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Abstract

Objective—To assess the potential of adipose-derived nucleated cell (ADNC) fractions to improve tendon repair in horses with collagenase-induced tendinitis.

Animals—8 horses.

Procedures—Collagenase was used to induce tendinitis in the superficial digital flexor tendon of 1 forelimb in each horse. Four horses were treated by injection of autogenous ADNC fractions, and 4 control horses were injected with PBS solution. Healing was compared by weekly ultrasonographic evaluation. Horses were euthanatized at 6 weeks. Gross and histologic evaluation of tendon structure, fiber alignment, and collagen typing were used to define tendon architecture. Biochemical and molecular analyses of collagen, DNA, and proteoglycan and gene expression of collagen type I and type III, decorin, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and insulin-like growth factor-I were performed.

Results—Ultrasonography revealed no difference in rate or quality of repair between groups. Histologic evaluation revealed a significant improvement in tendon fiber architecture; reductions in vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltrate, and collagen type III formation; and improvements in tendon fiber density and alignment in ADNC-treated tendons. Repair sites did not differ in DNA, proteoglycan, or total collagen content. Gene expression of collagen type I and type III in treated and control tendons were similar. Gene expression of COMP was significantly increased in ADNC-injected tendons.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ADNC injection improved tendon organization in treated tendons. Although biochemical and molecular differences were less profound, tendons appeared architecturally improved after ADNC injection, which was corroborated by improved tendon COMP expression. Use of ADNC in horses with tendinitis appears warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify apoptosis in equine intestines and determine whether apoptosis is associated with gastrointestinal tract disease or a specific tissue layer of intestine.

Animals—38 horses that underwent surgery or were euthanatized for small or large intestine obstruction, strangulation, or distension and 9 control horses euthanatized for reasons other than gastrointestinal tract disease or systemic disease.

Procedure—Specimens were collected at surgery from intestine involved in the primary lesion and distant to the primary lesion site or at necropsy from several sites including the primary lesion site. Histologic tissue sections were stained with H&E, and apoptosis was detected by use of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling technique. The number of apoptotic cells per hpf was counted in the mucosa, circular muscle, longitudinal muscle, and serosa.

Results—Apoptotic nuclei were seen in all layers of intestine. An increased number of apoptotic cells was found in the circular muscle of the intestine from horses with simple obstruction, compared with strangulating obstruction or healthy intestine. Intestine distant from a primary strangulating lesion had higher numbers of apoptotic cells than did intestine distant from a simple obstructive lesion or intestine taken at the site of a strangulating or simple obstructive lesion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intestine from horses with obstructing or strangulating lesions in the small intestine and large colon had high numbers of apoptotic cells possibly because of ischemic cell injury and subsequent inflammation. Whether substantial apoptosis affects intestinal function is not yet known. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:982–988)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the precision of intradermal testing (IDT) in horses.

Animals—12 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—IDT was performed on the neck of each horse by use of 2 positive control substances (histamine and phytohemagglutinin [PHA]) and a negative control substance. An equal volume (0.1 mL) for each injection was prepared to yield a total of 20 syringes ([4 concentrations of each positive control substance plus 1 negative control substance] times 2 positive control substances times 2 duplicative tests) for each side of the neck. Both sides of the neck were used for IDT; therefore, 40 syringes were prepared for each horse. Hair was clipped on both sides of the neck, and ID injections were performed. Diameter of the skin wheals was recorded 0.5, 4, and 24 hours after ID injection.

Results—Intra- and interhorse skin reactions to ID injection of histamine and PHA resulted in wheals of uniform size at 0.5 and 4 hours, respectively. Significant intra- and interhorse variation was detected in wheals caused by PHA at 24 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ID injection of histamine and PHA caused repeatable and precise results at 0.5 and 4 hours, respectively. Concentrations of 0.005 mg of histamine/mL and 0.1 mg of PHA/mL are recommended for use as positive control substances for IDT in horses. This information suggests that consistent wheal size is evident for ID injection of control substances, and variation in wheals in response to ID injection of test antigens results from a horse's immune response to specific antigens. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1341–1347)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate differences in response to ID injection of histamine, phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and Aspergillus organisms between clinically normal horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

Animals—5 healthy adult horses and 5 adult horses with RAO.

