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Abstract

Case Description—A 14-year-old Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) was evaluated for an acute onset of falling off of its perch and tonic-clonic movements.

Clinical Findings—Clinical signs were consistent with partial seizures. Findings on whole-body radiography, CBC, and plasma biochemical analysis were unremarkable. Plasma magnesium, ionized calcium, and bile acids concentrations were within reference limits. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the head revealed the presence of a focal hyperintensity at the central to left side of the optic chiasm and a hyperintense focus in the right side of the midbrain area in T2-weighted and FLAIR pulse sequence images. These findings were most consistent with an acute ischemic stroke with 2 brain infarcts.

Treatment and Outcome—Seizures were initially managed with potassium bromide and phenobarbital administration. On the basis of poor results and difficulties to reach therapeutic blood concentrations, the treatment plan was changed to levetiracetam and zonisamide administration. Blood concentrations were monitored for both drugs, and the frequency of seizures substantially decreased thereafter. A follow-up MRI examination 2 months later revealed resolution of the hyperintense signals. During the 20-month follow-up period, subsequent clusters of seizures were managed by adjusting levetiracetam and zonisamide dosages and adding clonazepam and gabapentin administration to the treatment plan. Regression of intraparenchymal hyperintense lesions and improvement of clinical signs made a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke most likely.

Clinical Relevance—Findings for this Congo African grey parrot indicated that an antemortem diagnosis of an acute ischemic stroke followed by long-term seizure management may be possible in affected psittacines.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old female pigeon was evaluated because of a 5-day history of lower than typical activity level, weight loss, and polyuria.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Whole-body radiography revealed a linear metallic foreign body in the area of the ventriculus. Fluoroscopy followed by contrast-enhanced CT was performed to further characterize the lesion location, revealing that the foreign body had perforated the ventral aspect of the ventriculus wall and that the ventral extremity of the foreign body was surrounded by a mass, consistent with a granuloma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME A midline celiotomy was performed, and a large granuloma was identified ventral to the ventriculus, adherent to the dorsal aspect of the keel bone. The metallic foreign body (a nail) was removed, and the content of the granuloma was debrided. Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (150 mg/kg [68.2 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 10 days), meloxicam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 5 days), and sucralfate (100 mg/kg [45 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h for 10 days) were prescribed. The pigeon made a successful recovery and was still doing well at a 1-year recheck evaluation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although traumatic gastritis in pigeons has been reported, use of advanced diagnostic imaging for the pigeon of this report facilitated identification of the precise nature of the lesion and, therefore, surgical planning. The outcome for this pigeon suggested that successful resolution of traumatic gastritis may be possible in other affected birds with surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory laparotomy confirmed a diagnosis of small intestinal entrapment and 170° volvulus involving approximately 80% (20 to 30 cm) of the small intestine. The portion of the small intestine extending from the middle portion of the duodenum to the caudal extent of the ileum was resected, and end-to-end anastomosis of the remaining small intestine was performed. The iguana recovered without apparent complications and was reportedly doing well 1 year after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that iguanas, as hindgut fermenters, may tolerate > 70% resection of the small intestine with a good outcome and no clinical evidence of residual gastrointestinal dysfunction.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 5.5-year-old 0.929-kg spayed female domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) underwent serial abdominal ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic examinations after multiple renal cysts were detected bilaterally during a routine examination.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The ferret was apparently healthy at the start of the monitoring period and had no clinical signs for > 20 months. Four months after the initial examination, the largest cyst became increasingly mineralized; 17 months after detection, it had increased in size and become amorphous, and the ferret’s plasma BUN concentration was mildly high. Within 21 months after the first visit, a nodule was detectable, and hydronephrosis developed in the kidney with the largest cyst. Findings for fine-needle aspirates from the nodule were consistent with renal carcinoma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Contrast-enhanced CT revealed severe unilateral nephromegaly with no contrast uptake in the affected ureter. Following surgical removal of the affected kidney, histologic examination identified renal adenocarcinoma replacing the entire renal cortex and medulla. The ferret was euthanized postoperatively because of declining condition. On necropsy, metastasis to a mesenteric lymph node was identified; comorbidities included 2 other neoplasms and acute, severe injury of the contralateral kidney.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Neoplastic transformation of a renal cyst was suspected in the ferret of this report on the basis of observed ultrasonographic changes over time and extensive infiltration of the neoplasm throughout the affected kidney. Renal cysts are linked to renal neoplasia in other species, and the findings for this patient supported the need for periodic monitoring of renal cysts in ferrets.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

