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Objective

To evaluate response to chemotherapy in cats with alimentary lymphoma and to determine factors associated with survival time.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

28 cats with alimentary lymphoma that underwent chemotherapy.

Results

In all cats, the diagnosis had been established by means of cytologic or histologic examination of ultrasound-guided aspirates and biopsy specimens (18 cats), histologic examination of surgically obtained biopsy specimens (7 cats), or examination of specimens obtained endoscopically (3 cats). Clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhea. Twenty-seven cats were treated with vincristine sulfate, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone; 1 was treated with chlorambucil and prednisone. Survival time ranged from 2 to 2,120 days (median, 50 days). Nine cats achieved complete remission (remission time ranged from 30 to 1,700 days; median, 213 days), 2 achieved partial remission, and 17 failed to respond to chemotherapy. Sex, FeLV status, hematocrit, serum total protein concentration, site and extent of gastrointestinal involvement, and clinical stage were not found to be associated with survival time.

Clinical Implications

Cats with alimentary lymphoma are poorly responsive to treatment with vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone; however, a small subset of cats may have long survival times.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Idarubicin, a new synthetic anthracycline analogue, was administered orally to 34 cats with spontaneous tumors. The maximum tolerated dosage was determined to be 2 mg/cat/d given for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks. Anorexia and leukopenia were found to be dose limiting in cats receiving the drug at a higher dosage. The most common toxicoses seen at the maximum tolerated dosage were leukopenia, anorexia, and vomiting; however, development of toxicoses was not found to be associated with sex, FeLV test result, tumor type, dosage, age, or weight.

Idarubicin (2 mg/cat/d for 3 days, q 3 wks) was used to treat 18 cats with lymphoma in which complete remission had been achieved by administration of other chemotherapeutic agents. Median remission duration for these cats was comparable to that reported for cats treated with other protocols. We concluded that orally administered idarubicin would be useful in the treatment of cats with lymphoma.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate response rate and duration of malignant melanomas in dogs treated with carboplatin.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—27 client-owned dogs with spontaneously occurring measurable malignant melanomas.

Procedure—Records of dogs with melanomas treated with carboplatin from October 1989 to June 2000 were reviewed. Carboplatin was administered IV at doses of 300 or 350 mg/m2 of body surface area. Response to treatment and evidence of drug toxicity were determined.

Result—Response to treatment could be evaluated in 25 dogs. Of those, overall response rate was 28%. One dog had a complete response, 6 (24%) dogs had a partial response (> 50% reduction in tumor burden). Median duration of partial response was 165 days. Eighteen dogs had stable disease (n = 9; 36%) or progressive disease (9; 36%). Response to treatment was significantly associated with carboplatin dose on a milligram per kilogram basis (15.1 mg/kg [6.9 mg/lb] of body weight vs 12.6 mg/kg [5.7 mg/lb]). Evidence of gastrointestinal toxicosis could be assessed in 27 dogs. Mean body weight of 5 dogs that developed gastrointestinal toxicosis was significantly less than that of 22 dogs without gastrointestinal toxicosis (9.9 kg [21.8 lb] vs 19.3 kg [42.5 lb]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carboplatin had activity against macroscopic spontaneously occurring malignant melanomas in dogs and should be considered as an adjunctive treatment for microscopic local or metastatic tumors. Gastrointestinal toxicosis was associated with body weight. Because small dogs are more likely to have adverse gastrointestinal effects, gastrointestinal protectants should be considered for these patients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1444–1448)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of age and inferred prior vaccination history on the persistence of vaccine-induced antibody against rabies in horses.

DESIGN Serologic response evaluation.

ANIMALS 48 horses with an undocumented vaccination history.

PROCEDURES Horses were vaccinated against rabies once. Blood samples were collected prior to vaccination, 3 to 7 weeks after vaccination, and at 6-month intervals for 2 to 3 years. Serum rabies virus–neutralizing antibody (RVNA) values were measured. An RVNA value of ≥ 0.5 U/mL was used to define a predicted protective immune response on the basis of World Health Organization recommendations for humans. Values were compared between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age and between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and those inferred to be immunologically naïve.

