Objective—To determine mass, center of mass (COM), and moment of inertia (ie, body segment parameters [BSPs]) of hind limb segments by use of a noninvasive method based on computerized tomography (CT) in Labrador Retrievers with and without cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease and to provide regression equations to estimate BSPs of normal, CCL-deficient, and contralateral hind limbs.
Animals—14 clinically normal and 10 CCL-deficient Labrador Retrievers.
Procedures—Bone, muscle, and fat areas were identified via CT. Mass, COM, and moment of inertia were determined on the basis of tissue densities in the thigh, crus, and foot segments. Regression models were developed to determine predictive equations to estimate BSP on the basis of simple morphometric measurements.
Results—The thigh and crus of CCL-deficient limbs weighed less than in contralateral segments. Thighs weighed less in CCL-deficient than in normal limbs. The thigh moment of inertia was less in CCL-deficient than in contralateral limbs. The crural COM was located more distally in normal limbs, compared with other limbs. Predictive equations to estimate BSP varied by parameter, body segment, and limb status.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BSPs of the thigh and crus varied with segment and status of the hind limb in Labrador Retrievers with or without CCL disease. Equations to estimate BSP on the basis of simple morphometric measurements were proposed, providing a basis for nonterminal studies of inverse dynamics of the hind limbs in Labrador Retrievers. This approach may offer new strategies to investigate the pathogenesis of nontraumatic joint diseases.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the intracoelemic (ICe) dose of alfaxalone required to induce loss of righting reflex (LRR) in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) and to evaluate the tactile stimulus response in unanesthetized and alfaxalone-anesthetized snakes.
ANIMALS: 8 healthy mature garter snakes.
PROCEDURES: During the first of 3 phases, snakes received each of 3 doses (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) of alfaxalone, ICe, with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Times to LRR and return of righting reflex were determined after each dose. During phase 2, unanesthetized snakes underwent tactile stimulation testing with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments once daily for 3 consecutive days to determine the baseline tactile pressure required to elicit purposeful movement. During phase 3, snakes were anesthetized with alfaxalone (30 mg/kg, ICe), and the tactile pressure required to induce purposeful movement was assessed at predetermined times after LRR.
RESULTS: Intracoelomic administration of alfaxalone at doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg induced LRR in 0, 5, and 8 snakes, respectively. For snakes with LRR, median time to LRR following the 30-mg/kg dose (3.8 minutes) was significantly shorter than that following the 20-mg/kg dose (8.3 minutes); median time to return of righting reflex did not differ between the 2 doses. Mean ± SD tactile pressure that resulted in purposeful movement in unanesthetized snakes was 16.9 ± 14.3 g. When snakes were anesthetized, the mean tactile pressure that resulted in purposeful movement was significantly increased from baseline at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after LRR.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested ICe administration of alfaxalone might be effective for anesthetizing garter snakes.
Objective—To determine the safety and short-term efficacy of intrabursal administration of botulinum toxin type B (BTXB) to alleviate lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the podotrochlear apparatus (PA).
Animals—10 Quarter Horses with degenerative injury to the PA.
Procedures—Degenerative injury to the PA was confirmed with diagnostic analgesia and imaging. Then, BTXB (3.8 to 4.5 U/kg) was injected into the podotrochlear (navicular) bursa of each horse. Three horses were used in a safety evaluation. Subsequently, video recordings of lameness evaluations were obtained for 7 client-owned horses 5 days before (baseline) and 7 and 14 days after BTXB treatment and used to determine the effect of BTXB injection on lameness; 1 horse was removed from the study 8 days after BTXB treatment. Three investigators who were unaware of the treated forelimbs or time points separately reviewed the recordings and graded the lameness of both forelimbs of the horses.
Results—Improvement in lameness of the treated forelimbs was detected at 1 or both time points after BTXB administration in all horses. However, all horses had some degree of lameness at the end of the study. Two horses developed transient increases in lameness 48 to 72 hours after treatment; lameness resolved uneventfully.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intrabursal injection of BTXB temporarily alleviated chronic lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the PA, without causing serious short-term adverse effects. Further investigation into the potential use of BTXB in horses affected by degenerative injury to the PA is warranted.
To evaluate feline injection site-associated sarcoma (FISAS) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) cells in 3-D hydrogel-based cell cultures to determine chemosensitivity to carboplatin at concentrations comparable to those eluted from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (C-ICSH) beads.
2 immortalized cell lines, each from a histologically confirmed primary FISAS and FOSCC.
Hydrogels (10% wt/vol) were formed via UV exposure from methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin dissolved in PBSS. For each cell line, approximately 100,000 cells were encapsulated per hydrogel. Three cell-seeded 3-D hydrogels were evaluated for each carboplatin concentration (0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 µM) across 3 experiments. Drug efficacy was assessed by luminescence assay 72 hours after treatment. Growth of tumor cells treated with 300 µM or 600 µM carboplatin was evaluated using live-cell morphology imaging and confocal microscopy at 3, 7, and 14 days after treatment.
Mean half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for FISAS and FOSCC cells ranged from 123 to 171 µM and 155 to 190 µM, respectively, based on luminescence assay. Viability at 3, 7, and 14 days for both cell lines at 300 µM carboplatin was 50%, 25%, and 5% and at 600 µM carboplatin was 25%, 10%, and < 5%.
3-D hydrogel cell culture systems supported growth of feline tumor cells for determination of in vitro chemosensitivity. IC50s of each cell line were within the range of carboplatin concentrations eluted from C-ICSH beads. Cells from FISAS and FOSCC cell lines treated with carboplatin showed dose-dependent and time-dependent decreases in viability.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scores determined by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS) or a composite grading scale (CGS) for quality of recovery of horses from anesthesia and to investigate use of 3-axis accelerometry (3AA) for objective evaluation of recovery.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Horses were fitted with a 3AA device and then were anesthetized. Eight diplomates evaluated recovery by use of an SDS, and 7 other diplomates evaluated recovery by use of a CGS. Agreement was tested with κ and AC1 statistics for the SDS and an ANOVA for the CGS. A library of mathematical models was used to map 3AA data against CGS scores.
RESULTS Agreement among diplomates using the SDS was slight (κ = 0.19; AC1 = 0.22). The CGS scores differed significantly among diplomates. Best fit of 3AA data against CGS scores yielded the following equation: RS = 9.998 × SG0.633 × ∑UG0.174, where RS is a horse's recovery score determined with 3AA, SG is acceleration of the successful attempt to stand, and ∑UG is the sum of accelerations of unsuccessful attempts to stand.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Subjective scoring of recovery of horses from anesthesia resulted in poor agreement among diplomates. Subjective scoring may lead to differences in conclusions about recovery quality; thus, there is a need for an objective scoring method. The 3AA system removed subjective bias in evaluations of recovery of horses and warrants further study.