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Abstract

Objective

To examine the ability of meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, to mediate the effects of sodium urate-induced acute stifle synovitis in dogs.

Animals

12 clinically normal adult hound-type dogs.

Procedure

A blinded, randomized, controlled single crossover design study was performed to determine the efficacy of meloxicam, using 2 dosage groups. In 2 experimental phases, dogs, according to group, received meloxicam (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg of body weight) or matched volume of meloxicam vehicle, with a washout period of 21 to 28 days between phases. Blood samples for hematologic and biochemical analysis, as well as synovial fluid for cytologic analysis, were collected immediately before and approximately 24 hours after articular challenge of dogs under propofol anesthesia. Ground reaction forces (GRF) and subjective clinical scores were determined before and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after articular challenge. Vertical force data included peak force, impulse, limb loading, and unloading rates. Craniocaudal data were divided into braking and propulsion phases and consisted of peak force and associated impulses.

Results

Except for propulsion impulse at 24 hours, all GRF variables were significantly greater at all postsynovitis induction times in the group receiving the high meloxicam dose. Significant differences in all GRF variables were seen at various times between the low-dose meloxicam group and the corresponding control group, and between the low- and high-dose meloxicam groups. Similar significance was seen in the subjective clinical evaluations. Strong correlations existed between the subjective and objective data.

Conclusions

Meloxicam was effective in attenuating the effects of sodium urate-induced acute synovitis in dogs. Kinetic gait data provided an objective measurement of lameness in an experimentally induced arthritis model and quantified lameness improvements in response to medication with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:626–631)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Chronic Escherichia coli-associated prostatitis was induced in 16 dogs; 9 noninfected dogs served as controls; and all dogs were vasectomized. Two to 3 weeks after instillation of bacteria directly into the prostate, the urine or prostatic fluid or both from 13 of 16 dogs were culture positive. Enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent, was administered orally to all dogs during the third or fourth week after surgery, at a dosage of approximately 5 mg/kg of body weight, every 12 hours for 7 days. Serum and prostatic fluid concentrations of enrofloxacin were concurrently measured in all dogs on days 2, 4, and 6 at 2 hours after dosing. Serum and prostatic tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin were concurrently measured in all dogs on day 7, at 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 hours after dosing. When values for these samples were compared, using a two-factor anova, significant differences were not found. Use of this dosing regimen of enrofloxacin resulted in prostatic fluid and prostatic tissue concentrations exceeding the minimum inhibitory concentration of most pathogens that cause bacterial prostatitis. In addition, prostatic fluid-to-serum and prostatic tissue-to-serum concentration ratios were greater than 1.0.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine longitudinal changes in serum and synovial fluid concentrations of keratan sulfate (KS) and hyaluronan (HA) after cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) transection in dogs.

Animals—12 clinically normal adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Following CCL transection in the right stifle joint, KS and HA concentrations were determined in serum and neat (undiluted) synovial fluid prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 12 months after surgery. Postsurgical dilution of synovial fluid was corrected by use of urea as a passive marker.

Results—Synovial fluid KS and HA concentrations decreased at 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery in operated stifle joints, compared with baseline values. Synovial fluid KS concentration decreased in unoperated stifle joints at 1 month. A decrease in synovial fluid KS concentration was found in operated stifle joints, compared with unoperated stifle joints, at 2 and 3 months, and a decrease in synovial fluid HA concentrations was also found in operated stifle joints, compared with unoperated stifle joints, at 1, 2, and 3 months. Serum KS concentrations increased from baseline values at 3 months after surgery. Hyaluronan concentrations in operated stifle joints were lower than baseline values at 1, 2, and 3 months. Urea-adjusted synovial fluid concentrations revealed that dilution did not account for the decline in biomarker concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The initial decrease and subsequent increase in synovial fluid concentrations of HA and KS may be caused by an acute inflammatory response to surgical intervention that negatively affects cartilage metabolism or an increase in production of immature proteoglycans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the ability of a proprietary antagonist of E-type prostanoid receptor (EP) 4, grapiprant, and carprofen to attenuate lameness attributable to urate-induced synovitis in dogs.

ANIMALS

5 purpose-bred hound-cross dogs.

PROCEDURES

A blinded, 3-way crossover study was performed. Dogs received each of 3 treatments (L-766, a proprietary antagonist of EP4; 4.0 mg/kg), grapiprant (an antagonist of EP4; 2.0 mg/kg), and carprofen (4.4 mg/kg); dogs received 4 doses of each treatment (14 and 2 hours before and 22 and 46 hours after urate injection). Synovitis was induced by intra-articular injection of sodium urate. Measurements (vertical ground reaction forces and clinical lameness scores) were obtained immediately before (0 hours; baseline) and 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after sodium urate injection. All data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA.

