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Abstract

Case Description—A 14-year-old Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) was evaluated for an acute onset of falling off of its perch and tonic-clonic movements.

Clinical Findings—Clinical signs were consistent with partial seizures. Findings on whole-body radiography, CBC, and plasma biochemical analysis were unremarkable. Plasma magnesium, ionized calcium, and bile acids concentrations were within reference limits. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the head revealed the presence of a focal hyperintensity at the central to left side of the optic chiasm and a hyperintense focus in the right side of the midbrain area in T2-weighted and FLAIR pulse sequence images. These findings were most consistent with an acute ischemic stroke with 2 brain infarcts.

Treatment and Outcome—Seizures were initially managed with potassium bromide and phenobarbital administration. On the basis of poor results and difficulties to reach therapeutic blood concentrations, the treatment plan was changed to levetiracetam and zonisamide administration. Blood concentrations were monitored for both drugs, and the frequency of seizures substantially decreased thereafter. A follow-up MRI examination 2 months later revealed resolution of the hyperintense signals. During the 20-month follow-up period, subsequent clusters of seizures were managed by adjusting levetiracetam and zonisamide dosages and adding clonazepam and gabapentin administration to the treatment plan. Regression of intraparenchymal hyperintense lesions and improvement of clinical signs made a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke most likely.

Clinical Relevance—Findings for this Congo African grey parrot indicated that an antemortem diagnosis of an acute ischemic stroke followed by long-term seizure management may be possible in affected psittacines.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old female pigeon was evaluated because of a 5-day history of lower than typical activity level, weight loss, and polyuria.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Whole-body radiography revealed a linear metallic foreign body in the area of the ventriculus. Fluoroscopy followed by contrast-enhanced CT was performed to further characterize the lesion location, revealing that the foreign body had perforated the ventral aspect of the ventriculus wall and that the ventral extremity of the foreign body was surrounded by a mass, consistent with a granuloma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME A midline celiotomy was performed, and a large granuloma was identified ventral to the ventriculus, adherent to the dorsal aspect of the keel bone. The metallic foreign body (a nail) was removed, and the content of the granuloma was debrided. Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (150 mg/kg [68.2 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 10 days), meloxicam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 5 days), and sucralfate (100 mg/kg [45 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h for 10 days) were prescribed. The pigeon made a successful recovery and was still doing well at a 1-year recheck evaluation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although traumatic gastritis in pigeons has been reported, use of advanced diagnostic imaging for the pigeon of this report facilitated identification of the precise nature of the lesion and, therefore, surgical planning. The outcome for this pigeon suggested that successful resolution of traumatic gastritis may be possible in other affected birds with surgery.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory laparotomy confirmed a diagnosis of small intestinal entrapment and 170° volvulus involving approximately 80% (20 to 30 cm) of the small intestine. The portion of the small intestine extending from the middle portion of the duodenum to the caudal extent of the ileum was resected, and end-to-end anastomosis of the remaining small intestine was performed. The iguana recovered without apparent complications and was reportedly doing well 1 year after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that iguanas, as hindgut fermenters, may tolerate > 70% resection of the small intestine with a good outcome and no clinical evidence of residual gastrointestinal dysfunction.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 5.5-year-old 0.929-kg spayed female domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) underwent serial abdominal ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic examinations after multiple renal cysts were detected bilaterally during a routine examination.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The ferret was apparently healthy at the start of the monitoring period and had no clinical signs for > 20 months. Four months after the initial examination, the largest cyst became increasingly mineralized; 17 months after detection, it had increased in size and become amorphous, and the ferret’s plasma BUN concentration was mildly high. Within 21 months after the first visit, a nodule was detectable, and hydronephrosis developed in the kidney with the largest cyst. Findings for fine-needle aspirates from the nodule were consistent with renal carcinoma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Contrast-enhanced CT revealed severe unilateral nephromegaly with no contrast uptake in the affected ureter. Following surgical removal of the affected kidney, histologic examination identified renal adenocarcinoma replacing the entire renal cortex and medulla. The ferret was euthanized postoperatively because of declining condition. On necropsy, metastasis to a mesenteric lymph node was identified; comorbidities included 2 other neoplasms and acute, severe injury of the contralateral kidney.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Neoplastic transformation of a renal cyst was suspected in the ferret of this report on the basis of observed ultrasonographic changes over time and extensive infiltration of the neoplasm throughout the affected kidney. Renal cysts are linked to renal neoplasia in other species, and the findings for this patient supported the need for periodic monitoring of renal cysts in ferrets.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To evaluate a carrageenan-induced inflammatory model in the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) using weight-bearing load, rotational perch locomotion, thermal threshold withdrawal, and footpad dimensions.

