Case Description—5 dogs, 1 goat, and 1 horse underwent percutaneous endovascular retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies between 2002 and 2007.
Clinical Findings—Foreign bodies were IV catheters in 4 dogs, the horse, and the goat and a piece of a balloon valvuloplasty catheter in 1 dog. Location of the foreign bodies included the main pulmonary artery (1 dog), a branch of a pulmonary artery (4 dogs), the right ventricle (the goat), and a jugular vein (the horse).
Treatment and Outcome—The procedure of percutaneous endovascular retrieval of the foreign body was easy to perform in all instances. One dog was euthanized 41 days after retrieval because of worsening of another disease process, and 1 dog had abnormal neurologic signs secondary to a brain mass. All other animals were clinically normal during the follow-up period (follow-up duration, 3 to 57 months). None of the animals developed long-term complications secondary to the foreign body retrieval procedure.
Clinical Relevance—Intravascular foreign bodies that result from catheters or devices used during minimally invasive techniques are rare but may cause substantial morbidity. Percutaneous endovascular retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies was easily and safely performed in the 7 animals reported here. Use of percutaneous endovascular retrieval techniques should be considered for treatment of animals with intravascular foreign bodies because morbidity can be substantially decreased; however, proper selection of patients for the procedure is necessary.
Case Description—A 12-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was evaluated for clinical signs associated with colorectal obstruction.
Clinical Findings—The dog had a 2-week history of tenesmus and hematochezia. On rectal examination, an annular colorectal mass was palpable extending orad into the pelvic canal. The original diagnosis of the colorectal mass was a mucosal adenoma. The dog was maintained on a low-residue diet and fecal softeners for a period of 13 months after initial diagnosis. At that time, medical management was no longer effective.
Treatment and Outcome—Placement of a colonic stent was chosen to palliate the clinical signs associated with colorectal obstruction. By use of fluoroscopic and colonoscopic guidance, a nitinol stent was placed intraluminally to open the obstructed region. Placement of the stent resulted in improvement of clinical signs, although tenesmus and obstipation occurred periodically after stent placement. At 212 days after stent placement, the patient had extensive improvement in clinical signs with minimal complications; however, clinical signs became severe at 238 days after stent placement, and the dog was euthanized. Histologic evaluation of the rectal tumor from samples obtained during necropsy revealed that the tumor had undergone malignant transformation to a carcinoma in situ.
Clinical Relevance—A stent was successfully placed in the colon and rectum to relieve obstruction associated with a tumor originally diagnosed as a benign neoplasm. Placement of colorectal stents may be an option for the palliation of colorectal obstruction secondary to neoplastic disease; however, clinical signs may persist, and continuation of medical management may be necessary.
To describe the clinical characteristics, procedural techniques, complications, and outcomes of dogs and cats undergoing any of the following modified hemipelvectomy techniques: concurrent partial sacrectomy and/or partial vertebrectomy, osseous excision crossing midline, and reconstruction without the use of local musculature.
23 client-owned animals (20 dogs and 3 cats) that underwent modified hemipelvectomy techniques. Animals that underwent traditional (nonmodified) hemipelvectomy techniques were excluded.
The medical records of 3 academic institutions were reviewed, and data were recorded and analyzed.
Modified hemipelvectomy was performed with partial sacrectomy and/or vertebrectomy in 11 dogs, excision crossing pelvic midline with concurrent limb amputation in 5 dogs and 2 cats, and closure without use of native muscle or mesh in 4 dogs and 1 cat. Surgery was performed for tumor excision in all cases. Excision was reported as complete in 16 of 23, incomplete in 6 of 23, and not recorded in 1 of 23 animals. All animals survived to discharge. Only animals undergoing partial sacrectomy/vertebrectomy (4/11) experienced postoperative mobility concerns. Major intra- or post-operative complications (grades 3 and 4) occurred in 2 dogs that underwent partial sacrectomy/vertebrectomy, and 1 of these animals experienced a complication that resulted in death. The median time to death or last follow-up was 251 days (range, 3 to 1,642).
The modified hemipelvectomy techniques reported in this cohort were overall well tolerated with good functional outcomes. These findings support the use of these modified hemipelvectomy techniques in dogs and cats, and previous notions regarding tolerable hemipelvectomy procedures should be reconsidered. However, additional studies with larger numbers of patients undergoing modified hemipelvectomy techniques are needed to gain more information.
To describe outcomes of small- and toy-breed dogs with a congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IHPSS) treated with percutaneous transvenous coil embolization (PTCE).
20 small- and toy-breed dogs with an IHPSS.