RESULTS

Lameness scores at 6 hours were significantly higher than baseline lameness scores for all treatments. Lameness scores for the grapiprant treatment remained significantly higher at 12 and 24 hours, compared with baseline lameness scores. Lameness scores for the carprofen treatment were significantly lower than lameness scores for the grapiprant treatment at 6, 12, and 24 hours. Analysis of peak vertical force and vertical impulse data revealed a pattern similar to that for lameness scores. Treatment with L-766 resulted in a significantly higher vertical impulse at 48 hours than did treatment with carprofen or grapiprant.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In these dogs, carprofen was the most effective treatment for attenuating lameness induced by injection of sodium urate, and grapiprant was the least effective treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate in vivo effects of tepoxalin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX), on prostaglandin (PG) and leukotriene production in osteoarthritic dogs.

Animals—7 mixed-breed adult dogs with chronic unilateral arthritis of a stifle joint.

Procedure—Dogs were treated in accordance with a randomized 3-way crossover design. Each dog received an inert substance, meloxicam, or tepoxalin for 10 days. On day 0 (baseline), 3, and 10, dogs were anesthetized and samples of blood, stifle joint synovial fluid, and gastric mucosa were collected. Concentrations of PGE2 were measured in synovial fluid and after lipopolysaccharide stimulation of whole blood; PGE1 and PGE2 synthesis was measured in gastric mucosa. Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) concentration was measured in whole blood. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) concentration was determined in gastric mucosa and in whole blood after ex vivo stimulation with a calcium ionophore.

Results—Tepoxalin significantly decreased LTB4 concentrations in the blood and gastric mucosa at day 10 and TxB2 concentrations in the blood and PGE2 in the gastric mucosa and synovial fluid at days 3 and 10, compared with baseline values. Meloxicam significantly decreased PGE2 concentrations in the blood at days 3 and 10 and synovial fluid at day 3. Meloxicam also decreased PGE1 and PGE2 synthesis in the gastric mucosa at day 3. Meloxicam did not affect LTB4 synthesis in the blood or LTB4 concentrations in the gastric mucosa.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tepoxalin has in vivo inhibitory activity against COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX in dogs at the current approved recommended dosage. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:966–972)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate in vivo activityin dogs of meloxicam or aspirin, previously shown in vitro to be a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (COX-1 sparing drug), or a nonselective COX inhibitor, respectively.

Animals—12 male dogs with unilateral osteoarthritis of the stifle joint.

Procedure—Each dog was treated in a crossover design with aspirin or meloxicam for 21 days. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations were measured at days 0 (baseline), 7, and 21 of each treatment period in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated blood, synovial fluid collected by arthrocentesis, and endoscopic gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was evaluated in blood on days 0, 7, and 21 of each treatment period.

Results—Aspirin administration significantly suppressed PGE2 concentrations in blood, gastric mucosa, synovial fluid, and suppressed TXB2 concentration in blood at days 7 and 21. Meloxicam administration significantly suppressed PGE2 concentrations in blood and synovial fluid at days 7 and 21, but had no effect on concentrations of TXB2 in blood or PGE2 in gastric mucosa. Suppression of LPS-stimulated PGE2 concentrations in blood and synovial fluid by aspirin and meloxicam administration is consistent with activity against the COX-2 isoenzyme. Suppression of concentrations of PGE2 in the gastric mucosa and TXB2 in blood by aspirin administration is consistent with activity against COX-1. Meloxicam, in contrast, had a minimal effect on functions mediated by COX-1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meloxicam acts in vivo in dogs as a COX-1 sparing drug on target tissues by sparing gastric PGE2 synthesis while retaining antiprostaglandin effects within inflamed joints. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1527–1531)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the in vivo effects of firocoxib, meloxicam, and tepoxalin on prostaglandin (PG) and leukotriene production in duodenal mucosa and other target tissues in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis (OA).

Animals—8 dogs with chronic, unilateral OA of the stifle joint.

Procedures—In a crossover design, each dog received placebo (no treatment), firocoxib, meloxicam, or tepoxalin for 7 days, followed by a 21-day washout period. On the first day of treatment (day 0; baseline) and days 2, 4, and 7, samples of whole blood, synovial fluid, and gastric and duodenal mucosae were collected. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations were measured in synovial fluid of the stifle joint and after ex vivo stimulation of whole blood samples. Synthesis of PGE1 and PGE2 was measured in samples of gastric and duodenal mucosae. Concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) were measured in whole blood samples. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) concentrations were measured in samples of whole blood (ex vivo stimulation) and gastric and duodenal mucosae.

