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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate transurethral cystoscopy and excretory urography for diagnosis of ectopic ureter in female dogs and identify concurrent urogenital abnormalities.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—25 female dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of female dogs that underwent transurethral cystoscopy, excretory urography, and ventral cystotomy were reviewed for signalment, history, physical examination findings, results of bacteriologic culture of urine, and surgical findings. Videotapes of transurethral cystoscopy and radiographic studies were reviewed systematically without knowledge of surgical findings.

Results—Ectopic ureters were diagnosed in 24 of 25 (96%) of the dogs, bilaterally in 22 of 24 (91.6%) dogs. Cystoscopic evaluation yielded a correct diagnosis in all dogs when results of ventral cystotomy were used as the diagnostic standard. Cystoscopic evaluation identified a terminal ureteral opening for all ureters. Urethral fenestrations, troughs, striping, and tenting were identified. Abnormalities of the vestibule were identified in all examinations available for review (24/25). The paramesonephric septal remnant and its association with ectopic ureters were identified and characterized by cystoscopy. Radiographic findings were discordant with surgical findings and correctly identified 36 of 46 (78.2%) ectopic ureters and 2 of 4 normal ureters. Hydroureter and renal abnormalities were associated with distal urethral ectopic ureters on radiographic evaluations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transurethral cystoscopy was accurate and minimally invasive for identification and classification of ectopic ureters in dogs. Contrast radiography had limitations in diagnosis of ectopic ureters. Cystoscopic findings and associated vaginal and vestibular abnormalities support abnormal embryologic development in the pathogenesis of ectopic ureters. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:475–481)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—48 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 17 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Blood was collected and serum ketone, glucose, lactate, electrolytes, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, nonesterified fatty acid, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. Indicators of acid-base status were calculated and compared between groups.

Results—Serum ketone and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in diabetic than in healthy dogs, but there was no difference in venous blood pH or base excess between groups. Anion gap and strong ion difference were significantly higher and strong ion gap and serum bicarbonate concentration were significantly lower in the diabetic dogs. There were significant linear relationships between measures of acid-base status and serum ketone concentration, but not between measures of acid-base status and serum lactate concentration. Serum insulin concentration did not differ significantly between groups, but diabetic dogs had a wider range of values. All diabetic dogs with a serum ketone concentration > 1,000 μmol/L had a serum insulin concentration < 5 μU/mL. There were strong relationships between serum ketone concentration and serum glucagon-insulin ratio, serum cortisol concentration, and plasma norepinephrine concentration. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, expressed as a percentage of serum ketone concentration, decreased as serum ketone concentration increased.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ketosis in diabetic dogs was related to the glucagon-insulin ratio with only low concentrations of insulin required to prevent ketosis. Acidosis in ketotic dogs was attributable largely to high serum ketone concentrations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To use scintigraphy to determine the effects of partial ureteral obstruction on renal transit time and induction of diuresis in dogs.

Animals

8 adult dogs.

Procedure

Scintigraphy was performed, using technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (Tc 99m-DTPA), before and within 2 weeks after surgical induction of unilateral partial ureteral obstruction. Time of peak (TOP) for the parenchyma (pTOP) and whole kidney (wTOP) and mean-transit time (MTT) for the parenchyma (pMTT) and whole kidney (wMTT) were determined by evaluation of renal time-activity curves before and after deconvolution analysis. Percentage uptake for each kidney between 1 and 3 minutes after injection of Tc 99m-DTPA was determined and used to indicate glomerular filtration rate. The effect of diuresis was determined by measuring the slope of decrease in activity after IV administration of furosemide. Obstruction was documented by direct inspection of the ureter.

Results

There was a concomitant increase in pTOP, wTOP, pMTT, and wMTT of the kidney with the partially obstructed ureter in all dogs at various times between 2 and 9 days after surgery. Concurrently, renal time-activity curves changed shape. Percentage renal uptake of the affected kidney was decreased in 2 dogs. Response to furosemide injection was inconsistent for kidneys before surgery and for kidneys with obstructed and nonobstructed ureters after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Scintigraphy may be a useful procedure for the evaluation of renal function in dogs with ureteral obstruction. Induction of diuresis appears to be of little value for differentiating renal function in dogs with obstructed and nonobstructed ureters. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1383–1389)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To compare recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) in cats with idiopathic cystitis that were fed the dry or canned formulation of a commercial diet designed to result in production of an acidic urine.

Design

Prospective trial.

Animals

54 client-owned cats with idiopathic cystitis that was diagnosed on the basis of a history of abnormal micturition, abnormal results on urinalysis, radiography, or cystoscopy, and lack of an alternative diagnosis.

Procedure

Cats were assigned to be fed the canned or dry formulation of the diet. Reevaluations conducted at 2 and 16 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months included a physical examination, CBC and serum biochemical analysis (except week 2), blood gas analysis, and urinalysis. Regular telephone contacts were also made. The study was discontinued after 12 months or if signs of LUTD recurred.

Results

Signs of LUTD did not recur in 16 of 18 cats fed the canned diet, and 17 of 28 cats fed the dry diet (χ2, P < 0.05). Seven cats were reevaluated at recurrence. Owners of remaining cats in which signs of LUTD recurred declined to have their pets reexamined. A different problem (bacterial urinary tract infection) was identified in only 1 cat on reevaluation. Eight cats were lost to follow-up evaluation.

Clinical Implications

Feeding this commercial canned urinary acidifying diet may reduce the proportion of cats with idiopathic cystitis that will have recurrence of signs of LUTD within a 12-month period. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:361–365)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of amitriptyline hydrochloride in the treatment of severe recurrent idiopathic cystitis (IC) in cats.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

15 cats with IC that failed to respond to other treatments.