All dogs underwent CT angiography for shunt evaluation as well as PTCE. Medical records were reviewed for pertinent data, and owners and primary veterinarians were contacted for long-term follow-up information.
Dogs ranged from 1.5 to 10.0 kg (mean ± SD, 6.32 ± 2.57 kg) in weight. The equipment used to perform PTCE tended to be smaller than that previously described for larger breed dogs. Intra- and postoperative complication rates were 20% (4/20) and 5% (1/20), respectively, and included hypotension, bradycardia, hypercapnia, ventricular premature contractions, hypothermia, and regurgitation. Dogs were discharged a median of 3 days (range, 1 to 3 days) after surgery, and all dogs survived to discharge. Clinical signs resolved in 95% (19/20) of the dogs a median of 21 days after the procedure. One- and 2-year survival rates were 92%. Three dogs had died by the time of data collection; 2 of these dogs died of causes related to the IHPSS 267 and 1,178 days, respectively, after the procedure.
Percutaneous transvenous coil embolization was a safe and effective option for treatment of IHPSS in small- and toy-breed dogs and offered a minimally invasive alternative to open surgical techniques. Complication and survival rates in this cohort were similar to or better than those reported in previous studies evaluating PTCE and open surgical techniques for treatment of IHPSS in dogs.
4 cats (6 to 9 months old) were evaluated because of clinical signs consistent with a portosystemic shunt (PSS).
Among the 4 cats, 3 had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, head pressing, disorientation, and obtundation. One cat was evaluated because of urethral obstruction; a retrieved urethral stone was determined to have urate composition. Clinicopathologic findings (hypoproteinemia, low BUN concentration, and high serum bile acids concentration) were consistent with a PSS in all cats. A diagnosis of intrahepatic PSS (IHPSS) was made for all cats on the basis of ultrasonographic and CT findings.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
All cats underwent percutaneous transvenous coil embolization (PTCE). No major intraprocedural complications were encountered, and all cats were discharged from the hospital. For the 3 cats that were presented with neurologic signs, an evaluation performed at 12, 14, or 48 months after the procedure revealed resolution of the neurologic signs, and owners reported that the behavior of each cat appeared normal. One cat that initially had neurologic and gastrointestinal signs had lower urinary tract signs after PTCE and developed an acquired extrahepatic PSS.
Although IHPSSs in cats are uncommon, the outcomes of PTCE for the 4 cats of the present report suggested that this treatment may benefit cats with an IHPSS. No short-term complications were encountered, and all cats had improvement in clinical signs following PTCE, although an acquired extrahepatic PSS was later identified in 1 cat. Further investigation of the use of endovascular techniques for the treatment of IHPSSs in cats and other species is warranted.
To report the fluoroscopic removal or repositioning of urinary tract implants in dogs and cats by use of an endovascular snare system (ESS) and to report procedural usefulness and complications in dogs and cats.
3 cats and 14 dogs.
A medical records review was performed to identify dogs and cats that underwent removal or repositioning of urinary tract foreign bodies or implants by use of an ESS with fluoroscopic guidance at a veterinary teaching hospital from 2013 to 2019.
Dogs had a median weight of 25 kg (55 lb) with a range of 3.5 to 60.6 kg (7.7 to 133.3 lb), and cats had a median weight of 5 kg (11 lb) with a range of 4.2 to 5.4 kg (9.2 to 11.9 lb). By use of an ESS, 12 patients (2 cats and 10 dogs) underwent transurethral retrieval of retained vesicourethral implants or ureteral stents, 2 dogs underwent transurethral ureteral stent repositioning, 1 cat and 2 dogs underwent transnephric retrieval of ureteral stents, and 1 dog underwent cystoscopic-assisted transureteral ureteral stent retrieval. All procedures were successfully performed, and there were no associated procedural complications.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Retained vesicourethral implants or ureteral stents were successfully retrieved by use of an ESS in dogs and cats transurethrally or with an open or percutaneous transnephric approach and fluoroscopic guidance. These techniques should be considered as an alternative or adjunct to more invasive methods for implant retrieval or manipulation.
Case Description—An 11-year-old castrated male Vizsla was evaluated for excision of a cranial mediastinal mass.
Clinical Findings—The dog had a 1-month history of a cough that had recently increased in frequency. On physical examination, the dog had a grade 2/6 left systolic heart murmur and multiple subcutaneous masses. A soft tissue mass was observed in the cranioventral aspect of the thorax on radiographs. Results of a CT scan revealed a well-defined, 2.8 × 3.2 × 3.9-cm soft tissue mass in the cranial mediastinum.
