Objective—To evaluate serum feline trypsin-like
immunoreactivity (fTLI) concentration and results of
abdominal ultrasonography, CBC, and serum biochemical
analyses for diagnosis of pancreatitis in cats.
Animals—28 cats with clinical signs compatible with
Procedure—Serum fTLI concentrations were determined,
and abdominal ultrasonography, CBC, and
serum biochemical analyses were performed prior to
histologic evaluation of pancreatic, hepatic, and intestinal
specimens. On the basis of histologic results, cats
were categorized as having a normal pancreas (n =
10), pancreatic fibrosis with ongoing inflammation (9),
pancreatic fibrosis without inflammation (4), and acute
necrotizing pancreatitis (5). Serum fTLI concentrations
and results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and
histologic evaluation of hepatic and intestinal specimens
were compared among groups.
Results—Significant differences in serum fTLI concentrations
or any hematologic or biochemical variable
were not detected among the 4 groups of cats.
Median serum fTLI concentrations were 51 µg/L
(range, 18 to 200 µg/L) in cats with a normal pancreas,
32 µg/L (range, 12 to > 200 µg/L) in cats with
pancreatic fibrosis and ongoing inflammation, 124
µg/L (range, 36 to > 200 µg/L) in cats with pancreatic
fibrosis without ongoing inflammation, and 30 µg/L
(range, 24 to 84 µg/L) in cats with acute necrotizing
pancreatitis. We detected a high prevalence of concurrent
hepatic and intestinal tract disease in cats
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In cats with
clinical signs of pancreatitis, serum fTLI concentration
is poorly associated with histopathologic diagnosis. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:37–42)
Objective—To determine quality and duration of progression-free survival (PFS) time in dogs with unresectable
thyroid carcinomas treated with definitive
megavoltage irradiation and analyze prognostic factors
of PFS and patterns of failure (local recurrence vs
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Animals—25 dogs with locally advanced thyroid carcinomas
and no evidence of metastasis.
Procedure—Dogs were treated with 48 Gy during 4
weeks on an alternate-day schedule of 4 Gy/fraction.
Results—Irradiation was safe and effective for treatment
of large unresectable thyroid carcinomas.
Progression-free survival rates were 80% at 1 year
and 72% at 3 years. Time to maximum tumor size
reduction ranged from 8 to 22 months. Factors affecting
PFS were not found. Twenty-eight percent (7/25)
of dogs developed metastasis. Dogs with bilateral
tumors had 16 times the risk of developing metastases,
compared with dogs with a single tumor. Dogs
with no evidence of tumor progression had 15 times
less risk of developing metastases. Radiation-induced
hypothyroidism was suspected in 2 dogs 13 and 29
months after irradiation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Irradiation is
effective for local control of thyroid tumors, despite
their slow regression rate. Results provided evidence
that local tumor control affects metastatic
outcome in dogs with thyroid carcinomas and is a
strong basis for the development of new approaches
that include irradiation in the management of
dogs with advanced thyroid carcinomas. Improvements
in local tumor control alone may be
insufficient to improve survival times because of the
high risk of metastatic spread before an initial diagnosis
is made, which warrants initiation of early systemic
treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:
Objective—To determine outcome of and complications
associated with cricopharyngeal myotomy or
myectomy for treatment of cricopharyngeal dysphagia
(CPD) in dogs
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with CPD that
underwent cricopharyngeal myotomy or myectomy
were examined. Follow-up information was obtained
through telephone interviews with owners and referring
veterinarians and clinical examinations when feasible.
