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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI) concentration and results of abdominal ultrasonography, CBC, and serum biochemical analyses for diagnosis of pancreatitis in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—28 cats with clinical signs compatible with pancreatitis.

Procedure—Serum fTLI concentrations were determined, and abdominal ultrasonography, CBC, and serum biochemical analyses were performed prior to histologic evaluation of pancreatic, hepatic, and intestinal specimens. On the basis of histologic results, cats were categorized as having a normal pancreas (n = 10), pancreatic fibrosis with ongoing inflammation (9), pancreatic fibrosis without inflammation (4), and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (5). Serum fTLI concentrations and results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and histologic evaluation of hepatic and intestinal specimens were compared among groups.

Results—Significant differences in serum fTLI concentrations or any hematologic or biochemical variable were not detected among the 4 groups of cats. Median serum fTLI concentrations were 51 µg/L (range, 18 to 200 µg/L) in cats with a normal pancreas, 32 µg/L (range, 12 to > 200 µg/L) in cats with pancreatic fibrosis and ongoing inflammation, 124 µg/L (range, 36 to > 200 µg/L) in cats with pancreatic fibrosis without ongoing inflammation, and 30 µg/L (range, 24 to 84 µg/L) in cats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. We detected a high prevalence of concurrent hepatic and intestinal tract disease in cats with pancreatitis.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In cats with clinical signs of pancreatitis, serum fTLI concentration is poorly associated with histopathologic diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:37–42)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine quality and duration of progression-free survival (PFS) time in dogs with unresectable thyroid carcinomas treated with definitive megavoltage irradiation and analyze prognostic factors of PFS and patterns of failure (local recurrence vs metastasis).

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—25 dogs with locally advanced thyroid carcinomas and no evidence of metastasis.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with 48 Gy during 4 weeks on an alternate-day schedule of 4 Gy/fraction.

Results—Irradiation was safe and effective for treatment of large unresectable thyroid carcinomas. Progression-free survival rates were 80% at 1 year and 72% at 3 years. Time to maximum tumor size reduction ranged from 8 to 22 months. Factors affecting PFS were not found. Twenty-eight percent (7/25) of dogs developed metastasis. Dogs with bilateral tumors had 16 times the risk of developing metastases, compared with dogs with a single tumor. Dogs with no evidence of tumor progression had 15 times less risk of developing metastases. Radiation-induced hypothyroidism was suspected in 2 dogs 13 and 29 months after irradiation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Irradiation is effective for local control of thyroid tumors, despite their slow regression rate. Results provided evidence that local tumor control affects metastatic outcome in dogs with thyroid carcinomas and is a strong basis for the development of new approaches that include irradiation in the management of dogs with advanced thyroid carcinomas. Improvements in local tumor control alone may be insufficient to improve survival times because of the high risk of metastatic spread before an initial diagnosis is made, which warrants initiation of early systemic treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 1775–1779)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of and complications associated with cricopharyngeal myotomy or myectomy for treatment of cricopharyngeal dysphagia (CPD) in dogs

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with CPD that underwent cricopharyngeal myotomy or myectomy were examined. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners and referring veterinarians and clinical examinations when feasible.

