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Objective—To compare the effectiveness of preoperative PO and SC administration of buprenorphine and meloxicam for prevention of postoperative pain-associated behaviors in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—51 female cats (4 to 60 months old; weight range, 1.41 to 4.73 kg [3.1 to 10.4 lb]).

Procedure—Cats received 1 of 5 treatments at the time of anesthetic induction: buprenorphine PO (0.01 mg/kg [0.0045 mg/lb]; n = 10), buprenorphine SC (0.01 mg/kg; 10), meloxicam SC (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb]; 10), meloxicam PO (0.3 mg/kg; 10), or 0.3 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution SC (control group; 11). Sedation scores and visual analog scale and interactive visual analog scale (IVAS) pain-associated behavior scores were assigned to each cat 2 hours before and at intervals until 20 hours after surgery.

Results—Cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC had significantly lower IVAS scores (2.91 and 2.02, respectively), compared with IVAS scores for cats receiving buprenorphine PO (7.55). Pain-associated behavior scores for cats administered buprenorphine or meloxicam PO or SC preoperatively did not differ significantly from control group scores. Rescue analgesia was not required by any of the cats receiving meloxicam, whereas 3 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine PO, 2 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine SC, and 1 of 11 cats receiving the control treatment required rescue analgesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of pain-associated behavior scores, cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC before ovariohysterectomy appeared to have less pain after surgery than those receiving buprenorphine PO preoperatively. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1937–1944)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To examine changes occurring in normal pelvic suspensory ligaments (SLs) of horses after denervating these ligaments and to investigate the effect chronic inflammation might have on these changes.


10 horses.


The SL of 1 randomly selected pelvic limb of each of 5 horses was injected with collagenase to induce desmitis, and 42 days later, the proximal aspect of both pelvic SLs were denervated. The SLs were harvested 120 days after being denervated, and the morphological and histological characteristics of each collagenase-injected, denervated SL were compared with those of the contralateral, non-injected, denervated SL. All denervated SLs were compared with non-denervated pelvic SLs harvested from 5 horses similar in weight and age.


The mean width and the cross-sectional area of the musculature of all denervated SLs were significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. The mean thickness of collagenase-injected denervated ligaments, but not that of the non-injected denervated ligaments, was significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. Histological abnormalities typical of neurogenic muscular atrophy were observed in all denervated ligaments.


Loss of motor neuronal input to the proximal aspect of the SL of the pelvic limb of horses causes neurogenic atrophy of the musculature in that portion of the ligament. Denervating a SL of a pelvic limb may weaken the ligament, increasing its risk of injury. Chronic inflammation of the SL before neurectomy may exacerbate atrophy of the musculature after neurectomy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MACNM) in dogs.

ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MACNM (MACNM-B) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MACNM (MACNM-T) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MACNM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine.

RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MACNM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MACNM decreased from MACNM-B to MACNM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MACNM of sevoflurane in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To measure antibody titers against bovine coronavirus (BCV), determine frequency of BCV in nasal swab specimens, and compare calves treated for bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) between those given an intranasally administered vaccine and control calves.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—414 heifer calves.

Procedure—Intranasal BCV antigen concentration and antibody titer against BCV were measured on entry to a feedlot. Calves were randomly assigned to receive 3.0 mL of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine enteric coronavirus and rotavirus or 3.0 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Calves were confined to 1 of 2 pens, depending on vaccination status, for a minimum of 17 days of observation (range, 17 to 99). Selection of calves for treatment of BRD and scoring for severity of disease were done by veterinarians unaware of treatment status.

Results—Intranasal BCV (125/407 [31%]) and serum antibody titers ≥ 20 against BCV (246/396 [62%]) were identified in calves entering the feedlot. Vaccination was associated with significant decrease in risk of treatment for BRD; intranasal BCV on entry to the feedlot was associated with increased risk of treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that control calves with intranasal BRD on entry to the feedlot and those with antibody titer < 20 were significantly more likely to be treated for BRD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data provide further evidence of an association between BCV and respiratory tract disease in feedlot calves. An intranasally administered vaccine appeared to reduce risk of treatment for BRD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:726–731)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To create a mathematical model to assist in early prediction of the probability of discharge in hospitalized foals ≤ 7 days old.

Study Design—Prospective study.

Animals—1,073 foals.

Procedures—Medical records from 910 hospitalized foals ≤ 7 days old for which outcome was recorded as died or discharged alive were reviewed. Thirty-four variables including historical information, physical examination findings, and laboratory results were examined for association with survival. Variables associated with being discharged alive were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model. Accuracy of the model was validated prospectively on data from 163 foals.

Results—Factors in the final model included age group, ability to stand, presence of a suckle reflex, WBC count, serum creatinine concentration, and anion gap. Sensitivity and specificity of the model to predict live discharge were 92% and 74%, respectively, in the retrospective population and 90% and 46%, respectively, in the prospective population. Accuracy of an equine clinician's initial prediction of the foal being discharged alive was 83%, and accuracy of the model's prediction was 81%. Combining the clinician's prediction of probability of live discharge with that of the model significantly increased (median increase, 12%) the accuracy of the prediction for foals that were discharged and nonsignificantly decreased (median decrease, 9%) the accuracy of the predication for nonsurvivors.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Combining the clinician's initial predication of the probability of a foal being discharged alive with that of the model appeared to provide a more precise early estimate of the probability of live discharge for hospitalized foals.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association