Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 18 of 18 items for

  • Author or Editor: Valerie Chetboul x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


Objective—To determine the strength of the relationship between paradoxical breathing (PB) and spontaneous pleural diseases in dyspneic dogs and cats.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—Dogs (n = 195) and cats (194) with a recorded diagnosis of dyspnea examined at the National Veterinary Schools of Alfort and Toulouse (France) between January 2001 and October 2009.

Procedures—Dogs and cats were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of PB. Stratified analysis by species was performed. Signalment of affected animals and occurrence of PB were recorded. The relationship between PB and pleural diseases among dyspneic dogs and cats was analyzed.

Results—A strong relationship between PB and pleural diseases was highlighted in multivariate analysis (dogs, OR = 12.6 and 95% confidence interval = 4.6 to 31.2; cats, OR = 14.1 and 95% confidence interval = 6.0 to 33.5). Paradoxical breathing prevalence among dyspneic dogs and cats was 27% and 64%, respectively. Occurrence of pleural diseases in dyspneic animals with and without PB was 49% and 9% in dogs and 66% and 13% in cats, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of PB as a predictor of pleural diseases were 0.67 and 0.83 in dyspneic dogs and 0.90 and 0.58 in dyspneic cats, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of PB were 0.49 and 0.91 in dyspneic dogs and 0.66 and 0.87 in dyspneic cats, respectively. Age, sex, feline breeds, and canine morphotypes in patients with PB were not significantly different from those of other dyspneic animals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PB was strongly associated with pleural diseases in dyspneic dogs and cats. The presence of this clinical sign should prompt small animal practitioners to implement appropriate emergency procedures and guide their diagnostic strategy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine left ventricular free wall (LVFW) radial and longitudinal myocardial contraction velocities in healthy dogs via quantitative 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging (TDI).

Animals—100 dogs.

Procedure—TDI was used by a single trained observer to measure radial and longitudinal myocardial movement in the LVFW. Radial myocardial velocities were recorded in segments in the endocardial and epicardial layers of the LVFW, and longitudinal velocities were recorded in segments at 3 levels (basal, middle, apical) of the LVFW.

Results—LVFW velocities were higher in the endocardial layers than in the epicardial layers. Left ventricular free wall velocities were higher in the basal segments than in the middle and apical segments. Radial myocardial velocity gradients, defined as the difference between endocardial and epicardial velocities, were (mean ± SD) 2.5 ± 0.8 cm/s, 3.8 ± 1.5 cm/s, and 2.3 ± 0.9 cm/s in systole, early diastole, and late diastole, respectively. Longitudinal myocardial velocity gradients, defined as the difference between basal and apical velocities, were 5.9 ± 2.2 cm/s, 6.9 ± 2.5 cm/s, and 4.9 ± 1.7 cm/s in systole, early diastole, and late diastole, respectively. A breed effect was detected for several systolic and diastolic TDI variables. In all segments, systolic velocities were independent of fractional shortening.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LVFW myocardial velocities decreased from the endocardium to the epicardium and from base to apex, thus revealing intramyocardial radial and longitudinal velocity gradients. These indices could enhance conventional echocardiographic analysis of left ventricular function in dogs. Breed-specific reference intervals should be defined. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:953–961)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To document RBC abnormalities in dogs with congenital ventricular outflow tract obstruction.


62 dogs with pulmonic stenosis (PS) or aortic stenosis (AS) and 20 control dogs were recruited.


The proportions of RBCs that were schistocytes, acanthocytes, and keratocytes were assessed. Complete blood cell counts were performed. Tested variables included hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and erythrocyte count.


Median (interquartile range [IQR]) peak systolic Doppler-derived trans-stenotic pressure gradient (∆P) values were 161 mm Hg (108 to 215 mm Hg) and 134 mm Hg (125 to 165 mm Hg) for dogs with PS and AS, respectively. Hematologic abnormalities were detected in most dogs with AS or PS (54/62 [87%]) versus 8/20 [40%] in control dogs, with schistocytes found in 40 of 62 (65%; median, 0.1% RBCs; IQR, 0% to 0.3%), acanthocytes in 29 of 62 (47%; median, 0.3% RBCs; IQR, 0% to 0.9%), keratocytes in 39 of 62 (63%; median, 0% RBCs; IQR, 0% to 0.2%), and hemolytic anemia in 4 dogs with PS. No significant association was identified between these abnormalities and ∆P. However, 3 of 4 dogs with anemia had a ∆P > 200 mm Hg (range, 242 to 340 mm Hg). The dog with the highest ∆P value also had the most severe anemia and schistocytosis, and both resolved after balloon valvuloplasty.


Poikilocytosis is common in dogs with congenital ventricular outflow tract obstruction, with anemia only observed in few dogs with high ∆P values.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the intra- and interobserver variability of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) measurements obtained with 2 indirect methods in awake dogs and percentage of successful measurements.

Animals—6 healthy conscious adult dogs.

