OBJECTIVE To compare the biomechanical behavior of mandibular critical-sized defects stabilized with 2 plating configurations under in vitro conditions resembling clinical situations.
SAMPLE 24 mandibles harvested from 12 adult canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES 8 mandibles were kept intact as control samples. A critical-sized defect was created in 16 mandibles; these mandibles were stabilized by use of a single locking plate (LP [n = 8]) or an LP combined with an alveolar miniplate (LMP ). Mandibles were loaded in cantilever bending in a single-load-to-failure test with simultaneous recording of load and actuator displacement. Stiffness, yield, and failure properties were compared among groups. Mode of failure was recorded. Radiographic evidence of tooth root and mandibular canal damage was quantified and compared between groups.
RESULTS Stiffness and yield loads of single LP and LMP constructs were < 30% of values for intact mandibles, and failure loads were < 45% of values for intact mandibles. There were no consistent biomechanical differences at failure between single LP and LMP constructs, but the LMP construct had greater stiffness and strength prior to yield. Frequency of screw penetration of teeth and the mandibular canal was significantly greater for LMP than for single LP constructs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both fixation methods were mechanically inferior to an intact mandible. The LMP construct was mechanically stronger than the LP construct but may not be clinically justifiable. Addition of an alveolar miniplate provided additional strength to the construct but resulted in more frequent penetration of tooth roots and the mandibular canal.
Objective—To define scintigraphic, physical examination, and scapular ultrasonographic findings consistent with bone fragility syndrome (BFS) in horses; develop indices of BFS severity; and assess accuracy of physical examination, scapular ultrasonography, and serum biomarkers for BFS diagnosis.
Design—Prospective case-control study.
Animals—48 horses (20 horses with BFS and 28 control horses).
Procedures—Horses underwent forelimb scintigraphic evaluation, physical examination, scapular ultrasonography, and serum collection. Scintigraphy was used as a reference standard to which physical examination, scapular ultrasonography, and concentrations of serum biomarkers (carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen crosslinks and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity) were compared for assessing accuracy in BFS diagnosis.
Results—A diagnosis of BFS was strongly supported on scintigraphy by ≥ 2 regions of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake, including 1 region in the scapular spine and 1 region in the scapular body or ribs; on physical examination by lateral bowing of the scapulae; and on ultrasonography by widening of the scapular spine. None of the tests evaluated were accurate enough to replace scintigraphy for mild disease; however, physical examination and scapular ultrasonography were accurate in horses with moderate to severe BFS. Serum biomarkers were not accurate for BFS diagnosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Scintigraphy remained the most informative diagnostic modality for BFS, providing insight into disease severity and distribution; however, physical examination and scapular ultrasonographic abnormalities were diagnostic in horses with moderate to severe disease. Proposed severity indices classified the spectrum of disease manifestations. Clearly defined criteria for interpretation of diagnostic tests aid in the detection of BFS. Severity indices may be useful for assessing disease progression and response to treatment.
Objective—To estimate the prevalence of radiographic abnormalities (lesions) in Thoroughbred racehorses at 2-year-old in-training sales and determine whether these lesions and 1-furlong presale workout times were associated with subsequent racing performance.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Procedures—Repository radiographs of carpal, metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal (fetlock), stifle, and tarsal (hock) joints were examined. Horses with lesions were classified by lesion type and location. Race performance variables were compared between horses with and without lesions and between horses categorized by 1-furlong presale workout times (< or ≥ 11 seconds).
Results—299 horses had ≥ 1 lesion, and 654 had no lesion detected. Odds of starting a race and of earning money racing were lower for horses with any lesion and lower for horses with proximal phalangeal dorsoproximal articular margin chip fracture, proximal sesamoid bone fracture or sesamoiditis, or wedge-shaped central or third tarsal bones, compared with horses that had no lesion. For horses that raced, proximal phalangeal dorsoproximal articular margin chip fractures were associated with lower lifetime earnings, and flattening of the medial femoral condyle was associated with fewer 3-year-old racing starts, compared with values for horses that had no lesion. Horses with workout times < 11 seconds had greater odds of having lifetime starts, lifetime earnings, and maximum purse above threshold (median) values than did horses with slower workout times.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No radiographic lesions prevented all affected horses from racing. Among horses that raced, few differences were found in performance for horses with and without lesions.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate biomechanical properties of intact feline mandibles, compared with those for mandibles with an experimentally created osteotomy that was stabilized with 1 of 2 internal fixation configurations.
