Objective—To determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses from the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) to the navicular bursa, diffusion is direct or systemic, and addition of sodium hyaluronan has an effect on diffusion in horses.
Animals—11 adult horses without forelimb lameness.
Procedures—1 randomly chosen forelimb DIPJ of each horse received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 20 mg of sodium hyaluronan (group 1), and the contralateral forelimb DIPJ received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 2 mL of lactated Ringer's solution (group 2). Synovial fluid samples were taken from both forelimb navicular bursae and 1 hind limb navicular bursa (systemic control group) at 6 hours. Triamcinolone acetonide concentrations in synovial fluid were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography plus tandem mass spectrometry. Data were logarithmically transformed, and contrast analysis was performed on the 3 groups.
Results—Triamcinolone acetonide was detected in navicular bursal samples in all groups. Groups 1 and 2 had significantly greater concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide than the systemic control group. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Triamcinolone acetonide diffused directly from the DIPJ into the navicular bursa in clinically normal horses, and diffusion was not affected by addition of hyaluronan. Injection into the DIPJ with triamcinolone acetonide or a triamcinolone acetonide–hyaluronan combination can potentially be used for treatment of navicular syndrome, but further studies are needed to determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses similarly in horses with navicular syndrome.
Objective—To compare isolated limb retrograde venous injection (ILRVI) and isolated limb infusion (ILI) for delivery of amikacin to the synovial fluid of the distal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints and to evaluate the efficacy of use of an Esmarch tourniquet in standing horses.
Animals—6 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Horses were randomly assigned in a crossover design. In ILRVI, the injection consisted of 1 g of amikacin diluted to a total volume of 60 mL administered during a 3-minute period. In ILI, the infusion consisted of 1 g of amikacin diluted to 40 mL administered during a 3-minute period followed by administration of boluses of diluent (82 mL total) to maintain vascular pressure. During ILI, the infusate and blood were circulated from the venous to the arterial circulation in 5-mL aliquots. Synovial fluid and serum samples were obtained to determine maximum amikacin concentrations and tourniquet leakage, respectively.
Results—Both techniques yielded synovial concentrations of amikacin > 10 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 90% of isolates (80 μg/mL) and > 10 times the MIC breakpoint (160 μg/mL) of amikacin-susceptible bacteria reported to cause septic arthritis in horses. These values were attained for both joints for both techniques. Esmarch tourniquets prevented detectable loss of amikacin to the systemic circulation for both techniques.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both techniques reliably achieved synovial fluid concentrations of amikacin consistent with concentration-dependent killing for bacteria commonly encountered in horses with septic arthritis. Esmarch tourniquets were effective for both delivery techniques in standing horses.
Objective—To determine the maximum amount of flexion and extension of the carpal, tarsal, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints and the percentage duration of the stance and swing phases of the stride for horses walking on an underwater treadmill in various water depths.
Animals—9 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Zinc oxide markers were placed on the forelimbs and hind limbs of the horses. Video was recorded of horses walking (0.9 m/s) on an underwater treadmill during baseline conditions (< 1 cm of water) or in various amounts of water (level of the metatarsophalangeal, tarsal, and stifle joints). Maximum amount of joint flexion and extension, range of motion (ROM), and the percentage durations of the stance and swing phases of the stride were determined with 2-D motion analysis software.
Results—The ROM was greater for all evaluated joints in any amount of water versus ROM for joints in baseline conditions (primarily because of increases in amount of joint flexion). The greatest ROM for carpal joints was detected in a tarsal joint water depth, for tarsal joints in a stifle joint water depth, and for metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints in metatarsophalangeal and tarsal joint water depths. As water depth increased, the percentage durations of the stance and swing phases of the stride significantly decreased and increased, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that exercise on an underwater treadmill is useful for increasing the ROM of various joints of horses during rehabilitation and that the depth of water affects the amount of flexion and extension of joints.
Objective—To estimate prevalences of various presale radiographic findings and of presale arthroscopy in horses offered for sale at the 2006 Keeneland September yearling sale and to compare sales prices between yearlings with and without various presale radiographic findings or a history of arthroscopy.
Animals—397 Thoroughbred yearlings.
Procedures—Presale radiographs and health records were examined to estimate prevalences of various radiographic findings and presale arthroscopy. Sales price records were used to compare sales prices between yearlings with and without various presale radiographic findings or a history of arthroscopy.
Results—In the forelimbs, the most common radiographic findings were vascular channels in the proximal sesamoid bones (23%), enthesophytes or osteophytes in the radiocarpal joint (22%), and osteochondritis lesions involving the sagittal ridge of the third metacarpal bone (20%). In the hind limbs, the most common radiographic findings were enthesophytes or osteophytes involving the proximal sesamoid bones (39%), abnormalities of the distodorsal aspect of the third metatarsal bone (36%), enthesophytes or osteophytes involving the distal intertarsal joint (27%), and osteochondritis lesions involving the stifle joint (8%). Thirteen percent of horses had a history of presale arthroscopy. Median sales price was significantly lower in horses with fragments of the proximal phalanx than in horses without. Median sales price was significantly higher in horses with a history of presale arthroscopy than in horses without.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results revealed significant associations between a diagnosis of fragments of the proximal phalanx, presale arthroscopy, and sales price in Thoroughbred yearlings.
Objective—To determine the effects of various presale radiographic findings for Thoroughbreds sold at a yearling sale on 2-year-old racing performance of those horses.