Animals—12 healthy 3-year-old American kestrels.

Procedures—Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg) and a control treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) were administered IM in a randomized crossover experimental design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal stimulus. Adverse effects were monitored for 6 hours after treatment administration.

Results—Buprenorphine hydrochloride at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg, IM, increased thermal threshold for 6 hours, compared with the response for the control treatment. There were no significant differences among buprenorphine treatments. A mild sedative effect was detected at a dose of 0.6 mg of buprenorphine/kg.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—At the doses tested, buprenorphine hydrochloride resulted in thermal antinociception in American kestrels for at least 6 hours, which suggested that buprenorphine has analgesic effects in this species. Further studies with longer evaluation periods and additional forms of noxious stimuli, formulations, dosages, and routes of administration are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of buprenorphine in American kestrels.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits.

Animals—Five 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

Procedures—Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. Baseline isoflurane MAC was determined by use of the tail clamp technique. A loading dose of lidocaine (2.0 mg/kg, IV) was administered followed by a CRI of lidocaine at 50 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined. Another loading dose was administered, and the lidocaine CRI then was increased to 100 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined again. Plasma samples were obtained for lidocaine analysis after each MAC determination.

Results—Baseline isoflurane MAC was 2.09%, which was similar to previously reported values in this species. Lidocaine CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min induced significant reductions in MAC. The 50 μg/kg/min CRI resulted in a mean plasma lidocaine concentration of 0.654 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 10.5%. The 100 μg/kg/min CRI of lidocaine resulted in a mean plasma concentration of 1.578 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 21.7%. Lidocaine also induced significant decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. All cardiopulmonary variables were within reference ranges for rabbits anesthetized with inhalation anesthetics. No adverse effects were detected; all rabbits had an uncomplicated recovery from anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lidocaine administered as a CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min decreased isoflurane MAC in rabbits. The IV administration of lidocaine may be a useful adjunct in anesthesia of rabbits.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess rheological properties and in vitro diffusion of poloxamer 407 (P407) and butorphanol-P407 (But-P407) hydrogels and to develop a sustained-release opioid formulation for use in birds.

SAMPLE P407 powder and a commercially available injectable butorphanol tartrate formulation (10 mg/mL).

PROCEDURES P407 and But-P407 gels were compounded by adding water or butorphanol to P407 powder. Effects of various concentrations of P407 (20%, 25% and 30% [{weight of P407/weight of diluent} × 100]), addition of butorphanol, and sterilization through a microfilter on rheological properties of P407 were measured by use of a rheometer. In vitro diffusion of butorphanol from But-P407 25% through a biological membrane was compared with that of a butorphanol solution.

RESULTS P407 20% and 25% formulations were easily compounded, whereas it was difficult to obtain a homogenous P407 30% formulation. The P407 was a gel at avian body temperature, although its viscosity was lower than that at mammalian body temperature. The But-P407 25% formulation (butorphanol concentration, 8.3 mg/mL) was used for subsequent experiments. Addition of butorphanol to P407 as well as microfiltration did not significantly affect viscosity. Butorphanol diffused in vitro from But-P407, and its diffusion was slower than that from a butorphanol solution.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE But-P407 25% had in vitro characteristics that would make it a good candidate for use as a sustained-release analgesic medication. Further studies are needed to characterize the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of But-P407 25% in vivo before it can be recommended for use in birds.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of injectable dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) and isoflurane inhalation (ISO) anesthetic protocols on selected ocular variables in captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; BTPDs).

