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Thirty horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups. All horses were anesthetized and subjected to ventral midline celiotomy, then the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Colonic arterial blood flow was reduced to 20% of baseline (bl) and was maintained for 3 hours. Colonic blood flow was then restored, and the colon was reperfused for an additional 3 hours. One of 5 drug solutions was administered via the jugular vein 30 minutes prior to colonic reperfusion: group 1, 0.9% NaCl; group 2, dimethyl sulfoxide: 1 g/kg of body weight; group 3, allopurinol: 25 mg/kg; group 4, 21-aminosteroid U-74389G: 10 mg/kg; and group 5, manganese chloride (MnCl2): 10 mg/kg. Hemodynamic variables were monitored and recorded at 30-minutes intervals. Systemic arterial, systemic venous (sv), and colonic venous (cv) blood samples were collected for measurement of blood gas tensions, oximetry, lactate concentration, Pcv, and plasma total protein concentration. The eicosanoids, 6-keto prostaglandin F, prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2, were measured in cv blood, and endotoxin was measured in cv and sv blood. Full-thickness biopsy specimens were harvested from the left ventral colon for histologic evaluation and determination of wet weight-to-dry weight ratios (WW:DW). Data were analyzed, using two-way ANOVA for repeated measures, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output increased with MnCl2 infusion; heart rate and cardiac output remained increased throughout the study, but mean arterial pressure returned to bl values within 30 minutes after completion of MnCI2 infusion. Other drug-induced changes were not significant. There were significant increases in mean pulmonary artery and mean right atrial pressures at 2 and 2.5 hours in horses of all groups, but other changes across time or differences among groups were not observed. Mean pulmonary artery pressure remained increased through 6 hours in all groups, but mean right atrial pressure had returned to bl values at 3 hours. Mean colonic arterial pressure was significantly decreased at 30 minutes of ischemia and remained decreased through 6 hours; however, by 3.25 hours it was significantly higher than the value at 3 hours of ischemia. Colonic arterial resistance decreased during ischemia and remained decreased throughout reperfusion in all groups; there were no differences among groups for colonic arterial resistance. Colonic venous Po2, oxygen content, and pH decreased, and Pco2 and lactate concentration increased during ischemia but returned to bl values during reperfusion. Compared with bl values, colonic oxygen extraction ratio was increased from 0.5 to 3 hours. By 15 minutes of reperfusion, colonic oxygen extraction ratio had decreased from the bl value in all groups and either remained decreased or returned to values not different from bl through 6 hours. Colonic venous 6-keto prostaglandin F and prostaglandin E2 concentrations increased during ischemia, but returned to bl on reperfusion; there were no changes in thrombox- ane2 concentration among or within groups. Endotoxin was not detected in cv or sv blood after ischemia or reperfusion. There were no differences among or within groups for these variables. Low-flow ischemia and reperfusion (i-r) of the large colon caused mucosal injury, as evidenced by increases in percentage of surface mucosal disruption, percentage depth of mucosal loss, mucosal hemorrhage, mucosal edema, mucosal interstitial-to-crypt ratio, mucosal neutrophil index, submucosal venular neutrophil numbers, and mucosal cellular debris index. There was a trend (P = 0.06) toward greater percentage depth of mucosal loss at 6 hours in horses treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, compared with the vehicle control solution. There were no differences in the remainder of the histologic variables among groups. Full-thickness and mucosal WW:DW increased with colonic I-R, but there were no differences among groups. There was a trend (P = 0.09) toward neutrophil accumulation, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity, in the lungs after colonic I-R, but there were no differences among groups. There was no change in lung WW:DW after colonic I-R. There were no beneficial effects of drugs directed against oxygen-derived free radical-mediated damage on colonic mucosal injury associated with low-flow I-R. Deleterious drug-induced hemodynamic effects were not observed in this study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Histomorphologic/morphometric evaluation, leukocyte scintigraphy, and myeloperoxidase activity were used to determine whether neutrophils accumulate in the large colon of horses during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion. Twenty-four adult horses were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group 1, sham-operated (n = 6); group 2, 6 hours of ischemia (n = 9); and group 3, 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion (n = 9). Low-flow ischemia of the large colon was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline. Radiolabeled (99mTc) autogenous neutrophils were injected at 175 minutes, which corresponded to 5 minutes prior to reperfusion in group-3 horses. Full-thickness biopsy specimens of the left ventral colon were collected at baseline and at 30-minute intervals for 6 hours; a portion of the biopsy specimen was placed in formalin for histologic examination, and the remainder was used to measure mucosal radioactivity and myeloperoxidase activity. There were no differences in baseline mucosal neutrophil index, mucosal neutrophil numbers, submucosal venular neutrophil numbers, mucosal radioactivity, or mucosal myeloperoxidase activity among groups, or over time in group-1 horses. Neutrophils accumulated in the colonic mucosa during ischemia and further increased at reperfusion, as indicated by neutrophil index (morphology) and mucosal neutrophil numbers (morphometry); mucosal neutrophil index was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in group-3 horses during reperfusion than at the corresponding periods of ischemia in group-2 horses. Neutrophil numbers were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in submucosal venules at 10 minutes of reperfusion in group-3 horses and were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in group-3 than in group-2 horses during the interval from 3 to 6 hours. Mucosal radioactivity significantly (P < 0.05) increased at reperfusion in group-3 horses; there was a trend (P = 0.076) toward greater mucosal radioactivity in group-3, compared with group-2 horses, throughout the 3- to 6-hour interval. There were no differences in mucosal myeloperoxidase activity among or within any of the 3 groups over time.

Neutrophils accumulated in the large colon of horses during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion. Neutrophil infiltration was detected by histologic examination and leukocyte scintigraphy, but not by measurement of myeloperoxidase activity. The accumulation of neutrophils during ischemia and the further neutrophil infiltration during reperfusion indicate that neutrophils may contribute to reperfusion injury of the large colon.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To compare fracture locations, repair methods, complications, and outcomes of horses with fractures of the rostral portions of the mandible and maxilla.


Retrospective study.


89 horses with fractures of the rostral portions of the mandible and maxilla.


Medical records and radiographs were reviewed. Fractures were categorized by fracture location and stability. Postoperative complications and long-term outcome were determined by clinical examination and telephone interviews with horse owners.


4 fracture types were recognized. Fractures involving just the alveolar plate (33%) and those involving the alveolar plate and the body of the bone (32%) were most common and were often repaired by interdental wiring. Unilateral fractures of the mandible (11 %) were managed without surgery if stable. Unstable fractures were repaired with wires, a U-shaped bar (U-bar), or a bone plate. Bilateral fractures (24%) were often repaired with orthopedic wires in foals or with a U-bar, acrylic splint, wires, or bone plate in adult horses. In 2 horses, bilateral fractures were managed conservatively. Short-term complications developed in 24 of 89 (27%) horses. Soft tissue infections and wire loosening or failure were the most common short-term and long-term complications. Wire replacement was not required in any horses after release from hospital. Persistent draining tracts were most often associated with bone sequestration. Long-term functional and cosmetic outcomes were favorable for all fracture types and repair methods.

Clinical Implications

Although complications in horses with fractures of the mandible and maxilla are common, long-term prognoses for functional and cosmetic outcome are favorable. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1648-1652)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association