To determine an optimal ceftazidime dosing strategy in Northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) by evaluation of 2 different doses administered SC and 1 dose administered transcutaneously.
44 Northern leopard frogs (including 10 that were replaced).
Ceftazidime was administered to frogs SC in a forelimb at 20 mg/kg (n = 10; SC20 group) and 40 mg/kg (10; SC40 group) or transcutaneously on the cranial dorsum at 20 mg/kg (10; TC20 group). Two frogs in each ceftazidime group were euthanized 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma, renal, and skin concentrations of ceftazidime were measured by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Four control frogs were used for assay validation.
Mean plasma half-life of ceftazidime in the SC20, SC40, and TC20 groups was 9.01 hours, 14.49 hours, and too low to determine, respectively. Mean maximum plasma ceftazidime concentration was 92.9, 96.0, and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. For 24 hours after drug administration in the SC20 and SC40 groups, plasma ceftazidime concentration exceeded 8 μg/mL. Renal and skin concentrations were detectable at both doses and routes of administration; however, skin concentrations were significantly lower than renal and plasma concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings indicated that ceftazidime administration to Northern leopard frogs at 20 mg/kg, SC, every 24 hours would achieve a plasma concentration exceeding the value considered effective against common amphibian pathogens. Transcutaneous administration of the injectable ceftazidime formulation at 20 mg/kg warrants further investigation but is not currently recommended because of a potential lack of efficacy.
Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics after a single IM or SC injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) to bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).
Animals—8 adult male bearded dragons.
Procedures—In a preliminary experiment, doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg, SC, were compared in 2 animals, and 30 mg/kg resulted in a more desirable pharmacokinetic profile. Then, in a randomized, complete crossover experimental design, each bearded dragon (n = 6) received a single dose of 30 mg of CCFA/kg IM or SC; the experiment was repeated after a 28-day washout period with the other route of administration. Blood samples were collected at 10 time points for 288 hours after injection. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur metabolites were measured via reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed with a noncompartmental model.
Results—No adverse effects were observed. Plasma concentrations greater than a target minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 μg/mL were achieved by 4 hours after administration by both routes. Mean plasma concentrations remained > 1 μg/mL for > 288 hours for both routes of administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of CCFA (30 mg/kg) administered IM or SC to bearded dragons yielded plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and its metabolites > 1 μg/mL for > 288 hours. The SC route would be preferred because of less variability in plasma concentrations and greater ease of administration than the IM route. Future studies should include efficacy data as well as evaluation of the administration of multiple doses.
Objective—To evaluate the elimination pharmacokinetics of a single IM injection of a long-acting ceftiofur preparation (ceftiofur crystalline-free acid [CCFA]) in healthy adult helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris).
Animals—14 healthy adult guineafowl.
Procedures—1 dose of CCFA (10 mg/kg) was administered IM to each of the guineafowl. Blood samples were collected intermittently via jugular venipuncture over a 144-hour period. Concentrations of ceftiofur and all desfuroylceftiofur metabolites were measured in plasma via high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—No adverse effects of drug administration or blood collection were observed in any bird. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for many bacterial pathogens of poultry and domestic ducks (1 μg/mL) was achieved by 1 hour after administration in most birds and by 2 hours in all birds. A maximum plasma concentration of 5.26 μg/mL was reached 19.3 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations remained higher than the MIC for at least 56 hours in all birds and for at least 72 hours in all but 2 birds. The harmonic mean ± pseudo-SD terminal half-life of ceftiofur was 29.0 ± 4.93 hours. The mean area under the curve was 306 ± 69.3 μg•h/mL, with a mean residence time of 52.0 ± 8.43 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A dosage of 10 mg of CCFA/kg, IM, every 72 hours in helmeted guineafowl should provide a sufficient plasma drug concentration to inhibit growth of bacteria with an MIC ≤ 1 μg/mL. Clinical use should ideally be based on bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility data and awareness that use of CCFA in avian patients constitutes extralabel use of this product.
Objective—To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration.
Animals—11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
Procedures—Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤ 0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times.
Results—The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and −1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.
To identify the antifungal susceptibility of Nanniziopsis guarroi isolates and to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetics of orally administered terbinafine in bearded dragons.
8 healthy adult bearded dragons.
4 isolates of N guarroi were tested for antifungal susceptibility. A compounded oral solution of terbinafine (25 mg/mL [20 mg/kg]) was given before blood (0.2 mL) was drawn from the ventral tail vein at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after administration. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography.