Procedures—Thoroughbreds offered for sale at a Thoroughbred sales facility in Kentucky were selected via a randomization procedure. Effects of various presale radiographic findings on the following measures of 2-year-old racing performance were determined: having started a race and having placed (ie, finished in first, second, or third place) in a race at least once, total amount of money earned, and amount of money earned per start.
Results—Of the 397 horses, 192 (48%) started in at least 1 race during the 2-year-old racing year. The odds of failure to start a race as a 2-year-old were 1.78 times as great for horses with forelimb proximal sesamoid bone osteophytes or enthesophytes as for horses without this finding (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 3.16). The odds of failure to start a race as a 2-year-old were 2.02 times as great for horses with hind limb proximal phalanx osteochondral fragments as for horses without this finding (95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 4.31), although this result was not significant. Radiographic findings did not have an effect on total amount of money earned, amount of money earned per start, or whether horses placed in a race.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Presale radiographic detection of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone osteophytes or enthesophytes or hind limb proximal phalanx osteochondral fragments in yearlings were associated with failure to start a race during the 2-year-old racing year in study horses.
Objective—To determine the effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance (speed) on purchase price of 2-year-old in-training Thoroughbreds and to compare the distance exercised within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales between horses with high yearling sale purchase prices versus those with low yearling sale purchase prices and between horses with lameness during training and those without lameness during training.
Procedures—Thoroughbreds purchased at a yearling sale were trained prior to resale at 2-year-old in-training sales. Amount of exercise and lameness status during training and speed of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales were determined. Data were analyzed via the Wilcoxon rank sum test and ANOVA.
Results—Median purchase price of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales was $37,000. The 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price was associated with yearling sale purchase price and distance galloped within 60 days prior to and speed recorded at 2-year-old in-training sales.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with high yearling sale purchase prices typically had high 2-year-old in-training sale purchase prices, had low distances galloped within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales, and were classified as fast at 2-year-old in-training sales. Lameness alone was not associated with 2-year-old in-training sales purchase price. However, lameness was associated with a low distance galloped before 2-year-old in-training sales, particularly for horses with a high yearling sale purchase price; this finding suggested that yearling sale purchase price can affect training management decisions for horses with lameness.
Objectives—To determine concentrations of matrix
metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in synovial fluid;
and mRNA expression of MMP-1, -13, and -3; interleukin[
IL]-1α and β; and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α
in synovial membrane and articular cartilage from
horses with naturally occurring joint disease.
Sample Population—Synovial fluid (n = 76), synovial
membrane (59), and articular cartilage (45) from 5 clinically
normal horses and 55 horses with joint disease
categorized as traumatic (acute [AT] or chronic [CT]),
osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), or septic (S).
Procedure—Synovial fluid gelatinase concentrations
were analyzed, using zymography. Synovial membrane
and articular cartilage mRNA expression for
MMP-1, -3, and -13, IL-1α and β, TNF-α, type-II collagen,
and aggrecan were analyzed, using quantitative
reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
Results—Synovial fluid pro-MMP-2 concentration
was significantly higher in diseased joints than normal
joints. Septic joints had significantly higher concentrations
of pro and active MMP-9. Stromelysin-1 was
expressed in ≥ 80% of synovial membrane and articular
cartilage samples and was strongly influenced by
age. Collagenases were rarely expressed, with MMP-
13 expressed only in diseased joints. Interleukin-1β
expression was significantly higher in all OCD samples
and was influenced by age. Tumor necrosis factor-
α expression was significantly higher in cartilage
from joints with AT and OCD. There was no correlation
between MMP or cytokines and type-II collagen
or aggrecan expression.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Matrix metalloproteinase-
2 and -3 are abundant in naturally occurring
joint disease and normal joints. Interleukin-1β and
TNF-α may be important in the pathogenesis of OCD.
Age affects MMP and IL-1β concentrations. (Am J Vet
Objective—To characterize clinical findings, outcomes, muscle characteristics, and serum or muscle concentrations of α-tocopherol for horses with vitamin E–responsive signs of muscle atrophy and weakness consistent with signs of equine motor neuron disease (EMND).
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—8 affected (case) adult horses with acute (n = 3) or chronic (5) gross muscle atrophy that improved with vitamin E treatment and 14 clinically normal (control) adult horses with adequate (within reference range; 8) or low (6) muscle concentrations of α-tocopherol.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed, serum and muscle concentrations of α-tocopherol were measured, and frozen biopsy specimens of sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle and gluteal muscle were histologically evaluated for pathological changes. Fiber type composition and fiber diameters were assessed in gluteal muscle specimens.
Results—A myopathy that was histologically characterized by redistribution of mitochondrial enzyme stain (moth-eaten appearance) and anguloid atrophy of myofibers was evident in sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle fibers of the 8 affected horses that had low serum (6/8) or skeletal muscle (5/5) concentrations of α-tocopherol; these histopathologic changes were not found in muscle specimens of control horses with low or adequate muscle concentrations of α-tocopherol. All affected horses regained strength and muscle mass within 3 months after initiation of vitamin E treatment and dietary changes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A vitamin E–deficient myopathy characterized histologically by a moth-eaten appearance in the mitochondria and anguloid myofiber atrophy in frozen sections of sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle biopsy specimens was found in horses with clinical signs of EMND that were highly responsive to vitamin E treatment. This myopathy may be a specific syndrome or possibly precede the development of neurogenic muscle fiber atrophy typical of EMND.