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Objective—To evaluate signalment, surgical treatment, postoperative complications, and future breeding success or semen production in a group of bulls with naturally occurring disease of the scrotum or testis.

Study design—Retrospective study.

Animals—21 bulls that underwent unilateral castration after evaluation for scrotal swelling.

Procedure—A computer-assisted search of medical records at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals was performed. Historical, diagnostic, surgical, and follow-up data were collected and analyzed for those bulls with scrotal swelling that underwent unilateral castration.

Results—Four of 5 pasture breeding bulls and 9 of 10 semen collection-center bulls successfully bred cows or produced viable semen within 6 months of surgery. Fourteen of 21 surgical procedures were performed after induction of general anesthesia. Sixty-six percent of procedures were performed as open castrations. Seventy-one percent of bulls developed postoperative complications, most of which were mild swellings. Unilateral castration returned 13 of 15 bulls with unilateral disease of the scrotum or testis to productive service by 6 months after surgery.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Unilateral castration is an effective treatment for unilateral disease of the scrotum or testis in bulls, allowing return to reproductive function. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 220:1198–1202)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scores determined by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS) or a composite grading scale (CGS) for quality of recovery of horses from anesthesia and to investigate use of 3-axis accelerometry (3AA) for objective evaluation of recovery.

ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES Horses were fitted with a 3AA device and then were anesthetized. Eight diplomates evaluated recovery by use of an SDS, and 7 other diplomates evaluated recovery by use of a CGS. Agreement was tested with κ and AC1 statistics for the SDS and an ANOVA for the CGS. A library of mathematical models was used to map 3AA data against CGS scores.

RESULTS Agreement among diplomates using the SDS was slight (κ = 0.19; AC1 = 0.22). The CGS scores differed significantly among diplomates. Best fit of 3AA data against CGS scores yielded the following equation: RS = 9.998 × SG0.633 × ∑UG0.174, where RS is a horse's recovery score determined with 3AA, SG is acceleration of the successful attempt to stand, and ∑UG is the sum of accelerations of unsuccessful attempts to stand.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Subjective scoring of recovery of horses from anesthesia resulted in poor agreement among diplomates. Subjective scoring may lead to differences in conclusions about recovery quality; thus, there is a need for an objective scoring method. The 3AA system removed subjective bias in evaluations of recovery of horses and warrants further study.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research