Procedure—Intradermal testing (IDT) was performed on the neck with 2 positive control substances (histamine and PHA) and a mixture comprising 5 Aspergillus species. Four concentrations of each test substance plus a negative control substance were used. Equal volumes (0.1 mL) of each test substance were prepared to yield 15 syringes ([4 concentrations of each test substance plus 1 negative control substance] times 3 test substances) for each side of each horse (ie, 30 syringes/horse). Intradermal injections were administered; diameter of wheals was recorded 0.5, 4, and 24 hours after injection.

Results—Hypersensitive responses to ID injection of histamine were detected 0.5 hours after injection, and a delay in wheal formation after ID injection of Aspergillus mixture 24 hours after injection was detected in RAO-affected horses but was not observed in clinically normal horses. No differences were detected between the 2 groups after ID injection of PHA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—RAO-affected horses are hypersensitive to histamine, suggesting that RAO is associated with a heightened vascular response to histamine. Higher concentrations of Aspergillus mixture may be needed to detect horses that are sensitive to this group of antigens. Wheal reactions to Aspergillus may be a delayed response, suggesting that IDT results should be evaluated 0.5, 4, and 24 hours after ID injection. (Am J Vet Res2005;66:1348–1355)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona could be detected in CSF from clinically normal neonatal (2 to 7 days old) and young (2 to 3 months old) foals.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 clinically normal neonatal Thoroughbred foals.

Procedure—Serum and CSF samples were obtained from foals at 2 to 7 days of age and tested for antibodies against S neurona by means of western blotting. Serum samples from the mares were also tested for antibodies against S neurona. Additional CSF and blood samples were obtained from 5 foals between 13 and 41 days after birth and between 62 and 90 days after birth.

Results—Antibodies against S neurona were detected in serum from 13 mares and their foals; antibodies against S neurona were detected in CSF from 12 of these 13 foals. Degree of immunoreactivity in serum and CSF decreased over time, and antibodies against S neurona were no longer detected in CSF from 2 foals 83 and 84 days after birth. However, antibodies could still be detected in CSF from the other 3 foals between 62 and 90 days after birth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that antibodies against S neurona can be detected in CSF from clinically normal neonatal (2 to 7 days old) foals born to seropositive mares. This suggests that western blotting of CSF cannot be reliably used to diagnose equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in foals < 3 months of age born to seropositive mares. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:208–211)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To document ocular findings in cats with blastomycosis.

ANIMALS

35 cats with blastomycosis.

PROCEDURES

Medical records from 1978 through 2019 were reviewed to identify cats with confirmed Blastomyces infection. Cats were grouped as having or not having ocular involvement. Clinical signs, histopathologic findings, and response to treatment were evaluated.

RESULTS

21 of the 35 (60%) cats with confirmed blastomycosis had ocular abnormalities. Two of 21 cats with ocular abnormalities also had systemic hypertension and were excluded. Of the remaining 19 cats, 15 (79%) had bilateral ocular signs. Ten (53%) cats had inflammatory ocular lesions, and 9 (47%) had neuro-ophthalmic abnormalities. Six of the 19 (32%) cats appeared to be completely blind, and 5 (26%) appeared to be unilaterally blind. For the 10 cats with inflammatory ocular lesions, the most common lesions were anterior uveitis (9/20 eyes), active chorioretinitis (6/20 eyes), and retinal detachment (4/20 eyes). For the 9 cats with neuro-ophthalmic abnormalities, the most common abnormalities were a negative menace or tracking response (10/18 eyes) and negative pupillary light response (4/18 eyes).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that ocular involvement is common in cats with blastomycosis and that both inflammatory lesions and neuro-ophthalmic abnormalities can be seen. Blastomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for cats with anterior uveitis, posterior segment inflammation, or neuro-ophthalmic abnormalities, and a complete ophthalmic examination should be performed in all cats with confirmed or suspected blastomycosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 7-month-old 16.6-kg (36.5-lb) sexually intact female Golden Retriever was evaluated because of progressive severe bilateral membranous conjunctivitis, oral lesions, nasal discharge, and cough.

Clinical Findings—Histologic examination of conjunctival biopsy specimens revealed findings consistent with ligneous conjunctivitis. Circulating plasminogen activity was repeatedly low, and congenital plasminogen deficiency was identified as the underlying cause of the ocular, oral, and respiratory lesions.

