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  • Author or Editor: Jörg M. Steiner x
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Abstract

Objective—To measure serum calprotectin concentration in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) before and after initiation of treatment and evaluate its correlation with a clinical scoring system (canine IBD activity index), serum canine C-reactive protein concentration, and severity of histopathologic changes.

Animals—34 dogs with idiopathic IBD and 139 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—From dogs with IBD, blood samples were collected immediately before (baseline) and 3 weeks after initiation of 1 of 2 treatments: prednisone (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; n = 21) or a combination of prednisone and metronidazole (10 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; 13). Blood samples were collected once from each of the control dogs. For all samples, serum calprotectin concentration was determined via radioimmunoassay.

Results—Mean serum calprotectin concentrations for dogs with IBD at baseline (431.1 μg/L) and 3 weeks after initiation of treatment (676.9 μg/L) were significantly higher, compared with that (219.4 μg/L) for control dogs, and were not significantly correlated with the canine IBD activity index, serum C-reactive protein concentration, or severity of histopathologic changes. The use of a serum calprotectin concentration of ≥ 296.0 μg/L as a cutoff had a sensitivity of 82.4% (95% confidence interval, 65.5% to 93.2%) and specificity of 68.4% (95% confidence interval, 59.9% to 76.0%) for distinguishing dogs with idiopathic IBD from healthy dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum calprotectin concentration may be a useful biomarker for the detection of inflammation in dogs, but the use of certain drugs (eg, glucocorticoids) appears to limit its clinical usefulness.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 21-year-old neutered male captive California sea lion developed chronic polyuria; polydipsia; polyphagia; accelerated development of existing cataracts; and frequent episodes of gastrointestinal upset including anorexia, signs of abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and vomiting.

Clinical Findings—Chronic hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria were identified. During episodes of gastrointestinal abnormalities, transient hyperbilirubinemia and increased serum γ-glutamyltransferase activities developed. Clinical findings strongly suggested chronic pancreatitis with secondary diabetes mellitus and intermittent cholestasis. Multiple diagnostic tests, including abdominal ultrasonography, serial hematologic and serum biochemical analyses, fecal examinations, urinalyses and bacteriologic culture of urine, measurement of serum fructosamine and insulin concentrations, and evaluation of thyroid and adrenal function, did not reveal any specific parasitic, endocrine, hepatic, or neoplastic etiologies.

Treatment and Outcome—For 1.5 years, the sea lion received once-daily administration of glargine insulin, gastrointestinal protectants, and a strict high-protein, low-fat diet. Daily monitoring of glucose regulation was achieved by training the sea lion to submit to blood and urine sampling. Glucose regulation ranged from fair to good, and clinical signs of diabetes mellitus lessened. Episodes of gastrointestinal upset still occurred, although the frequency and severity decreased. Ultimately, a severe episode developed, associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and sepsis, and the sea lion died. Severe fibrosing pancreatitis with exocrine and endocrine atrophy and abscesses arising from ectatic pancreatic ducts were found. Peripancreatic fibrosis caused stricture of the common bile duct, resulting in gallbladder distension without cholecystitis.

Clinical Relevance—Diabetes mellitus can occur secondary to chronic pancreatitis in California sea lions and insulin therapy should be considered.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate serum feline-specific pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI) concentrations and abdominal ultrasonographic findings in cats with trauma resulting from high-rise syndrome.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—34 client-owned cats.

Procedures—From cats evaluated because of high-rise syndrome between March and October 2009, a blood sample was obtained for measurement of serum fPLI concentration within 12 hours after the fall and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the first blood collection. Pancreatitis was diagnosed in cats with an fPLI concentration > 5.4 μg/L. Each cat had abdominal ultrasonography performed twice 48 hours apart, and pancreatic trauma was assessed via detection of pancreatic enlargement, hypoechoic or heteroechoic pancreatic parenchyma, hyperechoic mesentery, and peritoneal effusion. Cats were assigned 1 point for each abnormality present, and a cumulative score ≥ 3 was considered suggestive of traumatic pancreatitis.