Results—16 surgical procedures were performed
on the 14 dogs. Dysphagia was completely
resolved immediately after surgery in 1 dog, and
clinical signs did not recur (follow-up time of 8
years); a second dog also had immediate complete
resolution of dysphagia, but follow-up time was
only 10 days. Three dogs had transient complete
resolution with a mean time to recurrence of dysphagia
of 12.3 weeks (range, 2 to 36 weeks). Three
dogs had permanent partial resolution. Six dogs
had no improvement after surgery. Eight of the 14
dogs were euthanatized because of problems related
to CPD, including persistent dysphagia (n = 8)
and aspiration pneumonia (5).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The failure
rate for dogs undergoing surgical treatment of CPD
may be high, particularly if concurrent aspiration
pneumonia or malnutrition is not addressed prior to
surgery. For those dogs with concurrent diseases,
more aggressive medical management, such as
enteral tube feeding, may be warranted rather than
surgery. In dogs with CPD complicated by other
anatomic or functional conditions, such as myasthenia
gravis, laryngeal paralysis, and esophageal stricture,
surgery may also not be indicated. (J Am Vet Med
Objectives—To assess the diagnostic yield of a routine
fecal panel and determine whether Clostridium
perfringens or C difficile toxin production is associated
with acute hemorrhagic diarrheal syndrome
(AHDS) in dogs.
Animals—260 dogs with diarrhea and 177 dogs with
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for
results of culture for C difficile, Campylobacter spp,
and Salmonella spp; C perfringens fecal enterotoxin
(CPE) assay via ELISA or reverse passive latex
agglutination (RPLA) assay; fecal endospore enumeration;
C difficile toxin A assay; and parasite
Results—Prevalence of CPE in dogs with diarrhea
was 22/154 (14.3%) via ELISA and 47/104 (45.2%) via
RPLA assay, versus 9/74 (12%) via ELISA and 26/103
(25%) via RPLA assay in control dogs. Prevalence of
C difficile was 47/260 (18%) in dogs with diarrhea and
41/74 (55%) in control dogs. Prevalence of C difficile
toxin A was 26/254 (10.2%) in dogs with diarrhea and
0/74 in control dogs. Diagnosis of AHDS was made in
27 dogs; 8 had positive results for CPE, 7 had positive
results for toxin A, and 1 had positive results for both
toxins. Campylobacter spp were isolated from 13 of
260 (5%) dogs with diarrhea and 21 of 74 (28.4%)
control dogs. Salmonella spp were isolated from 3
(1.2%) dogs with diarrhea.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diagnostic
value of a fecal panel in dogs with diarrhea appears to
be low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:52–59)
Objective—To characterize the effect of maintenance
hemodialysis on plasma amino acid concentrations
and to quantitate free amino acid losses into the
dialysate during hemodialysis in healthy dogs.
Animals—8 healthy adult dogs.
Procedure—Five dogs received hemodialysis treatments
3 times per week for 4 weeks. Plasma amino
acid concentrations were evaluated once per week
for 4 weeks in each of the 5 dogs prior to hemodialysis
(time 0), 90 minutes during hemodialysis, and
immediately after hemodialysis (180 minutes). Total
free amino acid concentrations and plasma amino
acid concentrations (time 0, 90 minutes, and 180 minutes)
in the dialysate were evaluated in 3 dogs that
received 1 hemodialysis treatment.
Results—Significant time versus week interactions
with any plasma amino acid were not detected; however,
significant decreases in all plasma amino acid
concentrations measured were detected at the midpoint
of dialysis (46 ± 2%) and at the end of each dialysis
session (38 ± 2%). Mean (± SEM) total free
amino acid loss into the dialysate was 2.7 ± 0.2 g or
0.12 g/kg of body weight.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hemodialysis
is associated with significant alterations in plasma
amino acid concentrations and loss of free amino
acids into the dialysate. Loss of amino acids into the
dialysate, coupled with protein calorie malnutrition in
uremic patients, may contribute to depletion of amino
acid stores.(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:869–873)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on morphology and compliance of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) by use of impedance planimetry in healthy dogs and to quantify the effect of changes in IAP.
ANIMALS 7 healthy, purpose-bred sexually intact male hound-cross dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized, and cross-sectional area (CSA), minimal diameter (MD), LES length, LES volume, and distensibility index (DI) of the LES were evaluated by use of an endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe. For each dog, measurements were obtained before (baseline) and after creation of a pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg. Order of the IAPs was determined by use of a randomization software program.
