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Abstract

Objective—To compare use of doxorubicin, surgery, and radiation versus surgery and radiation alone for treatment of cats with vaccine-associated sarcoma.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—25 cats with vaccine-associated sarcomas.

Procedure—Time to first recurrence and survival time were compared between the 2 treatment groups. The number of surgeries (1 or > 1) were compared with respect to time to first recurrence and survival time.

Results—Median time to first recurrence was 661 days for the group that received doxorubicin, surgery, and radiation. Median time to first recurrence has not yet been attained for the group treated with surgery and radiation alone. Median survival time was 674 days for the group treated with doxorubicin, surgery, and radiation and 842 days for the group treated with surgery and radiation alone. For time to first recurrence and survival time, significant differences were not detected between cats that had 1 surgery and those that had > 1 surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant differences between the 2 treatment groups were not detected. The efficacy of doxorubicin in the treatment of vaccine-associated sarcomas is uncertain. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:547–550)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate prognostic factors associated with outcome of dogs with multiple cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) treated with surgery with or without adjuvant treatment.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—54 dogs with a minimum of 2 simultaneous, histologically confirmed cutaneous MCTs that had been excised and had adequate staging and follow-up data.

Procedure—Medical records from 1998 to 2004 were examined. Outcome was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and log-rank analysis. Prognostic factors evaluated included signalment; number, histologic grade, location, size, local recurrence, and de novo development of MCTs; quality of surgical margins; clinical signs at the time of diagnosis; and use of adjuvant treatment.

Results—Medical records of 54 dogs with 153 tumors were included. Median follow-up time was 658 days. Median disease-free interval (1,917 days; range, 11 to 1,917 days) and median survival time (1,917 days; range, 14 to 1,917 days) were not yet reached. The 1- year and 2- to 5-year survival rates were 87% and 85%, respectively. The overall rate of metastasis was 15%. Factors that negatively influenced survival time in the univariate analysis included incomplete excision, local recurrence, size > 3 cm, clinical signs at the time of diagnosis, and use of adjuvant treatment. Presence of clinical signs at the time of diagnosis was the only negative prognostic factor for disease-free interval detected in the multivariate analysis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that multiple cutaneous MCTs in dogs are associated with a low rate of metastasis and a good prognosis for long-term survival with adequate excision of all MCTs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate efficacy of a controlled-release cisplatin delivery system, used after marginal resection of mammary carcinoma (ie, resection of grossly evident tumor) in mice, to prevent tumor regrowth and metastasis.

Animals

42 female C3H-HeJ mice.

Procedure

Mice were inoculated with mammary carcinoma cells. Between 2 and 6 days later, tumors were marginally resected and mice were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: no treatment (control; n = 14), cisplatin administered intraperitoneally (IP cisplatin; 14), and cisplatin delivered by use of an open-cell polylactic acid system placed within the tumor bed (slow-release cisplatin; 14). Tumor regrowth was measured daily. Mice were euthanatized 14 days after surgery, and complete necropsies were performed.

Results

Tumor regrowth was not detected in the slow-release cisplatin group; however, tumor regrowth was detected in 7 of 14 mice in the IP cisplatin group and 14 of 14 mice in the control group. Median (± SD) number of days to tumor regrowth was 13.5 ± 0.64 and 7.79 ± 0.87 in the IP cisplatin and control groups, respectively. Mice in the IP cisplatin group had significantly delayed tumor regrowth, compared with control mice. Metastases to lungs were detected in 8 of 14 control mice but were not detected in mice in either cisplatin treatment group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The open-cell polylactic acid with cisplatin delivery system was successful in delaying local tumor regrowth and metastasis in mice with marginally resected mammary carcinoma. Use of a controlled-release cisplatin delivery system may be an effective adjunct treatment following excision of mammary carcinoma in humans and other animals. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1347–1351)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome for dogs with grade-II mast cell tumors treated with surgery alone.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—55 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records were examined, and signalment; location and size of tumor; staging status; dates of local recurrence, metastasis, death, or last follow-up examination; status of surgical margins; previous surgery; postoperative complications; and cause of death were recorded. Follow-up information was obtained via reexamination or telephone conversations with owners or referring veterinarians. Univariate analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors.

