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Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of horses in which cutaneous masses were removed with a carbon dioxide laser.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—32 horses.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with 1 or more cutaneous masses treated with a carbon dioxide laser were examined. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—Cutaneous masses were classified as sarcoids (15 horses), neoplastic masses other than sarcoids (squamous cell carcinoma [9]; fibroma [1]; and melanoma [1]), and nonneoplastic masses (6). Minimum follow-up time was 6 months. Five sarcoids and 2 squamous cell carcinomas recurred. Seven (21%) horses had complications associated with dehiscence of wounds that had been closed primarily or failure of wound healing because of recurrence of the mass. Twenty-six (81%) owners were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance following surgery.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a carbon dioxide laser may be effective for treatment of cutaneous masses in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1192–1197)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the management of equids undergoing cryptorchidectomy at a referral hospital.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—604 client-owned equids.

Procedures—Medical records of all equids undergoing surgical treatment of cryptorchidism from 1977 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses of breed, location of retained testes, accuracy of palpation per rectum for determining the location of retained testes, surgical technique, and postoperative complications were performed.

Results—The most frequently affected breed was the Quarter Horse (282/604 [47%]), which was significantly overrepresented. Of the 604 equids, 90 (15%) had undergone previous surgical attempts at castration. Preoperative palpation per rectum was performed in 395/604 (65.4%) patients, and was accurate in predicting the location of the retained testes in 354/395 (89.6%). Surgeons were significantly more likely to be incorrect in determining the location of the retained testis by means of palpation per rectum in patients that had undergone a prior attempt at castration. For equids with abdominal cryptorchidism (360/604 [59.6%]), the most common surgical technique was noninvasive cryptorchidectomy (298/360 [82.8%]). In unilateral cryptorchids (521/604 [86.3%]), the 2 most common sites were left abdominal (184/521 [35.3%]) and right inguinal (148/521 [28.4%]). For bilateral retention (80/604 [13.2%]), abdominal cryptorchidism was most common (48/80 [60%]). Fever was present in 138/324 (43%) equids on the first day after surgery. Postoperative fever was not significantly associated with any variables evaluated. Including postoperative (≤ 24 hours) fever, 150 of 604 (25%) patients developed postoperative complications. Excluding postoperative fever, 18 of 604 (3%) patients developed major postoperative complications; complications in 10 of 604 patients were deemed surgically related, and 3 of 604 patients died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cryptorchidectomy in equids performed with a variety of surgical approaches was associated with minimal postoperative complications. A history of previous attempts at castration decreased the ability to accurately predict the location of the retained testis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical features of horses with a slab fracture of the central or third tarsal bone and to report outcome of horses in which treatment did not include surgery.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—25 horses (14 Standardbreds, 6 Thoroughbreds, 5 Quarter Horses).

Procedure—Medical records of horses with a slab fracture of the central (n = 9) or third (16) tarsal bone were reviewed. Only horses for which treatment consisted of confinement to a stall were included in this study. Clinical features and radiographic findings were recorded and summarized. Outcome was determined for racing breeds by obtaining official lifetime race results. Outcome for Quarter Horses was determined by phone survey of the owners.

Results—16 (64%) horses had a successful outcome. Ten of 14 (71%) Standardbreds and 2 of 6 Thoroughbreds returned to racing and started at least 5 races after injury. Four of 5 Quarter Horses for which follow-up information was available successfully returned to their previous activity. Sex, age, limb affected, or gait was not associated with final outcome. Percentage of racehorses with central tarsal bone fractures that had a successful outcome (2/7) was significantly less than percentage with third tarsal bone fractures that did (10/13).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that enforced rest without surgical fixation can be an effective therapeutic option for horses with a slab fracture of the central or third tarsal bone, even if athletic function is expected. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1949–1954)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical findings, complications, and outcome of horses and foals with third metacarpal, third metatarsal, or phalangeal fractures that were treated with transfixation casting.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—29 adult horses and 8 foals with fractures of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone or the proximal or middle phalanx.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed, and follow-up information was obtained. Data were analyzed by use of logistic regression models for survival, fracture healing, return to intended use, pin loosening, pin hole lysis, and complications associated with pins.

Results—In 27 of 35 (77%) horses, the fracture healed and the horse survived, including 10 of 15 third metacarpal or metatarsal bone fractures, 11 of 12 proximal phalanx fractures, and 6 of 8 middle phalanx fractures. Four adult horses sustained a fracture through a pin hole. One horse sustained a pathologic unicortical fracture secondary to a pin hole infec-tion. Increasing body weight, fracture involving 2 joints, nondiaphyseal fracture location, and increasing duration until radiographic union were associated with horses not returning to their intended use. After adjusting for body weight, pin loosening was associated with di-aphyseal pin location, pin hole lysis was associated with number of days with a transfixation cast, and pin complications were associated with hand insertion of pins.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that transfixation casting can be successful in managing fractures distal to the carpus or tarsus in horses. This technique is most suitable for comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx but can be used for third metacarpal, third metatarsal, or middle phalanx fractures, with or without internal fixation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate microtiter-plate format ELISAs constructed by use of different diagnostic targets derived from the Ehrlichia ewingii p28 outer membrane protein for detection of E ewingii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected dogs.

Sample Population—Serum samples from 87 kenneled dogs, 9 dogs experimentally infected with anti-E ewingii, and 180 potentially naturally exposed dogs from Missouri.

Procedures—The capacities of the synthetic peptide and truncated recombinant protein to function as detection reagents in ELISAs were compared by use of PCR assay, western blot analysis, and a full-length recombinant protein ELISA. Diagnostic targets included an E ewingii synthetic peptide (EESP) and 2 recombinant proteins: a full-length E ewingii outer membrane protein (EEp28) and a truncated E ewingii outer membrane protein (EETp28)

Results—A subset of Ehrlichia canis-positive samples cross-reacted in the EEp28 ELISA; none were reactive in the EESP and EETp28 ELISAs. The EESP- and EETp28-based ELISAs detected E ewingii seroconversion at approximately the same time after infection as the EEp28 ELISAs. In afield population, each of the ELISAs identified the same 35 samples as reactive and 27 samples as nonreactive. Anaplasma and E can is peptides used in a commercially available ELISA platform did not detect anti-E ewingii antibodies in experimentally infected dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The EESP and EETp28 ELISAs were suitable for specifically detecting anti-E ewingii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected dogs. [Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1195-1200)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research