SAMPLE 20 mandibles from 10 adult feline cadavers.
PROCEDURES An incomplete block study design was used to assign the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of 3 groups (locking plate with locking screws [locking construct], locking plate with nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct], or intact). Within each cadaver, mandibles were randomly assigned to the assigned treatments. For mandibles assigned to the locking and nonlocking constructs, a simple transverse osteotomy was created caudal to the mandibular first molar tooth after plate application. All mandibles were loaded in cantilever bending in a single-load-to-failure test while simultaneously recording load and actuator displacement. Mode of failure (bone or plate failure) was recorded, and radiographic evidence of tooth root and mandibular canal damage was evaluated. Mechanical properties were compared among the 3 groups.
RESULTS Stiffness, bending moments, and most post-yield energies for mandibles with the locking and nonlocking constructs were significantly lower than those for intact mandibles. Peak bending moment and stiffness for mandibles with the locking construct were significantly greater than those for mandibles with the nonlocking construct. Mode of failure and frequency of screw damage to tooth roots and the mandibular canal did not differ between the locking and nonlocking constructs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that both fixation constructs were mechanically inferior to intact mandibles. The locking construct was mechanically stronger than the nonlocking construct.
Objective—To evaluate subchondral bone density patterns
in elbow joints of clinically normal dogs by use of
computed tomographic (CT) osteoabsorptiometry.
Sample Population—20 cadaver forelimbs from 10
clinically normal dogs.
Procedure—Each elbow joint was imaged in
parasagittal and transverse planes of 1.5-mm thickness.
Slice data were converted to dipotassium phosphate
equivalent density (PPED) values. Sagittal,
parasagittal, and transverse medial coronoid process
topographic maps were constructed. Defined zones
were created for each of the 3 CT planes, and confluence
and peak PPED values were determined.
Results—The lowest PPED value was 340 mg/ml
(articular and subchondral confluence), and the highest
was 1780 mg/ml (peak subchondral density).
Detectable effects of joint laterality were not found in
the confluence or peak PPED measurements or in the
peak-to-confluence PPED ratio for all 3 CT planes.
Significant differences were found among zones in all
3 planes for confluence and peak PPED measurements
and between sagittal and transverse planes for
peak-to-confluence PPED ratios. Subjectively, the pattern
of density distribution among dogs was fairly
consistent for the sagittal and parasagittal slices.
Three specific patterns of density distribution were
apparent on the transverse topographic maps of the
medial coronoid process that corresponded to conformational
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of CT
osteoabsorptiometry provides a repeatable technique
that can be used to noninvasively examine bone density
and the effects of stress acting on joints in vivo.
Variability in density values for any of the CT planes
was not identified among clinically normal dogs.
(Am J Vet Ress 2002;63:1159–1166
To evaluate and quantify the kinematic behavior of canine mandibles before and after bilateral rostral or unilateral segmental mandibulectomy as well as after mandibular reconstruction with a locking reconstruction plate in ex vivo conditions.
Head specimens from cadavers of 16 dogs (range in body weight, 30 to 35 kg).
Specimens were assigned to undergo unilateral segmental (n = 8) or bilateral rostral (8) mandibulectomy and then mandibular reconstruction by internal fixation with locking plates. Kinematic markers were attached to each specimen in a custom-built load frame. Markers were tracked in 3-D space during standardized loading conditions, and mandibular motions were quantified. Differences in mandibular range of motion among 3 experimental conditions (before mandibulectomy [ie, with mandibles intact], after mandibulectomy, and after reconstruction) were assessed by means of repeated-measures ANOVA.
Both unilateral segmental and bilateral rostral mandibulectomy resulted in significantly greater mandibular motion and instability, compared with results for intact mandibles. No significant differences in motion were detected between mandibles reconstructed after unilateral segmental mandibulectomy and intact mandibles. Similarly, the motion of mandibles reconstructed after rostral mandibulectomy was no different from that of intact mandibles, except in the lateral direction.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Mandibular kinematics in head specimens from canine cadavers were significantly altered after unilateral segmental and bilateral rostral mandibulectomy. These alterations were corrected after mandibular reconstruction with locking reconstruction plates. Findings reinforced the clinical observations of the beneficial effect of reconstruction on mandibular function and the need for reconstructive surgery after mandibulectomy in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To describe the torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).
