Objective—To determine cardiopulmonary effects of
total IV anesthesia with propofol and medetomidine
in ponies and effect of atipamezole on recovery.
Procedure—After sedation was induced by IV administration
of medetomidine (7 μg/kg of body weight),
anesthesia was induced by IV administration of propofol
(2 mg/kg) and maintained for 4 hours with infusions
of medetomidine (3.5 μg/kg per hour) and propofol
(0.07 to 0.11 mg/kg per minute). Spontaneous respiration
was supplemented with oxygen. Cardiopulmonary
measurements and blood concentrations of propofol
were determined during anesthesia. Five ponies
received atipamezole (60 μg/kg) during recovery.
Results—During anesthesia, mean cardiac index and
heart rate increased significantly until 150 minutes,
then decreased until cessation of anesthesia. Mean
arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance
index increased significantly between 150 minutes
and 4 hours. In 4 ponies, PaO2 decreased to < 60 mm
Hg. Mean blood propofol concentrations from 20 minutes
after induction onwards ranged from 2.3 to 3.5
μg/ml. Recoveries were without complications and
were complete within 28 minutes with atipamezole
administration and 39 minutes without atipamezole
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—During total IV
anesthesia of long duration with medetomidine-propofol,
cardiovascular function is comparable to or better
than under inhalation anesthesia. This technique may
prove suitable in equids in which prompt recovery is
essential; however, in some animals severe hypoxia
may develop and oxygen supplementation may be
necessary. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1428–1435)
Objective—To determine prognostic factors for and compare outcome among dogs with oral malignant melanoma following excision with or without various systemic adjuvant therapies.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—151 dogs with naturally occurring oral malignant melanomas treated by excision with or without adjuvant therapies from 2001 to 2012.
Procedures—Case accrual was solicited from Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology members via an email list service. Information collected from case records included signalment, tumor staging, tumor characteristics, type of surgical excision, histologic diagnosis, adjuvant therapy, and survival time.
Results—The overall median survival time was 346 days. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that tumor size, patient age, and intralesional excision (vs marginal, wide, or radical excision) were considered poor prognostic indicators. All other demographic and clinical variables were not significantly associated with survival time after adjusting for the aforementioned 3 variables. A clear survival benefit was not evident with any systemic adjuvant therapy, including vaccination against melanoma or chemotherapy; however, the number of dogs in each treatment group was small. Ninety-eight dogs received no postoperative adjuvant therapy, and there was no difference in survival time between dogs that did (335 days) and did not (352 days) receive systemic adjuvant therapy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For dogs with oral malignant melanoma, increasing tumor size and age were negative prognostic factors. Complete excision of all macroscopic tumor burden improved survival time. Long-term survival was possible following surgery alone. Although systemic adjuvant therapy was not found to improve survival time, this could have been due to type II error.
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of meloxicam administration before long-distance transport on inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function of cattle at feedlot arrival.
ANIMALS 60 healthy yearling beef steers.
PROCEDURES Single-source steers were assigned to a transported (n = 40) or nontransported (20) group. Then, half of the steers within each group were assigned to receive meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) or a lactose placebo (1 bolus/steer, PO). All steers were transported approximately 1,300 km overnight to a feedlot; however, the nontransported group was moved before treatment (meloxicam or placebo) administration and allowed a 17-day acclimation period, whereas the transported group was moved immediately after treatment administration on day −1. Blood samples for measurement of inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function were collected from all steers on days −1, 0, and 3.
RESULTS For steers that received meloxicam, mean plasma meloxicam concentration for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. For steers that received the placebo, mean haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase-9 complex for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. Mean haptoglobin concentration, neutrophil L-selectin intensity, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte count for the transported group were significantly greater than those for the nontransported group. Mean substance P concentration for nontransported steers that received meloxicam was significantly lower than that for the other 3 treatment groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated meloxicam administration to healthy steers immediately before long-distance transport did not significantly mitigate the effects of transport-induced stress on leukocyte function or inflammatory markers.
OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD).
ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD.
PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration. For each culture-positive sample, up to 12 Mannheimia haemolytica, 6 Pasteurella multocida, and 6 Histophilus somni colonies underwent gamithromycin susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on all M haemolytica isolates. For paired NPS and BALF samples collected 5 days after gamithromycin administration, the positive and negative predictive values for culture results of NPS samples relative to those of BALF samples and the extent of agreement between the sampling methods were determined.
RESULTS Positive and negative predictive values of NPS samples were 67% and 100% for M haemolytica, 75% and 100% for P multocida, and 100% and 96% for H somni. Extent of agreement between results for NPS and BALF samples was substantial for M haemolytica (κ, 0.71) and H somni (κ, 0.78) and almost perfect for P multocida (κ, 0.81). Gamithromycin susceptibility varied within the same sample and between paired NPS and BALF samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated culture results of NPS and BALF samples from calves with BRD should be interpreted cautiously considering disease prevalence within the population, sample collection relative to antimicrobial administration, and limitations of diagnostic testing methods.
Objective—To describe the clinical characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and factors associated with survival time in a cohort of dogs with lingual neoplasia that underwent surgical excision.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—97 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a lingual tumor examined between 1995 and 2008 were reviewed. Records were included if a lingual tumor was confirmed by histologic examination and surgical excision of the mass was attempted. Data were recorded and analyzed to identify prognostic factors.
Results—Clinical signs were mostly related to the oral cavity. For 93 dogs, marginal excision, subtotal glossectomy, and near-total glossectomy were performed in 35 (38%), 55 (59%), and 3 (3%), respectively. Surgery-related complications were rare, but 27 (28%) dogs had tumor recurrence. The most common histopathologic diagnoses for the 97 dogs were squamous cell carcinoma (31 [32%]) and malignant melanoma (29 [30%]). Eighteen (19%) dogs developed metastatic disease, and the overall median survival time was 483 days. Median survival time was 216 days for dogs with squamous cell carcinoma and 241 days for dogs with malignant melanoma. Dogs with lingual tumors ≥ 2 cm in diameter at diagnosis had a significantly shorter survival time than did dogs with tumors < 2 cm.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Similar to previous studies, results indicated that lingual tumors are most commonly malignant, and squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma predominate. A thorough physical examination to identify lingual tumors at an early stage and surgical treatment after tumor identification are recommended because tumor size significantly affected survival time.
A 14-year-old 120-kg (264-lb) sexually intact male Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and its 10-year-old 130-kg (286-lb) sexually intact male offspring were housed separately and evaluated independently after experiencing weeks of ongoing malaise, weight loss, and anorexia.
Both animals were immobilized and anesthetized for physical examinations and diagnostic testing. Complete blood counts revealed leukopenia and anemia in both tigers. Splenomegaly was identified on abdominal ultrasonography. Cytologic examination and immunohistochemical staining of splenic samples confirmed intermediate to large B-cell lymphoma; no evidence of lymphoma in surrounding organs was noted.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The sire was treated with lomustine and prednisolone. This tiger was euthanized 21 months after initiation of treatment because of chronic progressive renal disease. The male offspring was treated with l-asparaginase but did not respond to the treatment. A splenectomy was performed, and malaise and anorexia resolved. No further chemotherapy was administered, and the male offspring was instead maintained on a low dose of prednisolone. Thirty-two months after diagnosis, the male offspring was still considered to be in remission.
To our knowledge, this was the first known report of the diagnosis and management of a splenic B-cell lymphoma in a tiger. Both tigers achieved positive clinical responses and long-term survival by means of different treatment modalities. The finding of such an unusual neoplasm in a male tiger and its male offspring was noteworthy, raising the possibility of a genetic predisposition for this lymphoma type.