Treatment and Outcome—The dog underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic removal of the mediastinal mass and recovered routinely. Histologic examination of excised tissues revealed malignant thymoma. Approximately 6.5 months after surgery, the dog was evaluated because of polyuria, polydipsia, decreased appetite, and vomiting. On physical examination, masses were found in both axillary regions. Results of serum biochemical analysis indicated hypercalcemia. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed pulmonary metastases and a large mass in the right caudoventral region of the thorax. The dog received supportive care and medical treatment for hypercalcemia, but clinical signs recurred. Euthanasia was elected; necropsy and histologic examination revealed thymic carcinoma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Descriptions of the development of portal site metastasis in canine patients are rare. In this patient, portal site metastasis developed rapidly after thoracoscopic resection of a malignant thymic mass and was associated with hypercalcemia. As use of thoracoscopic procedures increases in veterinary medicine, it will be important to monitor the development of major complications such as those in the patient of this report. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:793–800)
OBJECTIVE To describe the operative technique, complications, and conversion rates for laparoscopic liver biopsy (LLB) in dogs and evaluate short-term clinical outcome for dogs that underwent the procedure.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 106 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent an LLB with a single-port or multiport technique at either of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from August 2003 to September 2013. Demographic and laboratory data, preoperative administration of fresh frozen plasma, procedural and diagnostic information, intraoperative complications, and survival to discharge were recorded. The LLB specimens were obtained with 5-mm laparoscopic biopsy cup forceps and a grasp-and-twist technique.
RESULTS Prior to surgery, 25 of 94 (27%) dogs had coagulopathy (prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time greater than the facility reference ranges, regardless of platelet count). Twenty-one dogs were thrombocytopenic, 14 had ascites, and 14 received fresh frozen plasma transfusion before surgery. In all cases, biopsy samples collected were of sufficient size and quality for histopathologic evaluation. Two dogs required conversion to an open laparotomy because of splenic laceration during initial port placement. One hundred one of 106 dogs survived to discharge; 5 were euthanized during hospitalization owing to progression of liver disease and poor prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Single-port and multiport LLB were found to be effective, minimally invasive diagnostic techniques with a low rate of complications. Results suggested LLB can be safely used in dogs with underlying coagulopathies and advanced liver disease.
Objective—To describe complications associated with use of a subcutaneous vascular access port (SVAP) in cats and dogs treated with fractionated radiotherapy and to determine predisposing factors for developing these complications.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—46 cats and 126 dogs.
Procedures—The medical records of cats and dogs undergoing radiation therapy that received placement of an SVAP between March 1996 and August 2007 were reviewed. Data were recorded and analyzed to determine factors for development of complications associated with the use of an SVAP during treatment with fractionated radiotherapy.
Results—18 and 36 major and minor complications were identified, respectively. Sex and the lack of administration of propofol during anesthesia induction were significantly associated with development of major complications. Female cats and dogs were 5.00 times as likely as male cats and dogs to develop major complications associated with SVAP usage. Animals in which propofol was not administered were 19.15 times as likely as animals administered propofol to develop major complications. Placement of SVAP catheters in a femoral vein was 17.20 times as likely as placement in the jugular vein to result in minor complications.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Factors associated with the development of complications included sex, propofol administration, and vein in which an SVAP catheter was inserted. The use of an SVAP may be a useful alternative to repeated catheterizations in cats and dogs.
Objective—To identify causative organisms, treatment, outcome, and prognosis for dogs < 1 year old with community-acquired infectious pneumonia.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Dogs were considered to have community-acquired infectious pneumonia if they had clinical signs of primary respiratory tract disease in conjunction with radiographic evidence of alveolar disease and positive results following bacterial culture of tracheal wash fluid.
Results—Most dogs were hypoxemic at the time of initial examination, with pulmonary function becoming worse during the first few days of hospitalization before improving; 57 (88%) dogs survived to discharge. Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from tracheal wash fluid from 32 (49%) dogs, and other organisms, predominantly gram-negative enteric bacteria, were isolated from the other 33 (51%). Dogs with Bordetella pneumonia were significantly younger (median, 14 vs 21 weeks), were significantly more likely to have been obtained from a pet store (19/31 vs 7/32), had been owned for a significantly shorter time prior to the onset of illness (median, 18 vs 90 days), had significantly higher PvCO2 values at initial examination (median, 48.7 vs 41.3 mm Hg), were significantly more likely to receive supplemental oxygen (25/32 vs 16/33), and had significantly longer hospitalization times (mean, 7.2 vs 4.9 days) than did dogs with pneumonia caused by any other organism.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a type of community-acquired infectious pneumonia could be identified in dogs < 1 year old, with disease being more severe in dogs with Bordetella pneumonia than in dogs with pneumonia caused by other bacterial organisms.