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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether ticlopidine exerts an antiplatelet effect, estimate the pharmacodynamics of ticlopidine, and evaluate any acute adverse effects associated with administration of ticlopidine in cats.

Animals—8 domestic purpose-bred sexually intact male cats.

Procedure—Ticlopidine was administered orally (50 mg, q 24 h; 100 mg, q 24 h; 200 mg, q 24 h; and 250 mg, q 12 h). Each treatment period consisted of 10 days of drug administration. Platelet aggregation studies with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen and evaluation of oral mucosal bleeding times (OMBTs) were performed on days 3, 7, and 10 during each drug administration. Serotonin was measured to evaluate secretion at baseline and on day 10 for cats that received the 250-mg dosage.

Results—A significant reduction in platelet aggregation was detected in response to ADP on days 7 and 10 at 100 mg, on day 3 at 200 mg, and on days 3, 7, and 10 at 250 mg. A significant increase in the OMBT and decrease in serotonin release on day 10 at 250 mg was also detected; however, the cats had anorexia and vomiting at the 250-mg dosage.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although there was a consistent antiplatelet effect at the 250-mg dosage, there was dose-dependent anorexia and vomiting that we conclude precludes the clinical usefulness of this drug in cats. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:327–332)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the potential of adipose-derived nucleated cell (ADNC) fractions to improve tendon repair in horses with collagenase-induced tendinitis.

Animals—8 horses.

Procedures—Collagenase was used to induce tendinitis in the superficial digital flexor tendon of 1 forelimb in each horse. Four horses were treated by injection of autogenous ADNC fractions, and 4 control horses were injected with PBS solution. Healing was compared by weekly ultrasonographic evaluation. Horses were euthanatized at 6 weeks. Gross and histologic evaluation of tendon structure, fiber alignment, and collagen typing were used to define tendon architecture. Biochemical and molecular analyses of collagen, DNA, and proteoglycan and gene expression of collagen type I and type III, decorin, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and insulin-like growth factor-I were performed.

Results—Ultrasonography revealed no difference in rate or quality of repair between groups. Histologic evaluation revealed a significant improvement in tendon fiber architecture; reductions in vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltrate, and collagen type III formation; and improvements in tendon fiber density and alignment in ADNC-treated tendons. Repair sites did not differ in DNA, proteoglycan, or total collagen content. Gene expression of collagen type I and type III in treated and control tendons were similar. Gene expression of COMP was significantly increased in ADNC-injected tendons.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ADNC injection improved tendon organization in treated tendons. Although biochemical and molecular differences were less profound, tendons appeared architecturally improved after ADNC injection, which was corroborated by improved tendon COMP expression. Use of ADNC in horses with tendinitis appears warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe qualitative blinking patterns and determine quantitative kinematic variables of eyelid motion in ophthalmologically normal horses.

ANIMALS 10 adult mares.

PROCEDURES High-resolution videography was used to film blinking behavior. Videotapes were analyzed for mean blink rate, number of complete versus incomplete blinks, number of unilateral versus bilateral blinks, and subjective descriptions of blinking patterns. One complete blink for each horse was analyzed with image-analysis software to determine the area of corneal coverage as a function of time during the blink and to calculate eyelid velocity and acceleration during the blink.

RESULTS Mean ± SD blink rate was 18.9 ± 5.5 blinks/min. Blinks were categorized as minimal incomplete (29.7 ± 15.6%), moderate incomplete (33.5 ± 5.9%), complete (30.8 ± 13.1%), and complete squeeze (6.0 ± 2.8%); 22.6 ± 9.0% of the blinks were unilateral, and 77.3 ± 9.1% were bilateral. Mean area of exposed cornea at blink initiation was 5.89 ± 1.02 cm2. Mean blink duration was 0.478 seconds. Eyelid closure was approximately twice as rapid as eyelid opening (0.162 and 0.316 seconds, respectively). Deduced maximum velocity of eyelid closure and opening was −16.5 and 7.40 cm/s, respectively. Deduced maximum acceleration of eyelid closure and opening was −406.0 and −49.7 cm/s2, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Kinematic variables of ophthalmologically normal horses were similar to values reported for humans. Horses had a greater percentage of complete squeeze blinks, which could increase tear film stability. Blinking kinematics can be assessed as potential causes of idiopathic keratopathies in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona could be detected in CSF from clinically normal neonatal (2 to 7 days old) and young (2 to 3 months old) foals.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 clinically normal neonatal Thoroughbred foals.