ANIMALS

16 adult cockatiels (8 males and 8 females).

PROCEDURES

Cockatiels were randomly assigned into 2 groups as either treatment (carrageenan injection; n = 8) or control (handling only; 8). Treatment of cockatiels involved unilateral subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mL of 1% lambda carrageenan solution into the left footpad. Control birds were handled in a similar manner without an injection. Following baseline measurements and treatment or control procedures, posttreatment measurements at multiple time points involving weight-bearing perch load (for up to 336 hours), locomotive abilities when placed on a rotating perch (for up to 96 hours), thermal withdrawal threshold (for the 24- to 30-hour period), and both vertical and horizontal left footpad size and degree of swelling (for up to 84 days) were obtained.

RESULTS

Treatment cockatiels had a significant decrease in left foot weight-bearing load and increase in left footpad dimensions and swelling grade over time compared to control cockatiels. Rotational perch locomotion and thermal withdrawal threshold, conversely, did not differ significantly between groups. Cockatiels injected with carrageenan returned to normal weight-bearing within 2 weeks; however, left footpad dimensions did not return to baseline.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Carrageenan footpad injection prompts a measurable and grossly visible inflammatory response in the cockatiel. Additionally, it induces alterations in weight-bearing distribution in injected birds. This model provides a method to evaluate inflammation and lameness in small psittacine species.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare stress markers, gastrointestinal motility, and behavioral indicators of pain between guinea pigs undergoing pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide (CO2) and control guinea pigs.

ANIMALS

Fourteen 4- to 5-month-old intact female Hartley guinea pigs.

PROCEDURES

Guinea pigs were randomized to receive insufflation or serve as controls (anesthesia and abdominal catheter placement without insufflation), with 7 animals/group. Insufflated animals underwent 6 mm Hg of CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 30 minutes. Afterward, results for vital signs, blood glucose, fecal cortisol, appetite, fecal output, and behaviors (via video recording) were compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

There was no difference between groups and over time for body temperature, heart rate, fecal output in grams, pellets consumed, blood glucose, and fecal cortisol. Guinea pigs that underwent insufflation had significantly more fecal pellets at 36 hours after the procedure. Several behaviors were expressed similarly between groups and over time, such as body turns, incomplete movement, rearing, lying down, drinking, and hiding. Coprophagy occurred less often in the insufflated versus noninsufflated group at 12 h postprocedure but was similar between groups at other time points. At 60 hours after the procedure, insufflated animals spent less time squinting compared to noninsufflated animals. Other behaviors were differentially expressed over time but not between treatments.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Overall, there were no major differences in appetite, stress markers, and behaviors between insufflated and control guinea pigs. CO2 insufflation did not appear to cause undue pain or stress in guinea pigs and may be a reasonable technique to use during laparoscopy.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate pneumoperitoneal volumes (laparoscopic working space) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) undergoing pneumoperitoneum via carbon dioxide insufflation at different intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) (4, 6, and 8 mm Hg) and recumbencies (dorsal, right lateral, and left lateral).

ANIMALS

Six 3- to 4-month-old sexually intact female Hartley guinea pigs.

PROCEDURES

Guinea pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and had an abdominal insufflation catheter placed. A baseline abdominal CT scan was performed. Guinea pigs underwent insufflation, with each IAP given in a random order for 10 to 15 minutes with a washout period of 5 minutes between pressures. Abdominal CT scans were acquired at each IAP and at each recumbency. Pneumoperitoneal volumes were calculated using software.

