Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially
available ELISA kit for detecting antibodies
against Borrelia burgdorferiin dogs.
Sample Population—Banked sera from 440 military
working dogs were used for serologic analyses.
Procedure—Serum samples were analyzed for antibodies
against B burgdorferi by use of a commercially
available ELISA and subsequently by western blot
analysis as a confirmatory test.
Results—Results from the ELISA indicated that 89
(20%) samples were positive for exposure to B
burgdorferi or canine Lyme disease vaccine, and 351
(80%) were negative. Follow-up testing by western
blot analysis indicated that results for 109 (25%) samples
were positive and 331 (75%) were negative for
exposure. All samples that had positive results on the
ELISA also had positive results on western blot analysis
(true positives). Of the 351 samples that had negative
results on the ELISA, only 331 had negative
results on western blot analysis (true negatives). The
remaining 20 samples had positive results on western
blot analysis. By use of a standard 2 X 2 table, it was
determined that the ELISA had a sensitivity of 82%,
specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%,
and negative predictive value of 94%.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The commercial
ELISA kit evaluated in this study appeared to lack
adequate sensitivity for detecting all potential cases of
borreliosis in dogs. The ELISA was also unable to discriminate
natural exposure from exposure attributable
to vaccination, which could complicate interpretation of
positive results and treatment of dogs with clinical
signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1418–1422)
Objective—To evaluate and compare characteristics of a commercially manufactured protamine zinc insulin (PZI) product and PZI products obtained from various compounding pharmacies.
Sample—112 vials of PZI (16 vials of the commercially manufactured product and 8 vials from each of 12 compounding pharmacies) purchased over an 8-month period.
Procedures—Validated methods were used to analyze 2 vials of each product at 4 time points. Appearance, endotoxin concentration, crystal size, insulin concentration in the supernatant, pH, total insulin and zinc concentrations, and species of insulin origin were evaluated.
Results—All 16 vials of commercially manufactured PZI met United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifications. Of 96 vials of compounded PZI, 1 (1 %) contained a concentration of endotoxin > 32 endotoxin U/mL, 23 (24%) had concentrations of insulin in the supernatant > 1.0 U/mL, and 45 (47%) had pH values < 7.1 or > 7.4; all of these values were outside of specifications. Several vials of compounded PZI (52/96 [54%]) did not meet specifications for zinc concentration (0.06 to 0.1 mg/mL for 40 U of insulin/mL, 0.075 to 0.12 mg/mL for 50 U of insulin/mL, and 0.15 to 0.25 mg/mL for 100 U of insulin/mL), and total insulin concentration in 36 [38%] vials was < 90% of the labeled concentration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Only 1 of 12 compounded PZI products met all USP specifications in all vials tested. Use of compounded PZI insulin products could potentially lead to serious problems with glycemic control in veterinary patients.
Objective—To use results of microscopic agglutination tests (MATs) conducted at a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory to determine temporal and demographic distributions of positive serologic test results for leptospirosis in dogs and identify correlations among results for various Leptospira serovars.
Study Population—MAT results for 33,119 canine serum samples submitted to a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory from 2000 through 2007.
Procedures—Electronic records of MAT results for dogs were obtained from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Seropositivity for antibodies against Leptospira serovars was determined by use of a cutoff titer of ≥ 1:1,600 to reduce the possible impact of postvaccinal antibodies on results. Correlations between results for all possible pairs of serovars were calculated by ordinal ranking of positive (≥ 1:100) antibody titer results.
Results—2,680 samples (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8% to 8.4%) were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. The highest percentage of positive MAT results was for the year 2007 (10.2%; 95% CI, 9.5% to 10.9%) and for the months of November and December during the study period. Antibodies were most common against serovars Autumnalis, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, and Bratislava. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis was lowest for dogs > 10 years of age but was similar across other age strata.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis can affect dogs of small and large breeds and various ages. Although an increase in proportions of positive MAT results was evident in the fall, monthly and annual variations suggested potential exposure in all months. Because of the limitations of MAT results and the limited number of serovars used in the test, bacterial culture should be used to identify infective Leptospira serovars.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2- and 3-year-old and career race performance of Thoroughbred racehorse prospects with and without osteochondral fragmentation of the accessory carpal bone (ACB) identified on yearling presale radiographs.
DESIGN Retrospective, matched cohort study.
ANIMALS 47 nonlame Thoroughbreds with (exposed cohort) and 94 nonlame Thoroughbreds without (unexposed cohort) osteochondral fragmentation of ACB facture identified on yearling sales repository radiographs.
