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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether treatment with selamectin would reduce clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) in dogs and cats housed in flea-infested environments.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—22 dogs and 17 cats confirmed to have FAD.

Procedure—Animals were housed in carpeted pens capable of supporting the flea life cycle and infested with 100 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on days –13 and –2 and on alternate weeks with 10 to 20 fleas. On day 0, 11 dogs and 8 cats were treated with selamectin (6 mg/kg [2.7 mg/lb]). Dogs were retreated on day 30; cats were retreated on days 30 and 60. All animals were examined periodically for clinical signs of FAD. Flea counts were conducted at weekly intervals.

Results—Throughout the study, geometric mean flea counts exceeded 100 for control animals and were ≤ 11 for selamectin-treated animals. Selamectin-treated cats had significant improvements in the severity of miliary lesions and scaling or crusting on days 42 and 84, compared with conditions on day –8, and in severity of excoriation on day 42. In contrast, control cats did not have any significant improvements in any of the clinical signs of FAD. Selamectin-treated dogs had significant improvements in all clinical signs on days 28 and 61, but in control dogs, severity of clinical signs of FAD was not significantly different from baseline severity at any time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that topical administration of selamectin, even without the use of supplementary environmental control measures and with minimal therapeutic intervention, can reduce the severity of clinical signs of FAD in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:639–644)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify hind limb and pelvic kinematic variables that change in trotting horses after induced lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and after subsequent intra-articular administration of anesthetic.

Animals—8 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedure—Kinematic measurements were made before and after transient endotoxin-induced lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and after intra-articular administration of anesthetic. Fourteen displacement and joint angle (metatarsophalangeal [fetlock] and tarsal joints) measurements were made on the right hind limb, sacrum, and the right and left tubera coxae. Kinematic measurements were compared by general linear models, using a repeated measures ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparisons between treatments were evaluated with a Fisher least squared difference test at α = 0.05.

Results—After lameness induction, fetlock and tarsal joint extension during stance decreased, fetlock joint flexion and hoof height during swing increased, limb protraction decreased, and vertical excursion of the tubera coxae became more asymmetric. After intra-articular administration of anesthetic, limb protraction returned to the degree seen before lameness, and vertical excursion of the tubera coxae became more symmetric.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased length of hind limb protraction and symmetry of tubera coxae vertical excursion are sensitive indicators of improvement in tarsal joint lameness. When evaluating changes in tarsal joint lameness, evaluating the horse from the side (to assess limb protraction) is as important as evaluating from the rear (to assess pelvic symmetry). (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1031–1036)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the impact of Mannheimia haemolytica infection on feed intake and weight gain in feedlot heifers and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of isoflupredone acetate administered in combination with oxytetracycline.

Animals—96 weanling heifers in a research feedlot facility.

Procedures—Bronchopneumonia was induced by intrabronchial infusion of M haemolytica. Control heifers underwent a sham procedure. Infected heifers were treated with oxytetracycline alone or in combination with isoflupredone acetate (OXY-ISO) or with nothing. Clinical variables were recorded daily for 7 days following disease induction, and feedlot performance indices were measured over a 12-week period.

Results—Infection caused a reduction in dry-matter intake and average daily gain (ADG) in heifers that received no treatment. Oxytetracycline treatment alone did not prevent reductions in feed intake and ADG during the first week after infection was induced, whereas OXY-ISO treatment did prevent these reductions. Treatment with OXY-ISO also resulted in faster clinical improvement. No significant differences were evident between the oxytetracycline and OXY-ISO groups with respect to dry-matter intake or ADG throughout the study period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isoflupredone acetate appeared to be a useful clinical adjunct to treatment with oxytetracycline in cattle with acute M haemolytica bronchopneumonia.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched diet, physical rehabilitation, or both on radiographic findings and markers of synovial inflammation in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and arthroscopic surgery for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disease.

DESIGN Randomized, prospective clinical trial.

ANIMALS 48 dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a dry omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched dog food formulated to support joint health (test food [TF]), a dry food formulated for adult canine maintenance (control food [CF]), TF plus rehabilitation, or CF plus rehabilitation after surgery. Synovial fluid prostaglandin (PG) E2 and interleukin-1β concentrations, radiographic osteoarthritis scores, osteotomy site healing, and patellar ligament thickness were assessed at predetermined time points up to 6 months after surgery.

RESULTS Dogs that received CF had significantly higher PGE2 concentrations over time following surgery than did dogs that received TF, regardless of rehabilitation status. Synovial fluid interleukin-1β concentrations did not change over time in any groups. Diet and rehabilitation were both associated with osteoarthritis scores, with significantly lower scores over time for dogs that received TF versus CF and for dogs that underwent rehabilitation versus those that did not. Proportions of dogs with complete osteotomy healing 8 and 24 weeks after surgery were significantly lower for dogs that received TF than for dogs that received CF, regardless of rehabilitation status.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that feeding the TF can result in lower synovial fluid PGE2 concentrations and that both the TF and rehabilitation can reduce progression of osteoarthritis in the 6 months following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy; clinical relevance of slower osteotomy healing in dogs fed the TF was unclear.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate costs associated with prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in preweaned calves on US beef cow–calf operations.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE 43 beef cow–calf producers whose operations had a history of BRD in preweaned calves.