SAMPLE 16 cadaveric tibiotarsal bones from 8 red-tailed hawks.
PROCEDURES 1 tibiotarsal bone from each bird was randomly assigned to be tested in torsion, and the contralateral bone was tested in axial compression. Intact bones were monotonically loaded in either torsion (n = 8) or axial compression (8) to failure. Mechanical variables were derived from load-deformation curves. Fracture configurations were described. Effects of sex, limb side, and bone dimensions on mechanical properties were assessed with a mixed-model ANOVA. Correlations between equivalent torsional and compressive properties were determined.
RESULTS Limb side and bone dimensions were not associated with any mechanical property. During compression tests, mean ultimate cumulative energy and postyield energy for female bones were significantly greater than those for male bones. All 8 bones developed a spiral diaphyseal fracture and a metaphyseal fissure or fracture during torsional tests. During compression tests, all bones developed a crushed metaphysis and a fissure or comminuted fracture of the diaphysis. Positive correlations were apparent between most yield and ultimate torsional and compressive properties.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones described in this study can be used as a reference for investigations into fixation methods for tibiotarsal fractures in red-tailed hawks. Although the comminuted and spiral diaphyseal fractures induced in this study were consistent with those observed in clinical practice, the metaphyseal disruption observed was not and warrants further research.
To evaluate the biomechanical properties of the mandibles of cats with experimentally created osteotomies simulating oblique ramus fractures, which were stabilized with malleable L-miniplates with either locking screws [locking construct (LC)] or nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct (NLC)], compared with those for intact mandibles.
20 mandibles from 10 adult cat cadavers.
A block study design was adopted to allocate the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of the 3 test groups (LC, NLC, or intact mandible). Mandibles within each cadaver were allocated systematically to a test group. For mandibles assigned to an LC and an NLC, a complete oblique osteotomy was performed from the mid rostral aspect of the ramus in a caudoventral direction. All mandibles were loaded in a single-load-to-failure test through cantilever bending. Load and actuator displacement were recorded simultaneously. Mode of failure and radiographic evidence of damage to tooth roots and the mandibular canal were evaluated. Biomechanical properties were compared among the groups.
No iatrogenic tooth root damage was evident, but all mandibles with an LC and an NLC had evidence of screw invasion into the mandibular canal. Plated mandibles had significantly less stiffness and bending moment than intact mandibles. Stiffness was not significantly different between the LC and the NLC; the NLC had a greater bending moment at failure than the LC. The pre-yield stiffness of plated mandibles decreased when the number of screw holes overlapping the mandibular canal increased.
The use of a malleable L-miniplate in a caudal mandibular fracture model is feasible. Both the LC and the NLC were inferior mechanically to intact mandibles. Type of construct used did not affect the construct stiffness significantly in tested mandibles.
Objective—To develop a model for measuring rotary
stability of the canine elbow joint and to evaluate the
relative contribution of the anconeal process (AN), lateral
collateral ligament (LCL), and medial collateral ligament
Sample Population—18 forelimbs from 12 canine
Procedure—Forelimbs were allocated to 3 experimental
groups (6 forelimbs/group). Each intact forelimb
was placed in extension at an angle of 135° and
cycled 50 times from –16° (pronation) to +28° (supination)
in a continuous manner at 2.0 Hz. Cycling was
repeated following sectioning of the structure of interest
(group 1, AN; group 2, LCL; and group 3, MCL).
Torque at –12° (pronation) and +18° (supination) was
measured for each intact and experimentally sectioned
limb. A Student t test was performed to compare
torque values obtained from intact verses experimentally
sectioned limbs and for comparison with
established criteria for differentiation of primary
(≥ 33%), secondary (10 to 33%), and tertiary rotational
stabilizers (< 10%).
Results—In pronation, the AN was the only primary
stabilizer (65%). For supination, the LCL was a primary
stabilizer (48%), AN was a secondary stabilizer
(24%), and MCL was a tertiary stabilizer (7%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—With the
elbow joint in extension at an angle of 135°, the AN is
a primary rotational stabilizer in pronation, and the
LCL is a primary stabilizer in supination. Disruption of
the AN or LCL may affect rotary range of motion or
compromise stability of the elbow joint in dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1520–1526)