Results—60 tumors in 55 dogs were included. Median follow-up time was 540 days. Three (5%) mast cell tumors recurred locally; median time to local recurrence was 62 days. Six (11%) dogs developed another mast cell tumor at a different cutaneous location; median time to a different location was 240 days. Three (5%) dogs developed metastases; median time to metastasis was 158 days. Fourteen dogs died; 3 deaths were related to mast cell tumor, and 7 were unrelated. The relationship with mast cell tumor was not known for 4. Median survival times were 151, 841, and 827 days, respectively, for these 3 groups. Forty-six (84%) dogs were free of mast cell tumors during the study period. A reliable prognostic factor could not be identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that additional local treatment may not be required after complete excision of grade-II mast cell tumors and that most dogs do not require systemic treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1120–1123)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, diagnostic findings, outcome, and prognostic factors in dogs treated surgically for massive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and compare survival times of surgically and conservatively treated dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—48 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records were examined for clinical signs, diagnostic and surgical findings, and postoperative outcome. Dogs were allocated into surgery and nonsurgery groups depending on whether curative- intent liver lobectomy was performed. Data from the surgical and nonsurgical groups were analyzed to identify prognostic factors and determine and compare rates of tumor control and survival time.

Results—42 dogs were treated surgically, and 6 were managed conservatively. In the surgery group, intraoperative mortality rate was 4.8% with no local recurrence, metastatic rate was 4.8%, and median survival time was > 1,460 days (range, 1 to 1,460 days). High alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were associated with poor prognosis. Median survival time for the nonsurgery group was 270 days (range, 0 to 415 days), which was significantly less than that of surgically treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Liver lobectomy is recommended for dogs with massive HCC because tumor-related mortality rate was 15.4 times higher in dogs in the nonsurgery group, compared with the surgery group. Tumor control was excellent after surgical resection with no local recurrence and a low metastatic rate. Prognostic factors were identified, but their clinical relevance was uncertain because only 9.5% of dogs in the surgery group died as a result of their disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1225–1230)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical characteristics, outcome, and prognostic variables in a cohort of dogs surviving > 1 year after an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—90 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Medical records for an 11-year period from 1997 through 2008 were reviewed, and patients with appendicular osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year after initial histopathologic diagnosis were studied. Variables including signalment, weight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, tumor location, surgery, and adjuvant therapies were recorded. Median survival times were calculated by means of a Kaplan-Meier survival function. Univariate analysis was conducted to compare the survival function for categorical variables, and the Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the likelihood of death > 1 year after diagnosis on the basis of the selected risk factors.

Results—90 dogs met the inclusion criteria; clinical laboratory information was not available in all cases. Median age was 8.2 years (range, 2.7 to 13.3 years), and median weight was 38 kg (83.6 lb; range, 21 to 80 kg [46.2 to 176 lb]). Serum alkaline phosphatase activity was high in 29 of 60 (48%) dogs. The most common tumor location was the distal portion of the radius (54/90 [60%]). Eighty-nine of 90 (99%) dogs underwent surgery, and 78 (87%) received chemotherapy. Overall, 49 of 90 (54%) dogs developed metastatic disease. The median survival time beyond 1 year was 243 days (range, 1 to 1,899 days). Dogs that developed a surgical-site infection after limb-sparing surgery had a significantly improved prognosis > 1 year after osteosarcoma diagnosis, compared with dogs that did not develop infections.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study indicated that dogs with an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year had a median survival time beyond the initial year of approximately 8 months. As reported previously, the development of a surgical-site infection in dogs undergoing a limb-sparing surgery significantly affected prognosis and warrants further study.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Of 82 dogs with thyroid carcinoma seen between January 1981 and October 1989, 20 had freely movable tumors without evidence of metastasis and were treated with surgical excision alone. Uncensored mean and median survival times for these 20 dogs were both 20.5 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, which censors for nontumor-related deaths and dogs lost to follow-up, indicated that median survival time was greater than 36 months. Seven dogs died of tumor-related causes: 2 died because of metastasis or local recurrence of the tumor, 5 died of treatment-related complications (eg, laryngeal paralysis, hypocalcemia, tracheostomy complications). Eight dogs died of unrelated causes; 1 dog was lost to follow-up at 26 months after surgery; 3 dogs were alive 19, 24, and 26 months after surgery. Cause of death could not be determined in the remaining dog. Long-term survival is possible following surgical removal of mobile thyroid carcinomas in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

