Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 37 items for

  • Author or Editor: Sharon A. Center x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate differences in hepatic copper concentrations in Labrador Retrievers with and without chronic hepatitis.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Sample—Liver tissue specimens from 36 Labrador Retrievers with chronic hepatitis and 36 age- and sex-matched Labrador Retrievers without chronic hepatitis (control dogs).

Procedures—Liver tissue specimens were obtained during 2 study periods (1980 to 1997 and 1998 to 2010). For each tissue specimen, a histologic score was assigned independently by each of 2 interpreters, and the hepatic copper concentration was qualitatively determined via rhodanine staining and quantitatively determined via atomic absorption spectroscopy.

Results—Mean hepatic copper concentration was significantly higher in dogs with chronic hepatitis (614 μg/g of dry weight [range, 104 to 4,234 μg/g of dry weight]), compared with that in control dogs (299 μg/g of dry weight [range, 93 to 3,810 μg/g of dry weight]), and increased significantly over time. A higher proportion of liver tissue specimens collected during the 1998–2010 study period had hepatic copper concentrations > 400 μg/g of dry weight (the upper limit of the reference range), compared with the proportion of liver tissue specimens collected during the 1980–1997 study period. The qualitative copper score did not accurately predict quantitative hepatic copper concentration in 33% of study dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the increase in hepatic copper concentrations in Labrador Retrievers with and without chronic hepatitis over time may be the result of increased exposure of dogs to environmental copper, most likely via the diet.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 6-month-old sexually intact male Clumber Spaniel was evaluated because of small stature, recurrent dermatitis of the head, and progressive pigmentary hepatopathy.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Clinicopathologic findings included nonanemic hypochromic microcytosis, hypocholesterolemia, persistently high serum liver enzyme activities, and anicteric hyperbilirubinemia. Histologic examination of liver biopsy specimens collected when the dog was 6 months and 2 years of age revealed expansion and bridging of portal tracts, occasional centrilobular parenchymal collapse, scattered lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, and dark red to brown pigment within large aggregates of macrophages, engorged bile canaliculi, and hepatocytes. The pigment failed to stain for the presence of iron, copper, bile, and glycoprotein and, when examined with polarized microscopy, emitted a yellow to green birefringence with occasional Maltese cross configurations. Further analyses confirmed marked porphyrin accumulation in blood, urine, feces, and liver tissue; protoporphyrin accumulation in RBCs and liver tissue; and a signature porphyrin profile and fluorescence peak consistent with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Advanced protoporphyric hepatopathy was diagnosed. The chronic dermatopathy was presumed to reflect protoporphyric photosensitivity.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Management was focused on avoiding conditions known to induce heme synthesis and catabolism, administrating ursodeoxycholic acid and antioxidants S-adenosylmethionine and vitamin E, and avoiding sunlight exposure. At follow-up at 4 years of age, the dog was stable without evidence of jaundice but with probable persistent erythropoietic protoporphyria–related solar dermatopathy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Clinical and histologic features of congenital erythropoietic protoporphyria and resultant protoporphyric hepatopathy, the diagnosis, and the successful management of a dog with these conditions over 4 years were described. Veterinarians should consider porphyric syndromes when unusual pigmentary hepatopathies are encountered.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate disparities in hepatic copper concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and digital image analysis of rhodanine-stained sections.

ANIMALS

516 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs for which hepatic biopsy specimens had been submitted between January 1999 and December 2019 for evaluation of copper content were reviewed. Paired hepatic copper concentrations obtained with digital image analysis and AAS or ICP-MS were compared, and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to test for correlations between qualitative copper accumulation scores and hepatic copper concentrations. For dogs for which ≥ 4 rhodanine-stained hepatic sections were available, intraindividual variation in copper distribution across hepatic sections was evaluated.

RESULTS

Median hepatic copper concentrations obtained with digital image analysis exceeded concentrations obtained with AAS or ICP-MS. Concentrations were also higher in older dogs (≥ 9 years vs < 9 years), dogs of breeds with a typical body weight ≥ 20 kg (44 lb), and dogs with necroinflammatory changes or uneven copper distribution. Qualitative copper accumulation scores were significantly associated with hepatic copper concentrations; however, the correlation between qualitative score and concentration obtained with digital image analysis (rs = 0.94) was higher than the correlation between qualitative score and concentration obtained with AAS (rs = 0.75) or ICP-MS (rs = 0.57). The coefficient of variation for hepatic copper concentrations obtained with digital image analysis was significantly higher for dogs with higher hepatic copper concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that spectroscopic-spectrometric analysis of hepatic biopsy specimens commonly underestimated the concentration obtained by digital image analysis of rhodanine-stained sections.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the frequency and type of bacterial infection by culture- and immunohistochemical (IHC)-based methods and determine the impact of infection on clinical features and survival time in cats with suppurative cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis syndrome (S-CCHS).