RESULTS

Increases in IAP increased working space significantly (P < .001). The 6- and 8-mm Hg pressures increased working space from 4 mm Hg by 7.3% and 19.8%, respectively. Recumbent positioning (P = .60) and body weight (P = .73) did not affect working space. Order of IAP had a significant (P = .006) effect on working space. One of the guinea pigs experienced oxygen desaturation and bradycardia at 6- and 8-mm Hg IAP.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although an increased working space occurred at 6 and 8 mm Hg compared to 4 mm Hg, further research is needed concerning the cardiovascular effects of pneumoperitoneum in guinea pigs to determine whether those higher IAPs are safe in this species. An IAP of 6 mm Hg can be considered for laparoscopic cannula placement, followed by a lower IAP for laparoscopic procedures.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the agreement and reliability of cardiac measurements obtained with 3 echocardiographic techniques in anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

Animals—10 red-tailed hawks.

Procedures—Transcoelomic, contrast transcoelomic, and transesophageal echocardiographic evaluations of the hawks were performed, and cineloops of imaging planes were recorded. Three observers performed echocardiographic measurements of cardiac variables 3 times on 3 days. The order in which hawks were assessed and echocardiographic techniques were used was randomized. Results were analyzed with linear mixed modeling, agreement was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients, and variation was estimated with coefficients of variation.

Results—Significant differences were evident among the 3 echocardiographic methods for most measurements, and the agreement among findings was generally low. Interobserver agreement was generally low to medium. Intraobserver agreement was generally medium to high. Overall, better agreement was achieved for the left ventricular measurements and for the transesophageal approach than for other measurements and techniques.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Echocardiographic measurements in hawks were not reliable, except when the left ventricle was measured by the same observer. Furthermore, cardiac morphometric measurements may not be clinically important. When measurements are required, one needs to consider that follow-up measurements should be performed by the same echocardiographer and should show at least a 20% difference from initial measurements to be confident that any difference is genuine.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess rheological properties and in vitro diffusion of poloxamer 407 (P407) and butorphanol-P407 (But-P407) hydrogels and to develop a sustained-release opioid formulation for use in birds.

SAMPLE P407 powder and a commercially available injectable butorphanol tartrate formulation (10 mg/mL).

PROCEDURES P407 and But-P407 gels were compounded by adding water or butorphanol to P407 powder. Effects of various concentrations of P407 (20%, 25% and 30% [{weight of P407/weight of diluent} × 100]), addition of butorphanol, and sterilization through a microfilter on rheological properties of P407 were measured by use of a rheometer. In vitro diffusion of butorphanol from But-P407 25% through a biological membrane was compared with that of a butorphanol solution.

RESULTS P407 20% and 25% formulations were easily compounded, whereas it was difficult to obtain a homogenous P407 30% formulation. The P407 was a gel at avian body temperature, although its viscosity was lower than that at mammalian body temperature. The But-P407 25% formulation (butorphanol concentration, 8.3 mg/mL) was used for subsequent experiments. Addition of butorphanol to P407 as well as microfiltration did not significantly affect viscosity. Butorphanol diffused in vitro from But-P407, and its diffusion was slower than that from a butorphanol solution.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE But-P407 25% had in vitro characteristics that would make it a good candidate for use as a sustained-release analgesic medication. Further studies are needed to characterize the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of But-P407 25% in vivo before it can be recommended for use in birds.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of injectable dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) and isoflurane inhalation (ISO) anesthetic protocols on selected ocular variables in captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; BTPDs).

ANIMALS

9 zoo-kept BTPDs.

PROCEDURES

The BTPDs received dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg, IM), ketamine hydrochloride (40 mg/kg, IM), and midazolam hydrochloride (1.5 mg/kg, IM) or inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen in a randomized complete crossover design (2-day interval between anesthetic episodes). Pupil size, globe position, tear production, and intraocular pressure measurements were recorded at 5, 30, and 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. For each BTPD, a phenol red thread test was performed in one randomly selected eye and a modified Schirmer tear test I was performed in the other eye. Intraocular pressure was measured by rebound tonometry.

RESULTS

Compared with findings for the DKM protocol, pupil size was smaller at all time points when the BTPDs underwent the ISO protocol. Globe position remained central during anesthesia with the DKM protocol, whereas it varied among central, ventromedial, and ventrolateral positions during anesthesia with the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure decreased significantly over time when the BTPDs underwent either protocol.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that ophthalmic examination findings for anesthetized BTPDs can be influenced by the anesthetic protocol used. The DKM protocol may result in more consistent pupil size and globe position, compared with that achieved by use of the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure measurements should be conducted promptly after induction of anesthesia to avoid the effect of anesthetic episode duration on these variables.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research