PROCEDURES Repository radiographic interpretation reports for September yearling sales of a large Kentucky auction house from 2005 through 2012 were reviewed, and race records were collected and analyzed. Race performance was compared between horses with and without ACB fracture chosen from the same sale to identify associations between racing performance and ACB fracture.
RESULTS No significant differences were identified between horses with or without ACB fracture in their incidence of starting a race as a 2- or 3-year-old and the number of races started, earnings, or earnings per start for 2- or 3-year-old or career race performance. There was no significant difference in performance between horses with or without concurrent carpal osteoarthritis, nor did performance differ between horses with ACB fracture alone and those with ACB fracture and other radiographic abnormalities found to be associated with poorer performance in previous studies.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE ACB fracture with or without carpal osteoarthritic changes identified on repository radiographs of Thoroughbred yearlings was not associated with poorer racing performance or lower likelihood of starting a race as a 2- or 3-year-old, compared with outcomes for unaffected horses.
Objective—To characterize features of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome in horses with foreign bodies, exclusive of enteric, inhaled, and foot-penetrating foreign bodies.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—37 horses with foreign bodies.
Procedures—The incidence of equine foreign bodies from 1990 through 2005 was determined by review of data from veterinary schools participating in the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB). Medical records of horses with foreign bodies at Purdue University were reviewed, and the following information was retrieved: clinical history; signalment; results of physical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examinations; results of microbial culture of the draining tract or foreign body material; surgical findings; antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatments; and complications of the surgical procedure. Long-term follow-up information was obtained from owners or referring veterinarians.
Results—The incidence of foreign bodies in horses with records in the VMDB was 1730/10,000 horse admissions. A preoperative diagnosis of foreign bodies was confirmed via ultrasonography in most horses examined (15/17 horses) and with plain film radiography in a quarter of horses examined (7/24 horses). Wood foreign bodies were the most common (59%; 22/37), followed by metal (24%; 9/37), hair (8%; 3/37), nonsequestrum bone (5%; 2/37), and plant material (3%; 1/37). Postoperative complications associated with the foreign body were more likely to develop with wood foreign bodies (3/22) than with other types of foreign bodies (1/15).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Wood was the most common penetrating foreign body in the horses in our study and was the type associated with the highest incidence of complications. Ultrasonography was more effective in locating foreign bodies than was radiography (plain and contrast) and should be performed in all horses with suspected foreign bodies.
Objective—To determine causes for discharge of military working dogs (MWDs) from service.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Records of all MWDs approved for discharge from December 2000 through November 2004 were evaluated for cause of discharge.
Results—23 dogs had been obtained through the Department of Defense breeding program but had failed to meet prepurchase or certification standards. The remaining 245 (120 German Shepherd Dogs, 100 Belgian Malinois, and 25 dogs of other breeds) had been purchased as adults or obtained through the breeding program and had passed prepurchase and certification standards. Eighty-five of the 245 (34.7%) adult dogs were 1 to < 5 years old at discharge, and 160 (65.3%) were ≥ 5 years old at discharge. The proportion of adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (69.4%) was significantly greater than the proportion of adult dogs ≥ 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (38.1%). Within the subgroup of dogs ≥ 5 years old at discharge, median age at discharge for the German Shepherd Dogs (8.59 years) was significantly less than median age at discharge for the Belgian Malinois (10.61 years). For adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge, the most common cause for discharge was behavioral problems (82.3%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that longevity of service for MWDs may be influenced by breed differences and that selection criteria should be evaluated to reduce behavior-related discharge from service.
Objective—To describe use of transurethral cystoscope–guided laser lithotripsy for fragmentation of cystic and urethral uroliths and determine procedure duration and short-term and long-term outcome in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—73 dogs with naturally occurring uroliths in the urinary bladder, urethra, or both.
Procedures—Transurethral cystoscope–guided laser lithotripsy was performed in all dogs, and medical records were reviewed for short-term and long-term outcome and complications.
Results—Laser lithotripsy resulted in complete fragmentation of all uroliths in all 28 female dogs and a majority of male dogs (39/45 [86.7%]). Dogs with urethroliths had shorter median laser time than dogs with cystic uroliths. Basket extraction and voiding urohydro-propulsion were successful for removal of the urolith fragments following laser lithotripsy. Complications related to cystoscope-guided laser lithotripsy occurred in 5 of 28 (17.9%) female dogs and 6 of 45 (13.3%) male dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transurethral cystoscope–guided laser lithotripsy was successful in female dogs and most male dogs for fragmentation of cystic and urethral uroliths. Short-term complications were most commonly related to urethral swelling and resolved with placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. There were no long-term complications.