ANIMALS

168 client-owned cats with S-CCHS (cases).

PROCEDURES

Clinical features, bacterial culture results, culture-inoculate sources, and survival details were recorded. Cases were subcategorized by comorbidity (extrahepatic bile duct obstruction, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, ductal plate malformation, biopsy-confirmed inflammatory bowel disease, and biopsy-confirmed pancreatitis) or treatment by cholecystectomy or cholecystoenterostomy. Culture results, bacterial isolates, Gram-stain characteristics, and IHC staining were compared among comorbidities. Lipoteichoic acid IHC staining detected gram-positive bacterial cell wall components, and toll-like receptor expression IHC reflected pathologic endotoxin (gram-negative bacteria) exposure.

RESULTS

Clinical features were similar among cases except for more frequent abdominal pain and lethargy in cats with positive culture results and pyrexia, abdominal pain, and hepatomegaly for cats with polymicrobial infections. Bacteria were cultured in 93 of 135 (69%) cats, with common isolates including Enterococcus spp and Escherichia coli. IHC staining was positive in 142 of 151 (94%) cats (lipoteichoic acid, 107/142 [75%]; toll-like receptor 4, 99/142 [70%]). With in-parallel interpretation of culture and IHC-based bacterial detection, 154 of 166 (93%) cats had bacterial infections (gram-positive, 118/154 [77%]; gram-negative, 111/154 [72%]; polymicrobial, 79/154 [51%]). Greater frequency of bacterial isolation occurred with combined tissue, bile, and crushed cholelith inoculates. Infection and gram-positive bacterial isolates were associated with significantly shorter long-term survival times.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

S-CCHS was associated with bacterial infection, pathologic endotoxin exposure, and frequent polymicrobial infection in cats. Combined tissue inoculates improved culture detection of associated bacteria.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the influence of a 1,4- butanedisulfonate stable salt of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) administered orally on clinicopathologic and hepatic effects induced by long-term administration of prednisolone in dogs.

Animals—12 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Following a pilot study (4 dogs), 2 groups of 4 dogs received prednisolone (2.2 mg/kg) orally once daily (84-day trial). One group received SAMe (20 mg/kg/d divided in 2 doses) for 42 days and then a placebo for 42 days; the other group received treatments in the reverse order. Before and during the trial, numerous variables were monitored, including serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucocorticoid- induced ALP (G-ALP) activities, serum haptoglobin concentration, and total and oxidized glutathione (TGSH and GSSG) and thiobarbiturate-reacting substances (TBARS) concentrations in erythrocytes and liver tissue (days 0, 42, and 84). Hepatic specimens also were examined microscopically.

Results—The stable salt of SAMe was biologically available; plasma concentrations of SAMe or prednisolone were not affected by coadministration. Compared with baseline values, serum ALP and GALP activities and haptoglobin concentrations increased and erythrocyte GSSG and TBARS concentrations decreased with both treatments. Erythrocyte TGSH concentration decreased with the prednisolone- placebo treatment. Administration of SAMe appeared to conserve erythrocyte TGSH values and did not inhibit hepatocyte glycogen vacuolation but increased hepatic TGSH concentration and improved the hepatic tissue GSSG:TGSH ratio.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, administration of 20 mg of SAMe/kg/d may mitigate the apparent pro-oxidant influences of prednisolone but did not block development of classic clinicopathologic or histologic features of vacuolar hepatopathy. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:330–341)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on metabolic rate, fatty acid oxidation, weight loss, and lean body mass (LBM) in overweight cats undergoing rapid weight reduction.

Animals—32 healthy adult neutered colony-housed cats.

Procedures—Cats fattened through unrestricted ingestion of an energy-dense diet for 6 months were randomly assigned to 4 groups and fed a weight reduction diet supplemented with 0 (control), 50, 100, or 150 μg of carnitine/g of diet (unrestricted for 1 month, then restricted). Measurements included resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, daily energy expenditure, LBM, and fatty acid oxidation. Following weight loss, cats were allowed unrestricted feeding of the energy-dense diet to investigate weight gain after test diet cessation.