Results—Traumatic pancreatitis was diagnosed in 9 and 8 cats on the basis of serum fPLI concentration and ultrasonographic findings, respectively. For cats with pancreatitis, fPLI concentration was significantly higher at 12 and 24 hours after the fall than at 48 and 72 hours after the fall, and serum fPLI concentration decreased as time after the fall increased. Significant agreement existed between the use of serum fPLI concentration and abdominal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of traumatic pancreatitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with high-rise syndrome often had serum fPLI concentrations > 5.4 μg/L within 12 hours after the fall, and concurrent evaluation of those cats via abdominal ultrasonography twice, 48 hours apart, improved detection of traumatic pancreatitis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prognostic value of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in dogs with pancreatitis.

ANIMALS

503 client-owned animals with pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) > 600 µg/L.

METHODS

Routine submissions to the Texas A&M Gastrointestinal Laboratory were monitored for canine samples with PLI > 600 µg/L. Clinics were emailed 2 weeks after PLI measurement and asked the following questions: (1) was the dog hospitalized, and (2) is the patient alive? If a response was received, serum CRP concentration was measured using leftover serum.

RESULTS

Paired PLI and CRP results were available for 503 dogs. Median PLI was 984 µg/L (range, 603 to 2,001 µg/L); median CRP was 9.9 mg/L (range, 9.9 to 395.3 mg/L; ref: < 10 mg/L). Inpatient care was provided to 136 dogs (27.0%); 49 dogs (9.7%) died or were euthanized. Median PLI values for dogs that died versus survived were similar. Median CRP was higher in hospitalized dogs (36.1 vs 9.9 mg/L; P < .0001) and those that died (37.2 vs 9.9 mg/L; P < .0001). Compared to dogs with CRP < 10 mg/L, those with CRP > 10 mg/L were 5.3 times more likely to die (CI, 2.7 to 10.2) and 5.7 times (CI, 3.7 to 8.7) more likely to be hospitalized.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In dogs with PLI > 600 µg/L, CRP > 10 mg/L was associated with increased risk of hospitalization or death. This biomarker may provide prognostic information in dogs with evidence of pancreatitis and guide decisions regarding hospitalization or referral.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a fecal sample collection strategy and quantification method for measurement of fecal IgA concentrations in dogs.

Sample Population—Fecal samples from 23 healthy pet dogs of various breeds.

Procedures——Immunoglobulin A was extracted from fecal samples. An ELISA for the measurement of fecal IgA concentrations was established and analytically validated. Intraindividual variation of fecal IgA was determined by calculation of coefficients of variation. A sample collection strategy was developed on the basis of results of intraindividual variation of fecal IgA concentrations. A reference range for fecal IgA concentrations was determined.

Results—The method for extraction and quantification of fecal IgA was determined to be sufficiently sensitive, reproducible, accurate, and precise. On the basis of the intraindividual variability of our results, the determined fecal sample collection strategy required analysis of a total of 4 fecal samples/dog, with each fecal sample collected on 2 consecutive days with 28 days between sample collection periods (ie, days 1 and 2 followed by days 28 and 29). Reference range values for fecal IgA concentration were 0.22 to 3.24 mg/g of feces.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance— Methods of fecal IgA extraction and quantification used in our study allow for identification of dogs with consistently low fecal IgA concentrations. Use of these techniques will enable future investigations into possible associations between low fecal IgA concentrations and signs of gastrointestinal disease in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To purify neutrophil elastase (NE) from dog blood and develop and validate an ELISA for the measurement of canine NE (cNE) in canine serum as a marker for gastrointestinal tract inflammation.

Sample Population—Neutrophils from 6 dogs immediately after they were euthanatized and serum from 54 healthy dogs.

Procedures—cNE was purified from blood by use of dextran sedimentation, repeated cycles of freezing-thawing and sonication, cation-exchange chromatography, and continuous elution electrophoresis. Antibodies against cNE were generated in rabbits, and an ELISA was developed and validated by determination of sensitivity, dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, intra-assay variability, and interassay variability. A reference range was established by assaying serum samples from the 54 healthy dogs and by use of the lower 97.5th percentile.

