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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether urine protein-to-creatinine (UP:C) ratio assessment provides an estimate of urine protein excretion (UPE) over a 24-hour period in horses and ponies, establish a preliminary UP:C ratio reference range, and determine UP:C ratio variation over time in healthy equids.

Animals—11 female horses and 6 female ponies.

Procedures—Urine was collected from all equids at 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Total 24-hour UPE (mg of protein/kg of body weight) and UP:C ratio were determined; these variables were also assessed in aliquots of urine collected at 4-hour intervals. On 2 additional days, urine samples were also obtained from 6 horses (1 sample/horse/d) to determine day-to-day variation in UP:C ratio. Correlation between 4-hour or 24-hour UPE and UP:C ratio values was assessed. Reference ranges for 24-hour UPE, 24-hour UP:C ratio, and 4-hour UP:C ratios were calculated as central 95th percentiles of observed values.

Results—Mean 24-hour UPE (4.28 ± 2.99 mg/kg) and 24-hour UP:C ratio (0.0 to 0.37) had excellent correlation (R = 0.826; P < 0.001) in both horses and ponies; analysis of 4-hour data also revealed good correlation (R = 0.782; P < 0.001) with these variables. Calculated UPE and UP:C ratio reference ranges were similar to established ranges in other species. Day-to-day variability in UP:C ratio was minimal, and all results were within the reference range calculated by use of the 24-hour urine samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Assessment of the UP:C ratio appears to be a reliable method for estimating 24-hour UPE in horses and ponies.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop a model of hip joint synovitis on the basis of intra-articular injection of a sodium urate suspension in dogs and to characterize associated gait changes.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs.

PROCEDURES Each dog was sedated, and synovitis was induced by injection of 1 mL of a sodium urate suspension (20 mg/mL) into the right hip joint under ultrasonographic guidance. Observational and instrumented gait analyses to determine temporospatial, kinetic, and kinematic variables were performed prior to and 4, 8, and 24 hours after sedation and synovitis induction.

RESULTS Injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs resulted in lameness of the ipsilateral pelvic limb as determined by observational and instrumented gait analyses. For all dogs, lameness was clinically detectable within 1.5 to 2 hours after injection, reached its maximum intensity at 4 hours after injection, and had subsided by 24 hours after injection.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs reliably induced synovitis and signs of pain and lameness in the ipsilateral pelvic limb that lasted 24 hours. This model can be used in conjunction with instrumented gait analysis to provide information on gait changes associated with hip joint disease and might be useful for evaluating the efficacy of analgesics or other interventions for the treatment of hip joint disease in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize patterns of dog and cat ownership and veterinary service use among Latino dog and cat owners with various degrees of English-language proficiency.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional telephone survey.

SAMPLE

Data from 393 Latino pet owners.

PROCEDURES

Telephone surveys were conducted with Latino dog and cat owners from a random sample of US households to determine the number of dogs and cats owned, factors associated with veterinary service use, and satisfaction with veterinary care.

RESULTS

393 of 1,026 (38.3%) respondents were pet owners. Two hundred fifty-nine of 330 (78.5%) dog owners and 70 of 115 (60.9%) cat owners reported taking their pet to the veterinarian in the past 12 months, most commonly for vaccination or examination or because of illness. Respondents were most satisfied with veterinary care provided, least satisfied with cost, and moderately satisfied with quality of communication. English-language proficiency was not significantly associated with whether owners sought veterinary care. A large proportion of respondents who wanted to receive pet health information in Spanish described themselves as speaking English well or very well.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although having limited proficiency in English was not associated with Latino pet owners seeking veterinary care, opportunities exist for veterinary personnel to improve communications with these clients. Personnel can assess their clients' language needs by asking each about the language in which they would prefer to receive their pet's health information.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the preparedness of small animal veterinary personnel to communicate with Spanish-speaking pet owners with limited English-language proficiency (LEP).

DESIGN

Cross-sectional telephone survey.

SAMPLE

Data from 383 small animal veterinary practices.

PROCEDURES

Telephone surveys were conducted with veterinarians and office or practice managers from a random sample of US small animal veterinary practices in 10 states to estimate the number of Spanish-speaking pet owners with LEP visiting these practices, proportion of practices that used services to facilitate communication with Spanish-speaking clients with LEP, and degree of veterinarian satisfaction with their communication with those clients.