Results—16 surgical procedures were performed on the 14 dogs. Dysphagia was completely resolved immediately after surgery in 1 dog, and clinical signs did not recur (follow-up time of 8 years); a second dog also had immediate complete resolution of dysphagia, but follow-up time was only 10 days. Three dogs had transient complete resolution with a mean time to recurrence of dysphagia of 12.3 weeks (range, 2 to 36 weeks). Three dogs had permanent partial resolution. Six dogs had no improvement after surgery. Eight of the 14 dogs were euthanatized because of problems related to CPD, including persistent dysphagia (n = 8) and aspiration pneumonia (5).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The failure rate for dogs undergoing surgical treatment of CPD may be high, particularly if concurrent aspiration pneumonia or malnutrition is not addressed prior to surgery. For those dogs with concurrent diseases, more aggressive medical management, such as enteral tube feeding, may be warranted rather than surgery. In dogs with CPD complicated by other anatomic or functional conditions, such as myasthenia gravis, laryngeal paralysis, and esophageal stricture, surgery may also not be indicated. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1462–1468)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To assess the diagnostic yield of a routine fecal panel and determine whether Clostridium perfringens or C difficile toxin production is associated with acute hemorrhagic diarrheal syndrome (AHDS) in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—260 dogs with diarrhea and 177 dogs with normal feces.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for results of culture for C difficile, Campylobacter spp, and Salmonella spp; C perfringens fecal enterotoxin (CPE) assay via ELISA or reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) assay; fecal endospore enumeration; C difficile toxin A assay; and parasite evaluation.

Results—Prevalence of CPE in dogs with diarrhea was 22/154 (14.3%) via ELISA and 47/104 (45.2%) via RPLA assay, versus 9/74 (12%) via ELISA and 26/103 (25%) via RPLA assay in control dogs. Prevalence of C difficile was 47/260 (18%) in dogs with diarrhea and 41/74 (55%) in control dogs. Prevalence of C difficile toxin A was 26/254 (10.2%) in dogs with diarrhea and 0/74 in control dogs. Diagnosis of AHDS was made in 27 dogs; 8 had positive results for CPE, 7 had positive results for toxin A, and 1 had positive results for both toxins. Campylobacter spp were isolated from 13 of 260 (5%) dogs with diarrhea and 21 of 74 (28.4%) control dogs. Salmonella spp were isolated from 3 (1.2%) dogs with diarrhea.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diagnostic value of a fecal panel in dogs with diarrhea appears to be low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:52–59)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the effect of maintenance hemodialysis on plasma amino acid concentrations and to quantitate free amino acid losses into the dialysate during hemodialysis in healthy dogs.

Animals—8 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Five dogs received hemodialysis treatments 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Plasma amino acid concentrations were evaluated once per week for 4 weeks in each of the 5 dogs prior to hemodialysis (time 0), 90 minutes during hemodialysis, and immediately after hemodialysis (180 minutes). Total free amino acid concentrations and plasma amino acid concentrations (time 0, 90 minutes, and 180 minutes) in the dialysate were evaluated in 3 dogs that received 1 hemodialysis treatment.

Results—Significant time versus week interactions with any plasma amino acid were not detected; however, significant decreases in all plasma amino acid concentrations measured were detected at the midpoint of dialysis (46 ± 2%) and at the end of each dialysis session (38 ± 2%). Mean (± SEM) total free amino acid loss into the dialysate was 2.7 ± 0.2 g or 0.12 g/kg of body weight.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hemodialysis is associated with significant alterations in plasma amino acid concentrations and loss of free amino acids into the dialysate. Loss of amino acids into the dialysate, coupled with protein calorie malnutrition in uremic patients, may contribute to depletion of amino acid stores.(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:869–873)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on morphology and compliance of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) by use of impedance planimetry in healthy dogs and to quantify the effect of changes in IAP.

ANIMALS 7 healthy, purpose-bred sexually intact male hound-cross dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized, and cross-sectional area (CSA), minimal diameter (MD), LES length, LES volume, and distensibility index (DI) of the LES were evaluated by use of an endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe. For each dog, measurements were obtained before (baseline) and after creation of a pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg. Order of the IAPs was determined by use of a randomization software program.