ANIMALS

9 zoo-kept BTPDs.

PROCEDURES

The BTPDs received dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg, IM), ketamine hydrochloride (40 mg/kg, IM), and midazolam hydrochloride (1.5 mg/kg, IM) or inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen in a randomized complete crossover design (2-day interval between anesthetic episodes). Pupil size, globe position, tear production, and intraocular pressure measurements were recorded at 5, 30, and 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. For each BTPD, a phenol red thread test was performed in one randomly selected eye and a modified Schirmer tear test I was performed in the other eye. Intraocular pressure was measured by rebound tonometry.

RESULTS

Compared with findings for the DKM protocol, pupil size was smaller at all time points when the BTPDs underwent the ISO protocol. Globe position remained central during anesthesia with the DKM protocol, whereas it varied among central, ventromedial, and ventrolateral positions during anesthesia with the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure decreased significantly over time when the BTPDs underwent either protocol.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that ophthalmic examination findings for anesthetized BTPDs can be influenced by the anesthetic protocol used. The DKM protocol may result in more consistent pupil size and globe position, compared with that achieved by use of the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure measurements should be conducted promptly after induction of anesthesia to avoid the effect of anesthetic episode duration on these variables.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica).

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult parrots (4 males and 4 females).

PROCEDURES

In a randomized crossover study, each bird received hydromorphone (0.1, 1, and 2 mg/kg) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/kg; control) IM, with a 7-day interval between treatments. Each bird was assigned an agitation-sedation score, and the thermal foot withdrawal threshold (TFWT) was measured at predetermined times before and after treatment administration. Adverse effects were also monitored. The TFWT, agitation-sedation score, and proportion of birds that developed adverse effects were compared among treatments over time.

RESULTS

Compared with the mean TFWT for the control treatment, the mean TFWT was significantly increased at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hours and 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after administration of the 1- and 2-mg/kg hydromorphone doses, respectively. Significant agitation was observed at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hours after administration of the 1 - and 2-mg/kg hydromorphone doses. Other adverse effects observed after administration of the 1- and 2-mg/kg doses included miosis, ataxia, and nausea-like behavior (opening the beak and moving the tongue back and forth).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although the 1- and 2-mg/kg hydromorphone doses appeared to have antinociceptive effects, they also caused agitation, signs of nausea, and ataxia. Further research is necessary to evaluate administration of lower doses of hydromorphone and other types of stimulation to better elucidate the analgesic and adverse effects of the drug in psittacine species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM administration to cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).

ANIMALS 16 healthy adult cockatiels.

PROCEDURES During the first of 2 study phases, each cockatiel received each of 4 treatments (hydromorphone at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg and saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [0.33 mL/kg; control], IM), with a 14-day interval between treatments. For each bird, foot withdrawal to a thermal stimulus was determined following assignment of an agitation-sedation score at predetermined times before and for 6 hours after each treatment. During the second phase, a subset of 12 birds received hydromorphone (0.6 mg/kg, IM), and blood samples were collected at predetermined times for 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone concentration was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental analysis of sparse data was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters.

RESULTS Thermal withdrawal response did not differ among the 4 treatment groups at any time. Agitation-sedation scores following administration of the 0.3-and 0.6-mg/kg doses of hydromorphone differed significantly from those treated with saline solution and suggested the drug had a sedative effect. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 3 to 6 hours after drug administration in all birds.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that IM administration of hydromorphone at the evaluated doses did not increase the thermal withdrawal threshold of cockatiels despite plasma drug concentrations considered therapeutic for other species. Further research is necessary to evaluate the analgesic effects of hydromorphone in cockatiels.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research