The antifungal minimum inhibitory concentrations against N guarroi isolates ranged from 4,000 to > 64,000 ng/mL for fluconazole, 125 to 2,000 ng/mL for itraconazole, 125 to 2,000 ng/mL for ketoconazole, 125 to 1,000 ng/mL for posaconazole, 60 to 250 ng/mL for voriconazole, and 15 to 30 ng/mL for terbinafine. The mean ± SD peak plasma terbinafine concentration in bearded dragons was 435 ± 338 ng/mL at 13 ± 4.66 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations remained > 30 ng/mL for > 24 hours in all bearded dragons and for > 48 hours in 6 of 8 bearded dragons. Mean ± SD terminal half-life following oral administration was 21.2 ± 12.40 hours.
Antifungal susceptibility data are available for use in clinical decision making. Results indicated that administration of terbinafine (20 mg/kg, PO, q 24 to 48 h) in bearded dragons may be appropriate for the treatment of dermatomycoses caused by N guarroi. Clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy of such treatment.
To determine whether therapeutic concentrations (> 0.5 to 1.0 μg/mL) of polymyxin B (PB) were achieved in the tarsocrural joint of horses when the drug was administered by IV regional limb perfusion (IV-RLP) via a saphenous vein at doses of 25, 50, and 300 mg and to describe any adverse systemic or local effects associated with such administration.
9 healthy adult horses.
In the first of 2 experiments, 6 horses each received 25 and 50 mg of PB by IV-RLP via a saphenous vein with at least 2 weeks between treatments. For each treatment, a tourniquet was placed at the midmetatarsus and another was placed midway between the stifle joint and tarsus. Both tourniquets were removed 30 minutes after the assigned dose was administered. Blood and tarsocrural joint fluid samples were collected for determination of PB concentration before and at predetermined times after drug administration. In experiment 2, 4 horses were administered 300 mg of PB by IV-RLP in 1 randomly selected pelvic limb in a manner identical to that used in experiment 1.
For all 3 doses, the mean synovial fluid PB concentration was > 10 times the therapeutic concentration and below the level of quantification at 30 and 1,440 minutes after drug administration, respectively. No adverse systemic or local effects were observed following PB administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that IV-RLP of PB might be a viable alternative for treatment of horses with synovial infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.
To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in Wyandotte hens and duration and quantity of drug residues in their eggs following PO administration of a single dose (1 mg of meloxicam/kg [0.45 mg of meloxicam/lb]) and compare results with those previously published for White Leghorn hens.
8 healthy adult Wyandotte hens.
Hens were administered 1 mg of meloxicam/kg, PO, once. A blood sample was collected immediately before and at intervals up to 48 hours after drug administration. The hens’ eggs were collected for 3 weeks after drug administration. Samples of the hens’ plasma and egg whites (albumen) and yolks were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography.
Mean ± SD terminal half-life, maximum concentration, and time to maximum concentration were 5.53 ± 1.37 hours, 6.25 ± 1.53 µg/mL, and 3.25 ± 2.12 hours, respectively. Mean ± SD number of days meloxicam was detected in egg whites and yolks after drug administration was 4.25 ± 2 days and 9.0 ± 1.5 days, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Compared with White Leghorn hens, meloxicam in Wyandotte hens had a longer terminal half-life, greater area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from time 0 to infinity, a smaller elimination rate constant, and a longer mean residence time-versus-time curve from time 0 to infinity, and drug persisted longer in their egg yolks. Therefore, the oral dosing interval of meloxicam may be greater for Wyandotte hens. Results may aid veterinarians on appropriate dosing of meloxicam to Wyandotte hens and inform regulatory agencies on appropriate withdrawal times. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:84–87)
Objective—To evaluate the effects of ketamine, magnesium sulfate, and their combination on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO-MAC) in goats.
Animals—8 adult goats.
Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane delivered via face mask. Goats were intubated and ventilated to maintain normocapnia. After an appropriate equilibration period, baseline MAC (MACB) was determined and the following 4 treatments were administered IV: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (loading dose [LD], 30 mL/20 min; constant rate infusion [CRI], 60 mL/h), magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h), ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min), and magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h) combined with ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min); then MAC was redetermined.
Results—Ketamine significantly decreased ISOMAC by 28.7 ± 3.7%, and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate significantly decreased ISOMAC by 21.1 ± 4.1%. Saline solution or magnesium sulfate alone did not significantly change ISOMAC.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ketamine and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate, at doses used in the study, decreased the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain anesthesia, verifying the clinical impression that ketamine decreases the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain surgical anesthesia. Magnesium, at doses used in the study, did not decrease ISOMAC or augment ketamine's effects on ISOMAC.
Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals—9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex).
Procedures—Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from −5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from −5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were < 40 ng/mL for the entire time period, but oral administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in mean plasma concentrations > 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.
Procedures—2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only).
Results—For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and −0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.