Treatment and Outcome—Topical and subconjunctival administrations of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), topical administration of cyclosporine, and oral administration of azathioprine had no effect on the conjunctival membranes. Excision of the membranes followed by intensive treatment with topical applications of heparin, tissue plasminogen activator, corticosteroid, and FFP and IV administration of FFP prevented membrane regrowth. Intravenous administration of FFP increased plasma plasminogen activity to within reference limits, improved respiratory and oral lesions, and resulted in weight gain; discontinuation of this treatment resulted in weight loss, signs of depression, and worsening of lesions. After euthanasia because of disease progression, necropsy findings included mild hydrocephalus; multifocal intestinal hemorrhages; and fibrinous plaques in the oral cavity, nasopharynx, trachea, esophagus, and pericardium. Microscopically, the plaques were composed of fibrin and poorly organized granulation tissue. Fibrin thrombi were present within vessels in the lungs, oral cavity, and trachea.

Clinical Relevance—In dogs, congenital plasminogen deficiency can occur and may be the underlying cause of ligneous conjunctivitis. A combination of surgical and medical treatments may improve conjunctival membranes, and administration of FFP IV appears to be effective in treating nonocular signs of plasminogen deficiency.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of 2 preoperative anti-inflammatory regimens on intraocular inflammation following phacoemulsification.

Design—Randomized controlled trial

Animals—21 dogs with immature cataracts.

Procedures—All dogs had cataract surgery via phacoemulsification, and most received prosthetic intraocular lenses. Dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A dogs were treated topically with prednisolone acetate for 7 days prior to surgery, whereas prednisolone acetate treatment commenced the evening prior to surgery in group B dogs. Postoperative care was identical for both groups. Blood-aqueous barrier breakdown was quantified by use of anterior chamber fluorophotometry, with fluorescein entry into the anterior chamber measured 2 and 9 days after surgery compared with baseline scans obtained prior to surgery. Ophthalmic examinations were performed before surgery and 1 day, 9 days, 3 weeks, 7 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. A subjective inflammation score was established at each examination. Intraocular pressures were measured 4 and 8 hours after surgery and at each follow-up examination.

Results—There was no difference in the extent of blood-aqueous barrier disruption between the groups at 2 or 9 days after surgery. Subjective inflammation scores were also similar at most time points. Dogs in group A developed postoperative ocular hypertension at a higher frequency (60%) than did those in group B (18%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs that underwent cataract surgery via phacoemulsification, a full week of topical prednisolone acetate treatment prior to surgery did not decrease postoperative inflammation, compared with commencement of topical prednisolone acetate treatment the evening prior to surgery, and was associated with a greater incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe qualitative blinking patterns and determine quantitative kinematic variables of eyelid motion in ophthalmologically normal horses.

ANIMALS 10 adult mares.

PROCEDURES High-resolution videography was used to film blinking behavior. Videotapes were analyzed for mean blink rate, number of complete versus incomplete blinks, number of unilateral versus bilateral blinks, and subjective descriptions of blinking patterns. One complete blink for each horse was analyzed with image-analysis software to determine the area of corneal coverage as a function of time during the blink and to calculate eyelid velocity and acceleration during the blink.

RESULTS Mean ± SD blink rate was 18.9 ± 5.5 blinks/min. Blinks were categorized as minimal incomplete (29.7 ± 15.6%), moderate incomplete (33.5 ± 5.9%), complete (30.8 ± 13.1%), and complete squeeze (6.0 ± 2.8%); 22.6 ± 9.0% of the blinks were unilateral, and 77.3 ± 9.1% were bilateral. Mean area of exposed cornea at blink initiation was 5.89 ± 1.02 cm2. Mean blink duration was 0.478 seconds. Eyelid closure was approximately twice as rapid as eyelid opening (0.162 and 0.316 seconds, respectively). Deduced maximum velocity of eyelid closure and opening was −16.5 and 7.40 cm/s, respectively. Deduced maximum acceleration of eyelid closure and opening was −406.0 and −49.7 cm/s2, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Kinematic variables of ophthalmologically normal horses were similar to values reported for humans. Horses had a greater percentage of complete squeeze blinks, which could increase tear film stability. Blinking kinematics can be assessed as potential causes of idiopathic keratopathies in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A protocol for performing slit-lamp fluorophotometry of the anterior chamber in dogs was established. The technique was then used to develop a model of blood-aqueous barrier disruption that can be used for comparative testing of ophthalmic anti-inflammatory drugs. It was determined that barrier disruption induced by a slow, controlled paracentesis of a small volume of aqueous humor may provide the most reliable model for drug testing. Additionally, fluorophotometry proved to be a sensitive and accurate means of detecting breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research