PROCEDURES Mail and electronic surveys were developed and administered to producers in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota to obtain information regarding costs of BRD prevention and treatment. Descriptive statistics were generated. Mixed linear regression models were used to assess factors associated with the costs of vaccines, medicine, and labor and percentage time spent on prevention and treatment of BRD in cows, replacement heifers, and preweaned calves.

RESULTS 7 mail and 36 electronic surveys were completed. Median annual costs for BRD vaccines were $2.25, $4.00, and $6.25/animal, and median annual labor costs for vaccination were $4.58, $3.00, and $5.00/animal for cows, heifers, and preweaned calves, respectively. Median annual costs for medicine and labor to treat preweaned calves for BRD were $11.00 and $15.00/ affected calf, respectively. Adjusted mean annual BRD vaccine cost for preweaned calves ($7.67/animal) was significantly greater than that for cows ($3.18/animal) and heifers ($4.48/animal).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that labor costs associated with BRD vaccination and treatment were similar to or exceeded the cost of vaccines and medicine, and most of those labor costs were associated with gathering and sorting cattle. Therefore, costs associated with labor as well as medicine and vaccines should be considered during the development of BRD prevention and treatment plans.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the accuracy of automated readings of urine dipstick results for assessment of glucosuria in dogs and cats, compare visual versus automated readings of urine glucose concentration, and determine the utility of the urine glucose-to-creatinine ratio (UGCR) for quantification of glucosuria.

SAMPLE

310 canine and 279 feline urine samples.

PROCEDURES

Glucose concentration was estimated in 271 canine and 254 feline urine samples by visual assessment of urine dipstick results and with an automated dipstick reader. Absolute urine glucose and creatinine concentrations were measured in 39 canine and 25 feline urine samples by colorimetric assay with a clinical chemistry analyzer (reference standard for detection of glucosuria), and UGCRs were determined.

RESULTS

Automated assessment of the urine dipsticks yielded accurate results for 163 (60.1%) canine urine samples and 234 (92.1%) feline urine samples. Sensitivity of the automated dipstick reader for detection of glucosuria was 23% for canine samples and 68% for feline samples; specificity was 99% and 98%, respectively. Visual readings were more accurate than automated readings for both canine and feline urine. The UGCR was significantly correlated with absolute urine glucose concentration for both dogs and cats, yet there was incomplete distinction between dipstick categories for glucose concentration and UGCR.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Urine dipstick readings for dogs and cats were useful for ruling glucosuria in when the result was positive but not for ruling it out when the result was negative. The evaluated dipsticks were more accurate for detection of glucosuria in cats than in dogs. Visual dipstick readings were more accurate than automated readings. The UGCR did not appear to provide additional useful information.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine mortality rates for dogs with severe anaphylaxis and identify potential prognostic factors.

ANIMALS

67 dogs with suspected anaphylaxis graded as severe.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were classified on the basis of outcome as survivors and nonsurvivors. Medical records were reviewed, and data were extracted including signalment, examination findings, time to hospital admission from onset of clinical signs, CBC results, serum biochemical analysis results, coagulation testing results, and findings on abdominal ultrasonography. Initial treatment within the first 6 hours after hospital admission was recorded for analysis, specifically including the use of epinephrine, diphenhydramine, corticosteroids, antimicrobials, fresh-frozen plasma, and supplemental dextrose.

RESULTS

The overall mortality rate was 14.9% (10/67) for dogs with anaphylaxis graded as severe. Serum phosphorus concentration and prothrombin time (PT) were significantly higher in nonsurvivors, compared with survivors. Nonsurvivors had lower presenting body temperatures than survivors. Serum phosphorus concentration ≥ 12.0 mmol/L, hypoglycemia within 6 hours after hospital admission, high PT value, concurrently high PT and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) values > 50% above the reference range limit, and the need for supplemental dextrose were associated with death. The incidences of coagulopathy and peritoneal effusion were unexpectedly high (85.2% and 65.5% of dogs, respectively) but were not indicative of survival.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Despite the poor presenting clinical condition seen in dogs with severe anaphylaxis, the rate of survival with treatment was fairly high. Coagulopathy and the presence of peritoneal effusion were common findings in dogs with severe anaphylaxis. Serum phosphorus concentration ≥ 12.0 mmol/L, high PT value, concurrent increases of PT and PTT values > 50% above reference range limits, hypoglycemia within 6 hours after hospital admission, and the need for supplemental dextrose were associated with death.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 6-month-old male Bactrian camel was examined because of a 3-week history of lameness of the left hind limb.

Clinical Findings—Lameness was initially detected in the left hind limb but resolved and was detected in the right hind limb during treatment. Lameness increased during periods of rapid growth. Radiography revealed multiple small opacities of the medullary cavity of several long bones throughout treatment. Core bone biopsies of lesions in the tibiae revealed lamellar bone with areas of loose connective tissue, osteoblasts in the medullary cavity, and periosteal new bone formation, all which were consistent with panosteitis.

Treatment and Outcome—Palliative treatment was attempted with epidural and transdermal administration of analgesics. Flunixin meglumine was administered PO, which coincided with an abrupt increase in serum creatinine concentration. Performance of multiple diagnostic bone biopsies led to remission of clinical signs of pain.

Clinical Relevance—Panosteitis should be a differential diagnosis for shifting limb lameness in young camels. Bone biopsies can be useful for diagnosis of panosteitis and possible relief of pain associated with the disease. Bactrian camels may be susceptible to the renal toxicity of flunixin meglumine, especially when dehydrated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association