Procedure—Serum and CSF samples were obtained from foals at 2 to 7 days of age and tested for antibodies against S neurona by means of western blotting. Serum samples from the mares were also tested for antibodies against S neurona. Additional CSF and blood samples were obtained from 5 foals between 13 and 41 days after birth and between 62 and 90 days after birth.

Results—Antibodies against S neurona were detected in serum from 13 mares and their foals; antibodies against S neurona were detected in CSF from 12 of these 13 foals. Degree of immunoreactivity in serum and CSF decreased over time, and antibodies against S neurona were no longer detected in CSF from 2 foals 83 and 84 days after birth. However, antibodies could still be detected in CSF from the other 3 foals between 62 and 90 days after birth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that antibodies against S neurona can be detected in CSF from clinically normal neonatal (2 to 7 days old) foals born to seropositive mares. This suggests that western blotting of CSF cannot be reliably used to diagnose equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in foals < 3 months of age born to seropositive mares. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:208–211)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate antiplatelet effects and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel in cats.

Design—Original study.

Animals—5 purpose-bred domestic cats.

Procedure—Clopidogrel was administered at dosages of 75 mg, PO, every 24 hours for 10 days; 37.5 mg, PO, every 24 hours for 10 days; and 18.75 mg, PO, every 24 hours for 7 days. In all cats, treatments were administered in this order, with at least 2 weeks between treatments. Platelet aggregation in response to ADP and collagen and oral mucosal bleeding times (OMBTs) were measured before and 3, 7, and 10 days (75 and 37.5 mg) or 7 days (18.75 mg) after initiation of drug administration. Serotonin concentration in plasma following stimulation of platelets with ADP or collagen was measured before and on the last day of drug administration. Platelet aggregation, OMBT, and serotonin concentration were evaluated at various times after drug administration was discontinued to determine when drug effects were lost.

Results—For all 3 dosages, platelet aggregation in response to ADP, platelet aggregation in response to collagen, and serotonin concentration were significantly reduced and OMBT was significantly increased at all measurement times during drug administration periods. All values returned to baseline values by 7 days after drug administration was discontinued. No significant differences were identified between doses. None of the cats developed adverse effects associated with drug administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that administration of clopidogrel at dosages ranging from 18.75 to 75 mg, PO, every 24 hours, results in significant antiplatelet effects in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1406–1411)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 7-month-old 16.6-kg (36.5-lb) sexually intact female Golden Retriever was evaluated because of progressive severe bilateral membranous conjunctivitis, oral lesions, nasal discharge, and cough.

Clinical Findings—Histologic examination of conjunctival biopsy specimens revealed findings consistent with ligneous conjunctivitis. Circulating plasminogen activity was repeatedly low, and congenital plasminogen deficiency was identified as the underlying cause of the ocular, oral, and respiratory lesions.

Treatment and Outcome—Topical and subconjunctival administrations of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), topical administration of cyclosporine, and oral administration of azathioprine had no effect on the conjunctival membranes. Excision of the membranes followed by intensive treatment with topical applications of heparin, tissue plasminogen activator, corticosteroid, and FFP and IV administration of FFP prevented membrane regrowth. Intravenous administration of FFP increased plasma plasminogen activity to within reference limits, improved respiratory and oral lesions, and resulted in weight gain; discontinuation of this treatment resulted in weight loss, signs of depression, and worsening of lesions. After euthanasia because of disease progression, necropsy findings included mild hydrocephalus; multifocal intestinal hemorrhages; and fibrinous plaques in the oral cavity, nasopharynx, trachea, esophagus, and pericardium. Microscopically, the plaques were composed of fibrin and poorly organized granulation tissue. Fibrin thrombi were present within vessels in the lungs, oral cavity, and trachea.

Clinical Relevance—In dogs, congenital plasminogen deficiency can occur and may be the underlying cause of ligneous conjunctivitis. A combination of surgical and medical treatments may improve conjunctival membranes, and administration of FFP IV appears to be effective in treating nonocular signs of plasminogen deficiency.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association