration during anesthesia cannot be recommended. Additional investigation is necessary to elucidate the cause of discrepancy between CGMS results and PCA data during anesthesia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine hepatotoxicity of stanozolol in cats and to identify clinicopathologic and histopathologic abnormalities in cats with stanozololinduced hepatotoxicosis.

Design—Clinical trial and case series.

Animals—12 healthy cats, 6 cats with chronic renal failure, and 3 cats with gingivitis and stomatitis.

Procedures—Healthy cats and cats with renal failure were treated with stanozolol (25 mg, IM, on the first day, then 2 mg, PO, q 12 h) for 4 weeks. Cats with gingivitis were treated with stanozolol at a dosage of 1 mg, PO, every 24 hours.

Results—Most healthy cats and cats with renal failure developed marked inappetence, groomed less, and were less active within 7 to 10 days after initiation of stanozolol administration. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was significantly increased in 14 of 18 cats after stanozolol administration, but serum alkaline phosphatase activity was mildly increased in only 3. Four cats with serum ALT activity > 1,000 U/L after only 2 weeks of stanozolol administration had coagulopathies; administration of vitamin K resolved the coagulopathy in 3 of the 4 within 48 hours. All 18 cats survived, and hepatic enzyme activities were normal in all cats tested more than 4 weeks after stanozolol administration was discontinued. Two of the 3 cats with gingivitis developed evidence of severe hepatic failure 2 to 3 months after initiation of stanozolol treatment; both cats developed coagulopathies. Histologic evaluation of hepatic biopsy specimens from 5 cats revealed diffuse hepatic lipidosis and cholestasis without evidence of hepatocellular necrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that stanozolol is hepatotoxic in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:681–684)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association