RESULTS A protective RVNA value (≥ 0.5 U/mL) was maintained for 2 to 3 years in horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated on the basis of prevaccination RVNA values. No significant difference was evident in response to rabies vaccination or duration of protective RVNA values between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age. Seven horses were poor responders to vaccination. Significant differences were identified between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and horses inferred to be naïve prior to the study.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A rabies vaccination interval > 1 year may be appropriate for previously vaccinated horses but not for horses vaccinated only once. Additional research is required to confirm this finding and characterize the optimal primary dose series for rabies vaccination.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the in vitro response of circular and longitudinal myometrial layers of the uterine horn (CMLH and LMLH, respectively) of horses to endothelin (ET)-1 by use of specific ETA (BQ-123) and ETB (IRL-1038) receptor antagonists.

Sample Population—Uteruses from 10 nongravid mares in anestrus.

Procedure—Muscle strips from the CMLH and LMLH were suspended in tissue baths and connected to force-displacement transducers interfaced with a polygraph. Strips were incubated for 45-minute intervals with no antagonist (control specimens), and 3 concentrations (10–9, 10–7, and 10–5M) of BQ-123, IRL- 1038, or BQ-123 and IRL-1038 before concentrationresponse curves to ET-1 were generated. Contractile response to cumulative concentrations of ET-1 (10–9 to 10–6M) was quantified by measuring change in the area under the curve (AUC) for the 3-minute period after each ET-1 dose.

Results—ET-1 caused concentration-dependent contraction of the CMLH and LMLH specimens. Application of BQ-123 decreased AUC values for both layers. Application of IRL-1038 increased the AUC value for LMLH specimens but did not affect the CMLH value. The combination of BQ-123 and IRL-1038 decreased the AUC value for LMLH tissue and increased that for CMLH tissue.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ET-1 causes contraction of the CMLH and LMLH in nongravid horses. In both layers, ETA receptors mediate contraction but the role of ETB receptors remains unclear. In the LMLH, ETA receptors have a dominant role; the presence of another receptor or receptor subtype within this layer is suggested. These findings support a physiologic role for ET-1 in uterine contractility. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1094–1100)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize alterations in systemic and local colonic hemodynamic variables associated with IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 in healthy anesthetized horses.

Animals—12 adult horses.

Procedure—Six horses were given ATP-MgCl2, IV, beginning at a rate of 0.1 mg of ATP/kg of body weight/min with incremental increases until a rate of 1.0 mg/kg/min was achieved. The remaining 6 horses were given an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution over the same time period. Colonic and systemic hemodynamic variables and colonic plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined before, during, and after infusion.

Results—Infusion of ATP-MgCl2 caused a rate-dependent decrease in systemic and colonic vascular resistance, principally via its vasodilatory effects. A rate of 0.3 mg of ATP/kg/min caused a significant decrease in systemic and colonic arterial pressure and colonic vascular resistance without a significant corresponding decrease in colonic arterial blood flow. Consistent alterations in NO concentrations of plasma obtained from colonic vasculature were not detected, despite profound vasodilatation of the colonic arterial vasculature.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results revealed that IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 may be beneficial in maintaining colonic perfusion in horses with ischemia of the gastrointestinal tract, provided a sufficient pressure gradient exists to maintain blood flow. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1240–1249)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate systemic effects of IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 subsequent to infusion of a low dose of endotoxin in horses.

Animals—12 adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were administered endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, IV, during a 30-minute period. Immediately thereafter, horses in each group were infused IV with ATP-MgCl2 or saline solution. Two weeks later, horses were administered the opposite solution (LPS or saline solution), but it was followed by the same infusion as 2 weeks previously (ie, ATP-MgCl2 or saline solution). Cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic variables, cytokine activity, and endothelin (ET) concentrations were recorded.

Results—IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 after administration of a low dose of endotoxin failed to attenuate the cardiopulmonary, clinicopathologic, and cytokine alterations that develop secondary to endotoxin exposure. The combination of LPS and ATP-MgCl2 potentiated pulmonary hypertension, leukopenia, and neutropenia when compared with the combination of LPS and saline solution. The combination of LPS and ATP-MgCl2 resulted in thrombocytopenia. Endothelin concentration was increased in jugular venous and pulmonary arterial plasma in horses receiving LPS and ATP-MgCl2. Similar increases were not observed with LPS and saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of ATP-MgCl2 did not protect horses from systemic effects of experimentally induced endotoxemia. Furthermore, the use of ATP-MgCl2 during endotoxemia may worsen the cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic status of affected horses. Because ATP and other adenine nucleotides are released from cells during shock, their potential role in the development of hemodynamic derangements, leukocyte adherence, and coagulopathies during endotoxemic episodes warrants further investigation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65: 225–237)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a novel third-generation chelating agent (8mM disodium EDTA dehydrate and 20mM 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1, 3-propanediol) would act as an antimicrobial potentiator to enhance in vitro activity of antifungal medications against fungal isolates obtained from horses with mycotic keratitis.

