Objective—To evaluate the effects of administration of a peripheral α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (L-659,066), with and without concurrent administration of glycopyrrolate, on cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine administration in dogs.
Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—Dogs received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (saline group), L-659,066 (group L), or L-659,066 with glycopyrrolate (group LG). These pretreatments were followed 10 minutes later by administration of medetomidine in a randomized crossover study. Hemodynamic measurements and arterial and mixed-venous blood samples for blood gas analysis were obtained prior to pretreatment, 5 minutes after pretreatment, and after medetomidine administration at intervals up to 60 minutes.
Results—After pretreatment in the L and LG groups, heart rate, cardiac index, and partial pressure of oxygen in mixed-venous blood (PvO2) values were higher than those in the saline group. After medetomidine administration, heart rate, cardiac index, and PvO2 were higher and systemic vascular resistance, mean arterial blood pressure, and central venous pressure were lower in the L and LG groups than in the saline group. When the L and LG groups were compared, heart rate was greater at 5 minutes after medetomidine administration, mean arterial blood pressure was greater at 5 and 15 minutes after medetomidine administration, and central venous pressure was lower during the 60-minute period after medetomidine administration in the LG group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of L-659,066 prior to administration of medetomidine reduced medetomidine-induced cardiovascular changes in healthy dogs. No advantage was detected with concurrent administration of L-659,066 and glycopyrrolate.
Objective—To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthetic induction with thiopental, propofol, or ketamine hydrochloride and diazepam in dogs sedated with medetomidine and hydromorphone.
Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—Dogs received 3 induction regimens in a randomized crossover study. Twenty minutes after sedation with medetomidine (10 μg/kg, IV) and hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg, IV), anesthesia was induced with ketamine-diazepam, propofol, or thiopental and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Measurements were obtained prior to sedation (baseline), 10 minutes after administration of preanesthetic medications, after induction before receiving oxygen, and after the start of isoflurane-oxygen administration.
Results—Doses required for induction were 1.25 mg of ketamine/kg with 0.0625 mg of diazepam/kg, 1 mg of propofol/kg, and 2.5 mg of thiopental/kg. After administration of preanesthetic medications, heart rate (HR), cardiac index, and PaO2 values were significantly lower and mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, and PaCO2 values were significantly higher than baseline values for all regimens. After induction of anesthesia, compared with postsedation values, HR was greater for ketamine-diazepam and thiopental regimens, whereas PaCO2 tension was greater and stroke index values were lower for all regimens. After induction, PaO2 values were significantly lower and HR and cardiac index values significantly higher for the ketamine-diazepam regimen, compared with values for the propofol and thiopental regimens.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomidine and hydromorphone caused dramatic hemodynamic alterations, and at the doses used, the 3 induction regimens did not induce important additional cardiovascular alterations. However, administration of supplemental oxygen is recommended.
Objective—To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of IV fentanyl administration in dogs during isoflurane anesthesia and during anesthetic recovery with or without dexmedetomidine or acepromazine.
Animals—7 sexually intact male purpose-bred hound-type dogs aged 11 to 12 months.
Procedures—Dogs received a loading dose of fentanyl (5 μg/kg, IV) followed by an IV infusion (5 μg/kg/h) for 120 minutes while anesthetized with isoflurane and for an additional 60 minutes after anesthesia was discontinued. Dogs were randomly assigned in a crossover design to receive dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg), acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL) IV after anesthesia ceased. Cardiopulmonary data were obtained during anesthesia and for 90 minutes after treatment administration during anesthetic recovery.
Results—Concurrent administration of fentanyl and isoflurane resulted in significant decreases in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac index and a significant increase in Paco2. All but Paco2 returned to pretreatment values before isoflurane anesthesia was discontinued. During recovery, dexmedetomidine administration resulted in significant decreases in heart rate, cardiac index, and mixed venous oxygen tension and a significant increase in arterial blood pressure, compared with values for saline solution and acepromazine treatments. Acepromazine administration resulted in significantly lower blood pressure and higher cardiac index and Po2 in mixed venous blood than did the other treatments. Dexmedetomidine treatment resulted in significantly lower values for Pao2 and arterial pH and higher Paco2 values than both other treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fentanyl resulted in transient pronounced cardiorespiratory effects when administered during isoflurane anesthesia. During anesthetic recovery, when administered concurrently with an IV fentanyl infusion, dexmedetomidine resulted in evidence of cardiopulmonary compromise and acepromazine transiently improved cardiopulmonary performance.