Procedure

Each cat received 10 mg of amitriptyline, PO, every 24 hours in the evening for 12 months or until signs recurred. Urinalysis, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urine bacteriologic culture, and cystoscopy were performed initially, and after 6 and 12 months in responders. Severity scores of owner-observed signs of lower urinary tract (bladder and urethra) disease were recorded.

Results

During the first 6 months of treatment, 11 of the 15 cats had no owner-observed signs of lower urinary tract disease. During the next 6 months, 9 of 15 cats remained free of signs of cystitis. Despite clinical improvement, cystoscopic abnormalities persisted in all cats at the 6- and 12-month evaluations. Hematuria and proteinuria were decreased at the 12-month evaluation compared with the initial evaluation. Two of 15 cats initially appeared somnolent after amitriptyline treatment. Of 9 cats completing the study, 7 had increased body weight and 8 had decreased coat quality compared with the initial evaluations. Four cats developed small cystic calculi during the first 6 months of the study. Serum biochemical or hematologic abnormalities were not detected during the study.

Clinical Implications

Amitriptyline treatment successfully decreased clinical signs of severe recurrent IC in 9 of 15 cats treated. Somnolence, weight gain, decreased grooming, and transient cystic calculi were observed during treatment in some cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1282-1286)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate blood pressure, renal function, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in cats with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and to assess the effect of enalapril on these variables.

Animals

6 cats with ADPKD and 6 age-matched healthy cats.

Procedure

To measure blood pressure and heart rate, a radiotelemetry catheter was placed in the left femoral artery of each cat. Baseline data collection included 24-hour blood pressure, heart rate, and motor activity. Blood was then collected for analysis of RAAS status and renal function. Enalapril (0.5 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 24 h) was administered for 1 week, and data collection was repeated.

Results

Differences in baseline blood pressure, heart rate, motor activity, RAAS status, and renal function were not detected between cats with ADPKD and control cats. Hypertension was not documented in cats with ADPKD. Blood pressure was significantly reduced for 15 to 17 hours after treatment with enalapril in both groups. Administration of enalapril also resulted in significant increases in plasma renin activity and significant decreases in angiotensin converting enzyme activity and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration but only minimal changes in glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow in both groups of cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Although hypertension is common in humans with ADPKD, cats with ADPKD were normotensive. Treatment with enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) significantly reduced blood pressure in normotensive healthy cats and cats with ADPKD, and resulted in predictable changes in RAAS enzyme activities and hormone concentrations. Enalapril had minimal effects on renal function. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1516–1525)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records of 11 cats with lymphoma involving large granular lymphocytes were reviewed. All 9 cats tested were FeLV-negative. Ten cats had a history of anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, or diarrhea, and had lymphoma involving abdominal viscera. The most common site of tumor in these cats was the jejunum. One cat had cutaneous masses caused by dermal and epidermal infiltration with neoplastic large granular lymphocytes. The most common hematologic abnormality was leukocytosis, characterized by neutrophilia with a left shift (7 cats); 2 cats had a left shift without neutrophilia. None of the cats had lymphocytosis, but immature large granular lymphocytes were found in the blood of 4 cats. The most common serum biochemical abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia (10 cats), hypocalcemia (10 cats), hypoproteinemia (9 cats), high aspartate transaminase activity (9 cats), and hyperbilirubinemia (8 cats).

Large granular lymphocytes were characterized by abundant cytoplasm containing distinct azurophilic granules that varied in size and number. The most common cytochemical staining pattern included detection of α-naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, and β-glucuronidase activities. On examination of histologic sections, granules stained weakly eosinophilic with Giemsa and moderately with periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Ultrastructurally, the granules appeared membrane bound and contained an electron-dense matrix in 4 cats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine maximum extrarenal plasma clearance of technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc–MAG3) and maximum extrarenal hepatic uptake of 99mTc–MAG3 in cats.

Animals—6 clinically normal adult cats.

Procedure—Simultaneously, baseline plasma clearance and camera-based uptake of 99mTc–MAG3 were determined in anesthetized cats. Double exponential curves were fitted to plasma clearance data. Injected dose was divided by area under the curve and body weight to determine 99mTc–MAG3 clearance. Regions of interest were drawn around kidneys and liver, and percentage dose uptake was determined 1 to 3 minutes after injection. After bilateral nephrectomy, simultaneous extrarenal plasma clearance and camera- based hepatic uptake of 99mTc–MAG3 were evaluated in each cat.

Results—Mean ± SD baseline plasma clearance and extrarenal clearance were 5.29 ± 0.77 and 0.84 ± 0.47 mL/min/kg, respectively. Mean extrarenal clearance (as a percentage of baseline plasma clearance) was 16.06 ± 7.64%. For right, left, and both kidneys, mean percentage dose uptake was 9.42 ± 2.58, 9.37 ± 0.86, and 18.79 ± 2.47%, respectively. Mean hepatic percentage dose uptake before and after nephrectomy was 12.95 ± 0.93 and 21.47 ± 2.00%, respectively. Mean percentage change of hepatic uptake after nephrectomy was 166.89 ± 23.19%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, extrarenal clearance of 99mTc–MAG3 is higher than that of other species; therefore, 99mTc–MAG3 is not useful for estimation of renal function in felids. Evaluation of renal function in cats may be more accurate via camera- based versus plasma clearance-based methods because camera-based studies can discriminate specific organs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1076–1080)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research