RESULTS

Responses were obtained from 383 of 1,245 (31%) eligible practices, of which 340 (89%) had Spanish-speaking clients with LEP and 200 (52%) had such clients on a weekly basis. Eight percent of practices had veterinary personnel who were conversant or fluent in spoken Spanish. Veterinarians who depended on clients' friends or family to translate were significantly less satisfied with client communication than were those who could converse in Spanish with clients directly. Availability of Spanish-speaking staff and offering of Spanish-language resources were associated with an increase in the number of Spanish-speaking clients with LEP seen on a weekly basis. Industry- and practice-generated Spanish-language materials were offered at 32% (124/383) and 21% (81/383) of practices, respectively; 329 (86%) practices had no Spanish-language marketing.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Opportunities were identified for improving communication with pet owners with LEP in the veterinary clinical setting, which could ultimately positively impact patient well-being and client compliance.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of eyelid manipulation and manual jugular compression on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement in clinically normal dogs.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—30 dogs (57 eyes) without diseases or medications that affect IOP.

Procedures—An applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP during eyelid manipulation or jugular compression. Six manipulations were used in each eye, including minimal eyelid manipulation, maximal dorsoventral extension of the eyelids, lateral eyelid extension, manual compression of the ipsilateral jugular vein, manual compression of both jugular veins, and lateral eyelid extension with manual compression of both jugular veins. Skull type and position of globe in the orbit were recorded.

Results—The 2 manipulations that caused the greatest significant increase in mean IOP were lateral eyelid extension with compression of both jugular veins (difference from baseline IOP, 17.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7 to 19.5 mm Hg) and lateral eyelid extension alone (16.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, 14.6 to 18.4 mm Hg). Dorsoventral eyelid extension (6.42 mm Hg; 95% CI, 4.5 to 8.3 mm Hg) and compression of both jugular veins alone (3.0 mm Hg; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.0 mm Hg) significantly increased mean IOP, compared with baseline. Compression of the ipsilateral jugular vein increased mean IOP (0.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, −1.6 to 2.2 mm Hg) from baseline, but not significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Traction on the eyelids or pressure on both jugular veins can significantly increase IOP values as measured by use of applanation tonometry in clinically normal dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the influence of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) graft augmentation on the biomechanical properties and resistance to gap formation in a canine gastrocnemius tendon repair model.

SAMPLE POPULATION

28 canine cadaveric hind limbs.

PROCEDURES

Respective hindlimbs from each dog were randomized to one of two groups (n = 14/group) using a 3-loop–pulley (3LP) pattern alone or 3LP + SDFT graft augmentation. Biomechanical parameters evaluated included yield, peak, and failure loads; tensile loads required to create 1- and 3-mm gap formations; and mode of construct failure.

RESULTS

Mean yield and failure loads for the 3LP + SDFT graft group were 483.6 ± 148.0 N and 478.3 ± 147.9 N, respectively, and were greater compared to the 3LP group (34.2 ± 6.7 N and 34.0 ± 8.0 N, P < .0001). Loads to both 1- and 3-mm gap formations for the 3LP + SDFT graft group were greater compared to 3LP alone (P < .001). Failure modes did not differ between groups (P = .120), with constructs failing most commonly by suture pulling through opposed tendinous tissues whereas SDFT grafts remained intact.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

SDFT graft augmentation increased yield, peak, and failure forces 14-fold across all examined biomechanical variables compared to the 3LP group. The 3LP + SDFT graft group required 3.6X and 6.5X greater loads to cause a 1- and 3-mm gap, respectively, between tendon ends. These data support the biomechanical advantages of SDFT graft augmentation to increase repair-site strength and to promote resistance to gap formation of the tenorrhaphy. Additional in vivo studies are required to determine the effect of SDFT augmentation on clinical function and active limb use after graft harvest in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of a double Krackow suture pattern (DK), with and without epitendinous suture augmentation (ES), in a canine gastrocnemius tendon (GT) model.

SAMPLE

Paired GTs from 12 adult dog cadavers and 4 control GT.

PROCEDURES

GTs were assigned to 2 groups (n = 12/group). Transverse tenotomy was performed and repaired with a DK or DK + ES. Yield, peak, and failure force, stiffness, occurrence of 1-and 3-mm gapping, and failure mode were examined.