Results—Median weekly weight loss in all groups was ≥ 1.3%, with no difference among groups in overall or cumulative percentage weight loss. During restricted feeding, the resting energy expenditure-to-LBM ratio was significantly higher in cats that received l-carnitine than in those that received the control diet. Respiratory quotient was significantly lower in each cat that received l-carnitine on day 42, compared with the value before the diet began, and in all cats that received l-carnitine, compared with the control group throughout restricted feeding. A significant increase in palmitate flux rate in cats fed the diet with 150 μg of carnitine/g relative to the flux rate in the control group on day 42 corresponded to significantly increased stoichiometric fat oxidation in the l-carnitine diet group (> 62% vs 14% for the control group). Weight gain (as high as 28%) was evident within 35 days after unrestricted feeding was reintroduced.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary l-carnitine supplementation appeared to have a metabolic effect in overweight cats undergoing rapid weight loss that facilitated fatty acid oxidation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether body weight, age, or sex was associated with ultrasonographically determined adrenal gland thickness (AT) in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness.

DESIGN

Retrospective cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS

266 dogs (22 sexually intact and 119 castrated males and 19 sexually intact and 106 spayed females representing 12 breeds) with non-adrenal gland illness.

PROCEDURES

Thickness of the caudal pole of the left and right adrenal glands was measured on longitudinal ultrasonographic images. Dogs were stratified into age and body weight categories to investigate associations with AT.

RESULTS

AT was significantly lower in dogs that weighed ≤ 12 kg (26.4 lb) than in dogs that weighed > 12 kg and left AT increased with age. Both left and right AT were larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 12 to ≤ 20 kg, and left AT was larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 20 to ≤ 30 kg.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that body weight, age, and sex were significantly associated with AT, indicating that these variables should be considered when evaluating AT in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness and when developing reference intervals for AT in dogs. Further, findings indicated that dogs with non-adrenal gland illness that weigh ≤ 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.62 cm, whereas dogs that weigh > 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.72 cm.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the diagnostic value of protein C (PC) for detecting hepatobiliary disease and portosystemic shunting (PSS) in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—238 clinically ill dogs with (n = 207) and without (31) hepatobiliary disease, including 105 with and 102 without PSS.

Procedures—Enrollment required routine hematologic, serum biochemical, and urine tests; measurement of PC activity; and a definitive diagnosis. Total serum bile acids (TSBA) concentration and coagulation status, including antithrombin activity, were determined in most dogs. Dogs were grouped into hepatobiliary and PSS categories. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by use of a PC cutoff value of 70% activity.

Results—Specificity for PC activity and TSBA concentrations was similar (76% and 78%, respectively). Best overall sensitivity was detected with TSBA, but PC activity had high sensitivity for detecting PSS and hepatic failure. Protein C activity in microvascular dysplasia (MVD; PC ≥ 70% in 95% of dogs) helped differentiate MVD from portosystemic vascular anomalies (PSVA; PC < 70% in 88% of dogs). A receiver operating characteristic curve (PSVA vs MVD) validated a useful cutoff value of < 70% activity for PC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Combining PC with routine tests improved recognition of PSS, hepatic failure, and severe hepatobiliary disease and signified a grave prognosis when coupled with hyperbilirubinemia and low antithrombin activity in hepatic failure. Protein C activity can help prioritize tests used to distinguish PSVA from MVD and sensitively reflects improved hepatic-portal perfusion after PSVA ligation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine disorders associated with vacuolar hepatopathy (VH), morphologic hepatic and clinicopathologic abnormalities, and affiliation with steroidogenic hormone excess in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—336 dogs with histologically confirmed moderate or severe VH.

Procedures—Information on signalment, results of diagnostic testing, definitive diagnoses, and exposure to glucocorticoids (ie, exogenous glucocorticoid administration or high endogenous concentrations of steroidogenic hormones) was obtained from medical records. Dogs were grouped by underlying disorder, glucocorticoid exposure, acinar zonal distribution of lesions, and histologic severity.

Results—12 disease groups (neoplastic, acquired hepatobiliary, neurologic, immune-mediated, gastrointestinal tract, renal, infectious, cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, portosystemic vascular anomaly, adrenal gland dysfunction, and miscellaneous disorders) were identified. There were 186 (55%) dogs with and 150 (45%) dogs without evidence of glucocorticoid exposure. Acinar zonal distribution of hepatic vacuolation and clinicopathologic values did not differ between dogs with and without evidence of glucocorticoid exposure. However, a 3-fold increased likelihood of severe VH was associated with steroidogenic hormone exposure. Of 226 dogs with high serum alkaline phosphatase activity, 102 (45%) had no evidence of glucocorticoid exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that neoplasia and congenital or acquired hepatobiliary disease are common in dogs with VH and provide support for the suggestion that VH, high alkaline phosphatase activity, and illness-invoked physiologic stress may be associated. Histologic confirmation of VH should initiate a diagnostic search for a primary disease if glucocorticoid treatment and hyperadrenocorticism are ruled out.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association