RESULTS CSA and MD at 4 and 8 mm Hg were not significantly different from baseline measurements; however, CSA and MD at 15 mm Hg were both significantly greater than baseline measurements. The LES length and LES volume did not differ significantly from baseline measurements at any IAP. The DI differed inconsistently from the baseline measurement but was not substantially affected by IAP.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pneumoperitoneum created with an IAP of 4 or 8 mm Hg did not significantly alter LES morphology in healthy dogs. Pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 15 mm Hg caused a significant increase in CSA and MD of the LES. Compliance of the LES as measured by the DI was not greatly altered by pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of up to 15 mm Hg.
In the broadest sense, aging refers to the natural, progressive series of life stages beginning with conception and continuing through development, maturation, and senescence. Most often, however, the term is more narrowly used to refer to the complex set of biological changes occurring in older individuals that result in a progressive reduction of the ability to maintain homeostasis when exposed to internal physiologic and external environmental stresses.1 These changes ultimately lead to decreased vitality, increased vulnerability to disease, and eventually death.
Older dogs make up a substantial proportion of the pet dog population in the United States. One
Although it is often misconstrued as such, aging is not a pathological process but rather comprises the normal, time-dependent changes that occur during the later stages of life in every animal. Today, it is generally accepted that healthy aging is achievable in both humans and animals and should be promoted through effective health-care programs. Aging wellness has been defined as “the development and maintenance of optimal mental, social and physical well-being and function in older adults.”1,2 Important components of healthy aging in humans include a variety of objective and subjective measures of cognitive, physical, and psychological health.3,4
In Latvia in 2014, acquired idiopathic megaesophagus (AIME) was observed in increased numbers of dogs that consumed varieties of 1 brand of dog food. Within 2 years, 253 dogs were affected. In Australia in November 2017, 6 working dogs that consumed 1 diet of another brand of dog food developed AIME. In total, 145 Australian dogs were affected.
AIME was diagnosed predominantly in large-breed male dogs (> 25 kg [55 lb]). Regurgitation, weight loss, and occasionally signs consistent with aspiration pneumonia (coughing, dyspnea, or fever) were noted. Most Latvian dogs had mild to severe peripheral polyneuropathies as evidenced by laryngeal paralysis, dysphonia, weakness, and histopathologic findings consistent with distal axonopathy. In Australian dogs, peripheral polyneuropathies were not identified, and histopathologic findings suggested that the innervation of the esophagus and pharynx was disrupted locally, although limited samples were available.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Investigations in both countries included clinical, epidemiological, neuropathologic, and case-control studies. Strong associations between the dog foods and the presence of AIME were confirmed; however, toxicological analyses did not identify a root cause. In Latvia, the implicated dietary ingredients and formulations were unknown, whereas in Australia, extensive investigations were conducted into the food, its ingredients, the supply chain, and the manufacturing facilities, but a cause was not identified.
A panel of international multidisciplinary experts concluded that the cause of AIME in both outbreaks was likely multifactorial, with the possibility of individualized sensitivities. Without a sentinel group, the outbreak in Australia may not have been recognized for months to years, as happened in Latvia. A better surveillance system for early identification of pet illnesses, including those associated with pet foods, is needed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:172–183)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate colonoscopic and histologic features of rectal masses in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 82 client-owned dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy were reviewed. History, signalment, clinical signs, results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging findings, and results of colonoscopy (including complications) were recorded. When available, tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy and by means of surgical biopsy were reviewed by a single board-certified pathologist. Histologic features and tumor grade (when applicable) of tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy versus surgical biopsy were compared.
RESULTS Multiple rectal masses were observed during colonoscopy in 6 of the 82 dogs, but no lesions were visualized orad to the colorectal junction. Results of histologic evaluation of surgical biopsy specimens were consistent with a diagnosis of epithelial neoplasia in 58 of 64 dogs, of which 71% were classified as benign adenoma or polyp and 29% were classified as adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma. Complications of colonoscopy occurred in 3 of 82 dogs but were considered minor. A discrepancy in diagnosis occurred in 5 of 16 dogs for which both colonoscopic and surgical biopsy samples were available for histologic review.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that multiple rectal masses are uncommon in dogs, and secondary lesions orad to the colorectal junction were not found in this study. Colonoscopy was associated with few complications, but the need for colonoscopic assessment of the entire colon in this patient population may merit reevaluation.