RESULTS CSA and MD at 4 and 8 mm Hg were not significantly different from baseline measurements; however, CSA and MD at 15 mm Hg were both significantly greater than baseline measurements. The LES length and LES volume did not differ significantly from baseline measurements at any IAP. The DI differed inconsistently from the baseline measurement but was not substantially affected by IAP.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pneumoperitoneum created with an IAP of 4 or 8 mm Hg did not significantly alter LES morphology in healthy dogs. Pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 15 mm Hg caused a significant increase in CSA and MD of the LES. Compliance of the LES as measured by the DI was not greatly altered by pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of up to 15 mm Hg.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In the broadest sense, aging refers to the natural, progressive series of life stages beginning with conception and continuing through development, maturation, and senescence. Most often, however, the term is more narrowly used to refer to the complex set of biological changes occurring in older individuals that result in a progressive reduction of the ability to maintain homeostasis when exposed to internal physiologic and external environmental stresses. 1 These changes ultimately lead to decreased vitality, increased vulnerability to disease, and eventually death.

Older dogs make up a substantial proportion of the pet dog population in the United States. One

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Although it is often misconstrued as such, aging is not a pathological process but rather comprises the normal, time-dependent changes that occur during the later stages of life in every animal. Today, it is generally accepted that healthy aging is achievable in both humans and animals and should be promoted through effective health-care programs. Aging wellness has been defined as “the development and maintenance of optimal mental, social and physical well-being and function in older adults.” 1,2 Important components of healthy aging in humans include a variety of objective and subjective measures of cognitive, physical, and psychological health. 3,4

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

In Latvia in 2014, acquired idiopathic megaesophagus (AIME) was observed in increased numbers of dogs that consumed varieties of 1 brand of dog food. Within 2 years, 253 dogs were affected. In Australia in November 2017, 6 working dogs that consumed 1 diet of another brand of dog food developed AIME. In total, 145 Australian dogs were affected.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

AIME was diagnosed predominantly in large-breed male dogs (> 25 kg [55 lb]). Regurgitation, weight loss, and occasionally signs consistent with aspiration pneumonia (coughing, dyspnea, or fever) were noted. Most Latvian dogs had mild to severe peripheral polyneuropathies as evidenced by laryngeal paralysis, dysphonia, weakness, and histopathologic findings consistent with distal axonopathy. In Australian dogs, peripheral polyneuropathies were not identified, and histopathologic findings suggested that the innervation of the esophagus and pharynx was disrupted locally, although limited samples were available.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Investigations in both countries included clinical, epidemiological, neuropathologic, and case-control studies. Strong associations between the dog foods and the presence of AIME were confirmed; however, toxicological analyses did not identify a root cause. In Latvia, the implicated dietary ingredients and formulations were unknown, whereas in Australia, extensive investigations were conducted into the food, its ingredients, the supply chain, and the manufacturing facilities, but a cause was not identified.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A panel of international multidisciplinary experts concluded that the cause of AIME in both outbreaks was likely multifactorial, with the possibility of individualized sensitivities. Without a sentinel group, the outbreak in Australia may not have been recognized for months to years, as happened in Latvia. A better surveillance system for early identification of pet illnesses, including those associated with pet foods, is needed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:172–183)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate colonoscopic and histologic features of rectal masses in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 82 client-owned dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy were reviewed. History, signalment, clinical signs, results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging findings, and results of colonoscopy (including complications) were recorded. When available, tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy and by means of surgical biopsy were reviewed by a single board-certified pathologist. Histologic features and tumor grade (when applicable) of tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy versus surgical biopsy were compared.

RESULTS Multiple rectal masses were observed during colonoscopy in 6 of the 82 dogs, but no lesions were visualized orad to the colorectal junction. Results of histologic evaluation of surgical biopsy specimens were consistent with a diagnosis of epithelial neoplasia in 58 of 64 dogs, of which 71% were classified as benign adenoma or polyp and 29% were classified as adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma. Complications of colonoscopy occurred in 3 of 82 dogs but were considered minor. A discrepancy in diagnosis occurred in 5 of 16 dogs for which both colonoscopic and surgical biopsy samples were available for histologic review.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that multiple rectal masses are uncommon in dogs, and secondary lesions orad to the colorectal junction were not found in this study. Colonoscopy was associated with few complications, but the need for colonoscopic assessment of the entire colon in this patient population may merit reevaluation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association