Sample Population—Fungal isolates (3 Aspergillus isolates, 5 Fusarium isolates, 1 Penicillium isolate, 1 Cladosporium isolate, and 1 Curvularia isolate) obtained from horses with mycotic keratitis and 2 quality-control strains obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and Paecilomyces variotii ATCC 36257).

Procedure—Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against fungal isolates for 4 antifungal drugs (miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and natamycin) were compared with MICs against fungal isolates for the combinations of each of the 4 antifungal drugs and the chelating agent. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microdilution assay method was performed by use of reference-grade antifungal powders against the fungal isolates and quality-control strains of fungi.

Results—Values for the MIC at which the antifungal drugs decreased the growth of an organism by 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90) were decreased for the control strains and ophthalmic fungal isolates by 50% to 100% when the drugs were used in combination with the chelating agent at a concentration of up to 540 μg/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The chelating agent increased in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against common fungal pathogens isolated from eyes of horses with mycotic keratitis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish an in vivo method for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 induction in horses via IV administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to evaluate the ability of doxycycline, oxytetracycline, flunixin meglumine, and pentoxifylline to inhibit equine MMP-2 and MMP-9 production.

Animals—29 adult horses of various ages and breeds and either sex.

Procedures—In part 1, horses received an IV administration of LPS (n = 5) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5). Venous blood samples were collected before and at specified times for 24 hours after infusion. Plasma was harvested and analyzed for MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities via zymography. In part 2, horses received doxycycline (n = 5), oxytetracycline (5), flunixin meglumine (5), or pentoxifylline (4) before and for up to 12 hours after administration of LPS. Plasma was obtained and analyzed, and results were compared with results from the LPS-infused horses of part 1.

Results—Administration of LPS significantly increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the venous circulation of horses. All MMP inhibitors significantly decreased LPS-induced increases in MMP activities but to differing degrees. Pentoxifylline and oxytetracycline appeared to be the most effective MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitors, whereas doxycycline and flunixin meglumine were more effective at inhibiting MMP-2 activity than MMP-9 activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of LPS to horses caused increased venous plasma activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. These MMP activities were reduced by pentoxifylline and oxytetracycline, suggesting that further evaluation of these medications for treatment and prevention of MMP-associated diseases in horses is indicated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine hemodynamic and metabolic effects of IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 combination and maximal safe IV infusion rate in conscious horses.

Animals

6 adult female horses.

Procedure

All horses received an IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 combination, beginning at a rate of 0.05 mg of ATP/kg of body weight/min, which was increased by 0.05 mg/kg/min increments at 10-minute intervals until a rate of 1.0 mg/kg/min was achieved. Data were collected prior to the start of the infusion, at the end of each infusion rate, and at 15-minute intervals for the next hour after discontinuation of the infusion. Measured or calculated hemodynamic variables included cardiac output, cardiac index, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances. Arterial blood gas tensions, CBC, plasma biochemical profiles, urine volume and specific gravity, and selected clinical signs of disease also were evaluated.

Results

Intravenous infusion of ATP-MgCl2 significantly increased cardiac output, decreased systemic vascular resistance, and caused mild pulmonary hypertension. Magnitude of the hemodynamic alterations was dependent on rate of infusion. Maximal safe infusion rate for these horses was 0.3 mg/kg/min. All horses became lethargic, and their appetites diminished during the infusion; 5 horses had mild signs of abdominal discomfort. Flank sweating was observed in all horses as infusion rate increased. Urine volume and specific gravity and hematologic, biochemical, and arterial blood gas alterations were detected during and after infusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Intravenous administration of ATP-MgCl2 in healthy, conscious, adult horses caused various metabolic and hemodynamic alterations that were without appreciable detrimental effects. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1140–1147)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research