Objective—To determine causes of death or reasons
for euthanasia in a population of military working
Animals—927 military working dogs.
Procedure—Records of all military working dogs that
died during the period from 1993 to 1996 were evaluated
for cause of death or reason for euthanasia by
review of necropsy and histopathology reports, death
certificates, and daily clinical treatment sheets. A single
primary cause of death or euthanasia was determined.
Results—Although sexually intact male dogs were
more numerous in the study population, castrated
male dogs typically lived longer than spayed females
or sexually intact males. Leading causes of death or
euthanasia (76.3% of all dogs) were appendicular
degenerative joint disease, neoplasia, spinal cord disease,
nonspecific geriatric decline, and gastric dilatation-volvulus. Compared with German Shepherd
Dogs, Belgian Shepherd Dogs were at increased risk
for death attributable to neoplasia, behavior, and respiratory
tract disease. German Shepherd Dogs had
nearly twice the risk for death associated with spinal
cord diseases, compared with Belgian Shepherd
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For most military
working dogs, death or euthanasia results from a
few diseases commonly associated with advanced
age. Some breed differences in risk for these diseases
may exist, which clinicians should consider in the procurement
and long-term management of these dogs.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:209–214)
Objective—To compare the bone temperature and final hole dimensions associated with sequential overdrilling (SO) and single 6.2-mm drill bit (S6.2DB) methods used to create transcortical holes in the third metacarpal bones (MCIIIs) of horse cadavers.
Sample—60 MCIIIs from 30 horse cadavers.
Procedures—In phase 1, hole diameter, tap insertion torque, peak bone temperature, and postdrilling bit temperature for 6.2-mm-diameter holes drilled in the lateral or medial cortical region of 12 MCIIIs via each of three 2-bit SO methods with a single pilot hole (diameter, 3.2, 4.5, or 5.5 mm) and the S6.2DB method were compared. In phase 2, 6.2-mm-diameter transcortical holes were drilled via a 2-bit SO method (selected from phase 1), a 4-bit SO method, or a S6.2DB method at 1 of 3 locations in 48 MCIIIs; peak bone temperature during drilling, drill bit temperature immediately following drilling, and total drilling time were recorded for comparison.
Results—Hole diameter or tap insertion torque did not differ among phase 1 groups. Mean ± SD maximum bone temperature increases at the cis and trans cortices were significantly less for the 4-bit SO method (3.64 ± 2.01°C and 8.58 ± 3.82°C, respectively), compared with the S6.2DB method (12.00 ± 7.07°C and 13.19 ± 7.41°C, respectively). Mean drilling time was significantly longer (142.9 ± 37.8 seconds) for the 4-bit SO method, compared with the S6.2DB method (49.7 ± 24.3 seconds).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with a S6.2DB method, use of a 4-bit SO method to drill transcortical holes in cadaveric equine MCIIIs resulted in smaller bone temperature increases without affecting hole accuracy.
Objective—To determine the effect of 2 hydroxyapatite pin coatings on heat generated at the bone-pin interface and torque required for insertion of transfixation pins into cadaveric equine third metacarpal bone.
Sample Population—Third metacarpal bone pairs from 27 cadavers of adult horses.
Procedures—Peak temperature of the bone at the cis-cortex and the hardware and pin at the trans-cortex was measured during insertion of a plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (PSHA)—coated, biomimetic hydroxyapatite (BMHA)—coated, or uncoated large animal transfixation pin. End-insertional torque was measured for each pin. The bone-pin interface was examined grossly and histologically for damage to the bone and coating.
Results—The BMHA-coated transfixation pins had similar insertion characteristics to uncoated pins. The PSHA-coated pins had greater mean peak bone temperature at the cis-cortex and greater peak temperature at the trans-cortex (70.9 ± 6.4°C) than the uncoated pins (38.7 ± 8.4°C). The PSHA-coated pins required more insertional torque (10,380 ± 5,387.8 Nmm) than the BMHA-coated pins (5,123.3 ± 2,296.9 Nmm). Four of the PSHA-coated pins became immovable after full insertion, and 1 gross fracture occurred during insertion of this type of pin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The PSHA coating was not feasible for use without modification of presently available pin hardware. The BMHA-coated pins performed similarly to uncoated pins. Further testing is required in an in vivo model to determine the extent of osteointegration associated with the BMHA-coated pins in equine bone.