Objective—To assess accuracy and reliability of
open-flow indirect calorimetry in dogs.
Animals—13 clinically normal dogs.
Procedure—In phase 1, oxygen consumption per
kilogram of body weight (VO2kg) was determined in 6
anesthetized dogs by use of open-flow indirect
calorimetry before and after determination of VO2/kg
by use of closed-circuit spirometry. In phase 2, four
serial measurements of VO2 and carbon dioxide production
(VCO2) were obtained in 7 awake dogs by use
of indirect calorimetry on 2 consecutive days. Resting
energy expenditure (REE) was calculated.
Results—Level of clinical agreement was acceptable
between results of indirect calorimetry and spirometry.
Mean VO2/kg determined by use of calorimetry
before spirometry was significantly greater than that
obtained after spirometry. In phase 2, intraclass correlation
coefficients (ICC) for REE and VO2 were 0.779
and 0.786, respectively, when data from all 4 series
were combined. When the first series was discounted,
ICC increased to 0.904 and 0.894 for REE and VO2,
respectively. The most reliable and least variable measures
of REE and VO2 were obtained when the first 2
series were discounted.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Open-flow
indirect calorimetry may be used clinically to obtain a
measure of VO2 and an estimate of REE in dogs. Serial
measurements of REE and VO2 in clinically normal
dogs are reliable, but a 10-minute adaption period
should be allowed, the first series of observations
should be discounted, multiple serial measurements
should be obtained, and REE. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To assess the effects of alterations in PaCO2 and PaO2 on blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) signal intensity determined by use of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in brains of isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
Animals—6 healthy dogs.
Procedures—In each dog, anesthesia was induced with propofol (6 to 8 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with isoflurane (1.7%) and atracurium (0.2 mg/kg, IV, q 30 min). During 1 magnetic resonance imaging session in each dog, targeted values of PaCO2 (20, 40, or 80 mm Hg) and PaO2 (100 or 500 mm Hg) were combined to establish 6 experimental conditions, including a control condition (PaCO2, 40 mm Hg; PaO2, 100 mm Hg). Dogs were randomly assigned to different sequences of conditions. Each condition was established for a period of ≥ 5 minutes before susceptibility-weighted imaging was performed. Signal intensity was measured in 6 regions of interest in the brain, and data were analyzed by use of an ANCOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer adjustments.
Results—Compared with control condition findings, BOLD signal intensity did not differ significantly in any region of interest. However, signal intensities in the thalamus and diencephalic gray matter decreased significantly during both hypocapnic conditions, compared with all other conditions except for the control condition.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In isoflurane-anesthetized dogs, certain regions of gray matter appeared to have greater cerebrovascular responses to changes in PaCO2 and PaO2 than did others. Both PaO2 and PaCO2 should be controlled during magnetic resonance imaging procedures that involve BOLD signaling and taken into account when interpreting findings.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of various combinations of Paco2 and Pao2 values on brain morphometrics.
Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—A modified Latin square design for randomization was used. Dogs were anesthetized with propofol (6 to 8 mg/kg, IV), and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane (1.7%) and atracurium (0.2 mg/kg, IV, q 30 min). Three targeted values of Paco2 (20, 40, and 80 mm Hg) and 2 values of Pao2 (100 and 500 mm Hg) were achieved in each dog, yielding 6 combinations during a single magnetic resonance (MR) imaging session. When the endpoints were reached, dogs were given at least 5 minutes for physiologic variables to stabilize before T1-weighted MR images were obtained. Total brain volume (TBV) and lateral ventricular volume (LVV) were calculated from manually drawn contours of areas of interest by use of a software program, with each dog serving as its own control animal. Three blinded investigators subjectively evaluated the lateral ventricular size (LVS) and the cerebral sulci width (CSW). Brain morphometric values were compared among the target blood gas states.
Results—No significant differences in TBV were found among target states. The LVV was significantly greater during hypocapnia, compared with hypercapnia at the same Pao2 value. With regard to the subjective evaluations, there were no significant differences among evaluators or among combinations of Pao2 and Paco2 values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The changes observed in LVV during hypocapnia and hypercapnia may serve as a potential confounding factor when neuromorphometric evaluations are performed in anesthetized dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1011–1018)