RESULTS

Yield, peak, and failure loads were greater for DK + ES. Yield force was 48% greater for DK + ES (mean ± SD, 149.56 ± 53.26 N) versus DK (101.27 ± 37.17 N; P = 0.017). Peak force was 45% greater for DK + ES P < 0.001). Failure force was 47% greater for DK + ES (193.752 ± 31.43 N) versus DK (131.54 ± 22.28 N; P < 0.001). Construct stiffness was 36% greater for DK + ES (P = 0.04). All 12 DK and 10 of 12 DK + ES repairs produced a 1-mm gap, with all DK and 4 DK + ES repairs producing a 3-mm gap (P < 0.001). Loads required to create a 3-mm gap were significantly greater for DK + ES (P < 0.013). Suture breakage occurred in all DK repairs, which differed from DK + ES, where suture breakage (7/12) and tissue failure (5/12; P = 0.037) predominated.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Augmentation of a primary DK repair with an ES significantly improved construct strength in canine GT constructs while increasing loads required to cause 1- and 3-mm gap formation, respectively. ES augmentation is a simple technique modification that can be used to significantly increase construct strength, compared with DK alone.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the biomechanical properties and gapping characteristics following loop modification of a 3-loop-pulley (3LP) pattern in an ex vivo canine common calcaneal tendon (CCT) avulsion repair model.

SAMPLE

56 skeletally mature hindlimbs from 28 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES

The CCTs were randomized to 1 of 4 experimental groups (n = 14/group) then sharply transected at the teno-osseous junction. Groups consisted of a 3LP, 4-loop-pulley (4LP), 5-loop-pulley (5LP), or 6-loop-pulley (6LP) pattern with loops placed 60° apart using size-0 polypropylene. Yield, peak, and failure loads, construct stiffness, loads to produce a 3-mm teno-osseous gap, and failure mode were evaluated and compared between groups.

RESULTS

Yield (P = 0.001), peak (P < 0.001), and failure loads (P < 0.001), construct stiffness (P < 0.001), and loads to 3-mm gap formation (P = 0.005) were all significantly greater for 6LP compared to all other groups. Mode of failure did not differ among groups (P = 0.733) with 75% (42/56) of repairs failing by mechanism of core sutures pulling through the tendinous tissue. Pattern modification by increasing the number of loops increased the repair site strength by 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 times for 4LP, 5LP, and 6LP compared to 3LP, respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Increasing the number of suture loops compared to a traditional 3LP repair is a relatively simple technique modification that significantly increases teno-osseous repair site strength and loads required to cause 3-mm gap formation. The results of this study justify further focused investigation of increasing the number of suture loops in vivo for teno-osseous CCT repair in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine effects of bite depth for placement of an epitendinous suture on the biomechanical strength and gap formation of repaired canine tendons.

SAMPLE

48 superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) obtained from 24 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were assigned to 3 groups (16 tendons/group). Each SDFT was transected and then repaired with a continuous epitendinous suture placed with a bite depth of 1, 2, or 3 mm for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Specimens were loaded to failure. Failure mode, gap formation, yield force, peak force, and failure force were analyzed.

RESULTS

Yield, peak, and failure forces differed significantly between groups 1 and 3 and groups 2 and 3 but not between groups 1 and 2. Comparison of the force resisted at 1 and 3 mm of gapping revealed a significant difference between groups 1 and 3 and groups 2 and 3 but not between groups 1 and 2. Failure mode did not differ among groups; suture pull-through occurred in 43 of 48 (89.6%) specimens.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Increasing bite depth of an epitendinous suture toward the center of the tendon substance increased repair site strength and decreased the incidence of gap formation. Repair of tendon injuries in dogs by use of an epitendinous suture with bites made deep into the tendon should result in a stronger repair, which potentially would allow loading and rehabilitation to begin sooner after surgery. Suture techniques should be investigated in vivo to determine effects on tendinous healing and blood supply before clinical implementation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of a continuous locking novel epitendinous suture (nES) pattern with and without a core locking-loop (LL) suture on the biomechanical properties of ex vivo canine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) tenorrhaphy constructs.

SAMPLE

54 cadaveric forelimb SDFTs from 27 musculoskeletally normal adult dogs.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were assigned to 3 groups (18 SDFTs/group): sharply transected and repaired with a core LL suture alone (group 1), an nES pattern alone (group 2), or a combination of a core LL suture and nES pattern (group 3). All constructs underwent a single load-to-failure test. Yield, peak, and failure loads; gap formation incidence; and mode of failure were compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS

Mean yield, peak, and failure loads differed significantly among the 3 groups and were greatest for group 3 and lowest for group 1. Mean yield, peak, and failure loads for group 3 constructs were greater than those for group 1 constructs by 50%, 47%, and 44%, respectively. None of the group 3 constructs developed 3-mm gaps. The most common mode of failure was suture pulling through the tendon for groups 1 (12/18) and 2 (12/18) and suture breakage for group 3 (13/18).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested augmentation of a core LL suture with an nES pattern significantly increased the strength of and prevented 3-mm gap formation at the tenorrhaphy site in ex vivo canine SDFTs. In vivo studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness and practicality of the nES pattern for SDFT repair in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research