Results—cNE was successfully purified from blood, and antibodies were successfully generated in rabbits. An ELISA was developed with a sensitivity of 1,100 μg/L. The reference range was established as < 2,239 μg/L. Ratios of observed-to-expected results for dilutional parallelism for 4 serum samples ranged from 85.4% to 123.1%. Accuracy, as determined by spiking recovery, ranged from 27.1% to 114.0%. Coefficient of variation for 4 serum samples was 14.2%, 16.0%, 16.8%, and 13.4%, respectively, for intra-assay variability and 15.4%, 15.0%, 10.5%, and 14.6%, respectively, for interassay variability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The purification protocol used here resulted in rapid and reproducible purification of cNE with a high yield. The novel ELISA yielded linear results and was accurate and precise. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this assay.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of withholding food on the results for measurements of serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI), and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

11 healthy employee- or student-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Food was withheld from the dogs for 12 hours, baseline blood samples were collected, then dogs were fed. Postprandial blood samples collected 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours later were assessed. A mixed-effects ANOVA model with fasting duration (time) as a fixed factor and dog as a random effect was fit for each analyte variable. Additionally, a mixed-effects ANOVA model controlling for the variable of time was fit to assess whether lipemia affected serum concentrations of the analytes.

RESULTS

The median serum cobalamin concentration was lower at 4 hours (428 ng/L) and 8 hours (429 ng/L) postprandially, compared with baseline (479 ng/L), but this difference was not clinically meaningful. Although there were no substantial differences in serum concentrations of folate, cPLI, or cTLI, postprandial changes in serum concentrations of cTLI or folate could potentially affect diagnoses in some dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although results indicated that feedings rarely resulted in clinically important differences in the median serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, cPLI, or cTLI in healthy dogs, given the further processing required for lipemic samples, withholding food for at least 8 hours is an appropriate recommendation when measuring these analytes. Similar research is needed in dogs with gastrointestinal disease to determine whether the withholding of food is necessary when measuring these analytes in affected dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine changes in serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI) in response to administration of ceruletide to healthy cats.

Animals—11 healthy cats.

Procedures—Serum fTLI was determined, using a radioimmunoassay, before and 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes after IM administration of ceruletide (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb]).

Results—Mean ± SD baseline serum fTLI was 23.1 ± 4.1 mg/L. There was a statistically significant, but clinically unimportant, increase in serum fTLI 10 and 30 minutes after ceruletide administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy cats, administration of ceruletide induced a statistically significant, but clinically unimportant, increase in serum fTLI. Whether responses in cats with exocrine pancreatic disorders would be different is unknown, but results suggest that a ceruletide stimulation test would likely not be useful for differentiating between healthy cats and cats with subclinical chronic exocrine pancreatic disorders. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:925–927)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To purify and partially characterize various isoforms of canine pepsinogen (PG) from gastric mucosa.

Sample Population—Stomachs obtained from 6 euthanatized dogs.

Procedure—Mucosa was scraped from canine stomachs, and a crude mucosal extract was prepared and further purified by use of weak anion-exchange chromatography, hydroxyapatite chromatography, sizeexclusion chromatography, and strong anionexchange chromatography. Pepsinogens were characterized by estimation of molecular weights, estimation of their isoelectric points (IEPs), and N-terminal amino acid sequencing.

Results—Two different groups of canine PG were identified after the final strong anion-exchange chromatography: PG A and PG B. Pepsinogens differed in their molecular weights and IEP. Pepsinogen B appeared to be a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 34,100 and an IEP of 4.9. Pepsinogen A separated into several isoforms. Molecular weights for the various isoforms of PG A ranged from 34,200 to 42,100, and their IEPs ranged from 4.0 to < 3.0. The N-terminal amino acid sequence for the first 25 amino acid residues for PG A and B had good homology with the amino acid sequences for these proteins in other species.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Canine PG B and several isoforms of canine PG A have been purified. Availability of these PGs will facilitate development of immunoassays to measure PG in canine serum as a potential diagnostic marker for gastric disorders in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1585–1590)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research