Results—Firocoxib, meloxicam, and tepoxalin significantly suppressed whole blood concentrations of PGE2, compared with baseline and placebo concentrations, at days 2, 4, and 7. Tepoxalin significantly suppressed serum TxB2 concentrations, compared with baseline, firocoxib, meloxicam, and placebo, at all 3 time points. Production of PGE1 and PGE2 was significantly lower in duodenal versus gastric mucosa. Tepoxalin significantly decreased rates of PGE1 and PGE2 in duodenal and gastric mucosae, compared with baseline rates.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PG production was lower in the duodenum than in the stomach. Firocoxib had a COX-1–sparing effect in vivo.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of firocoxib, meloxicam, and tepoxalin administration in healthy cats by measuring the ability of stimulated tissues to synthesize eicosanoids ex vivo.

Animals—8 healthy adult male cats.

Procedures—In a blinded, randomized, crossover study design, cats were treated with firocoxib (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), meloxicam (0.05 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), tepoxalin (5.0 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), or a placebo for 8 days. Blood samples and gastric and duodenal mucosal biopsy specimens were collected on days 0 (baseline; immediately before treatment), 3, and 8 of each treatment period. Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentrations were measured in serum, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) concentrations were measured in plasma. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) synthesis, PGE2 synthesis, and LTB4 concentrations were measured in mucosal biopsy specimens. A 21-day minimum washout period was observed between treatments. Repeated-measures analyses were performed.

Results—Firocoxib and meloxicam administration resulted in a lower plasma PGE2 concentration than at baseline on days 3 and 8 of administration, whereas tepoxalin administration did not. Tepoxalin administration resulted in a lower serum TXB2 concentration and pyloric and duodenal PGE1 synthesis on both days, compared with baseline and placebo administration. Neither firocoxib nor meloxicam administration altered pyloric or duodenal PGE1 synthesis on either day, compared with placebo administration. Tepoxalin administration also resulted in lower pyloric mucosal LTB4 concentrations on both days, compared with baseline values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Firocoxib and meloxicam administration had no effect on cyclooxygenase-1 activity, whereas tepoxalin administration resulted in inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1067–1073)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of clopidogrel and the metabolite SR 26334 in dogs.

Animals—9 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—8 dogs received clopidogrel (mean ± SD 1.13 ± 0.17 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 3 days; 5 of these dogs subsequently received a lower dose of clopidogrel (0.5 ± 0.18 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 3 days. Later, 5 dogs received clopidogrel (1.09 ± 0.12 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 5 days. Blood samples were collected for optical platelet aggregometry, citrated native and platelet mapping thrombelastography (TEG), and measurement of plasma drug concentrations. Impedance aggregometry was performed on samples from 3 dogs in each 3-day treatment group.

Results—ADP-induced platelet aggregation decreased (mean ± SD 93 ± 6% and 80 ± 22% of baseline values, respectively) after 72 hours in dogs in both 3-day treatment groups; duration of effect ranged from > 3 to > 7 days. Platelet mapping TEG and impedance aggregometry yielded similar results. Citrated native TEG was not different among groups. Clopidogrel was not detected in any samples; in dogs given 1.13 ± 0.17 mg/kg, maximum concentration of SR 26334 (mean ± SD, 0.206 ± 0.2 μg/mL) was detected 1 hour after administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clopidogrel inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in healthy dogs and may be a viable antiplatelet agent for use in dogs.

Impact for Human Medicine—Pharmacodynamic effects of clopidogrel in dogs were similar to effects reported in humans; clopidogrel may be useful in studies involving dogs used to investigate human disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantify the 3-D kinematics and collateral ligament strain of stifle joints in cadaveric canine limbs before and after cranial cruciate ligament transection followed by total knee replacement (TKR) involving various tibial plateau angles and spacer thicknesses.

Sample—6 hemi-pelvises collected from clinically normal nonchondrodystrophic dogs (weight range, 25 to 35 kg).

Procedures—Hemi-pelvises were mounted on a modified Oxford knee rig that allowed 6 degrees of freedom of the stifle joint but prevented mechanical movement of the hip and tarsal joints. Kinematics and collateral ligament strain were measured continuously while stifle joints were flexed. Data were again collected after cranial cruciate ligament transection and TKR with combinations of 3 plateau angles (0°, 4°, and 8°) and spacer thicknesses (5, 7, and 9 mm).

Results—Presurgical (ie, normal) stifle joint rotations were comparable to those previously documented for live dogs. After TKR, kinematics recorded for the 8°, 5-mm implant most closely resembled those of unaltered stifle joints. Decreasing the plateau angle and increasing spacer thickness altered stifle joint adduction, internal rotation, and medial translation. Medial collateral ligament strain was minimal in unaltered stifle joints and was unaffected by TKR. Lateral collateral ligament strain decreased with steeper plateau angles but returned to a presurgical level at the flattest plateau angle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among the constructs tested, greatest normalization of canine stifle joint kinematics in vitro was achieved with the steepest plateau angle paired with the thinnest spacer. Furthermore, results indicated that strain to the collateral ligaments was not negatively affected by TKR.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research