Procedures—4 observers with different levels of training measured SAP and DAP on 4 days by use of Doppler ultrasonography (DU) and high-definition oscillometry (HDO). The examinations were randomized. Measurements for each technique were recorded 5 consecutive times, and mean values (total, 720 measurements) were used for statistical analysis.

Results—All within- and between-day coefficients of variation (CVs) for SAP were < 15% irrespective of the observer or method (HDO, 3.6% to 14.1%; DU, 4.1% to 12.4%). Conversely, half the CVs for DAP were > 15% with the highest within- and between-day CVs obtained by the least experienced observer by use of DU (19.5% and 25.9%, respectively). All attempts with HDO were successful, whereas DAP could not be measured by use of DU by the least experienced observer in 17% of attempts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SAP may be assessed in healthy dogs by use of DU and HDO with good repeatability and reproducibility after a short period of training. Conversely, the variability of DAP is higher and longer training is required to assess DAP via DU than via HDO.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the signalment, clinical features, echocardiographic findings, and outcome of dogs and cats with ventricular septal defects (VSDs).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—56 dogs and 53 cats with VSDs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs and cats with VSDs diagnosed by means of conventional and Doppler echocardiography were reviewed. Signalment, clinical status, echocardiographic findings, and outcome data were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for the study population and subgroups according to species and clinical status.

Results—VSDs were isolated (ie, solitary defects) in 53 of 109 (48.6%) patients. Most (82/109 [75.2%]) VSDs were membranous or perimembranous. Terriers and French Bulldogs were commonly represented canine breeds. Most isolated VSDs were subclinical (43/53 [81%]) and had a pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio < 1. 5 (24/32 [75%]). The VSD diameter and VSD-to-aortic diameter ratio were significantly correlated with pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio in dogs (r = 0.529 and r = 0.689, respectively) and in cats (r = 0.713 and r = 0.829, respectively). One dog underwent open surgical repair for an isolated VSD and was excluded from survival analysis. Of the remaining animals with isolated VSDs for which data were available (37/52 [71%]), no subclinically affected animals developed signs after initial diagnosis, and median age at death from all causes was 12 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs and cats with isolated VSDs had a long survival time; few had clinical signs at diagnosis, and none with follow-up developed clinical signs after diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:166–175)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize the epidemiological, clinical, and echocardiographic features of dogs and cats with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and determine their survival times.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 15 dogs and 16 cats with a diagnosis of TOF as determined via echocardiography.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats were reviewed to extract information on signalment, clinical status at the time of TOF diagnosis, echocardiographic findings, and any outcome data.

RESULTS The most common canine breeds were terrier types (n = 7). Most animals (28/31 [90%]) had clinical signs of TOF at the time of diagnosis, including cyanosis (16/31 [52%]). Pulmonic stenosis was characterized by a variable systolic Doppler-derived pressure gradient (median [range], 108 mm Hg [26 to 255 mm Hg]). Most ventricular septal defects were large, with a median (range) ratio of the diameter of the ventricular septal defect to that of the aorta of 0.60 (0.18 to 1.15). Median age at cardiac-related death was 23.4 months, with no significant difference between dogs and cats. Median survival time from TOF diagnosis to cardiac-related death was briefer for animals with no or low-grade heart murmur (3.4 months) than for those with higher-grade heart murmur (16.4 months). After adjustment for age and sex, having a lack of or a low- to mild-grade systolic heart murmur was significantly associated with a briefer survival time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With a few exceptions, cardiac-related death occurred predominantly in young adult dogs and cats with TOF, and most animals had severe clinical signs at the time of TOF diagnosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the within-day and between-day variability of regurgitant fraction (RF) assessed by use of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method in awake dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (MVD), measure RF in dogs with MVD, and assess the correlation between RF and several clinical and Doppler echocardiographic variables.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 MVD-affected dogs with no clinical signs and 67 dogs with MVD of differing severity (International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council [ISACHC] classification).

Procedures—The 6 dogs were used to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of the PISA method, and RF was then assessed in 67 dogs of various ISACHC classes. Mitral valve regurgitation was also assessed from the maximum area of regurgitant jet signal-to-left atrium area (ARJ/LAA) ratio determined via color Doppler echocardiographic mapping.

Results—Within- and between-day coefficients of variation of RF were 8% and 11%, respectively. Regurgitation fraction was significantly correlated with ISACHC classification and heart murmur grade and was higher in ISACHC class III dogs (mean ± SD, 72.8 ± 9.5%) than class II (57.9 ± 20.1%) or I (40.7 ± 19.2%) dogs. Regurgitation fraction and left atriumto-aorta ratio, fractional shortening, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, and ARJ/LAA ratio were significantly correlated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that RF is a repeatable and reproducible variable for noninvasive quantitative evaluation of mitral valve regurgitation in awake dogs. Regurgitation fraction also correlated well with disease severity. It appears that this Doppler echocardiographic index may be useful in longitudinal studies of MVD in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association