One hundred twenty-six dogs with histologically confirmed, measurable malignant tumors were evaluated in a prospective study to determine the response to the antineoplastic drug mitoxantrone. Ninety-five dogs had been refractory to one or more treatment modalities (surgery, n = 57; chemotherapy other than mitoxantrone, n = 37; radiation, n = 4; whole body hyperthermia, n = 1). The extent of neoplastic disease was determined immediately before each dose of mitoxantrone was administered (1 to 10 doses, 2.5 to 5 mg/m2 of body surface area, iv) 21 days apart. Each dog was treated with mitoxantrone until the dog developed progressive disease or until the dog's quality of life diminished to an unacceptable level as determined by the owner or attending veterinarian.

A partial or complete remission (>50% volume reduction) was obtained in 23% (29/126) of all dogs treated. Tumors in which there was a partial or complete remission included lymphoma (11/32), squamous cell carcinoma (4/9), fibrosarcoma (2/9), thyroid carcinoma (1/10), transitional cell carcinoma (1/6), mammary adenocarcinoma (1/6), hepatocellular carcinoma (1/4), renal adenocarcinoma (1/1), rectal carcinoma (1/1), chondrosarcoma (1/2), oral malignant melanoma (1/12), cutaneous malignant melanoma (1/1), myxosarcoma (1/1), mesothelioma (1/1), and hemangiopericytoma (1/1).

Our results indicated that mitoxantrone induces measurable regression in various malignant tumors in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

One hundred twenty-nine dogs with histologically confirmed malignant tumors were used in a prospective study to determine the toxicity of the new dihydroxyquinone derivative of anthracene, mitoxantrone, which was administered iv at 21-day intervals at dosages ranging from 2.5 to 5 mg/m2 body surface area. Each dog was evaluated for signs of toxicosis for 3 weeks after each dose was administered or until the dog died, whichever came first. The number of dogs in each evaluation period were as follows: 1 dose (n = 129), 2 doses (n = 82), 3 doses (n = 43), 4 doses (n = 26), 5 doses (n = 19), 6 doses (n = 9), 7 doses (n = 6), 8 doses (n = 5), 9 doses (n = 3), and 10 doses (n = 1). The most common signs of toxicosis were vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and sepsis secondary to myelosuppression. None of the dogs died of complications resulting from mitoxantrone treatment. Dogs with signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from administration of the first dose of mitoxantrone were 95 times (P = 0.003) more likely to develop signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from the second dose of mitoxantrone. Similarly, dogs that developed signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from the administration of the second dose were 34 times (P < 0.001) more likely to develop signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval from the administration of the third dose. With each 1 mg/m2 increase in mitoxantrone, the odds of developing signs of toxicosis increased by 5.9 fold (P < 0.001). The performance status (modified Karnofsky performance scheme) of each dog was not adversely affected to a significant extent by mitoxantrone-induced toxicosis until the fifth dose (P = 0.0008). Cardiac toxicosis was not detected. Mitoxantrone was also administered iv to 4 clinically normal dogs, at a dosage of 5 mg/m2 of body surface area, a decrease in the neutrophil count was seen, with the nadir occurring on day 10 (mean ± sem: 1,159 ± 253 cells/μl; range, 480 to 1,680 cells/μl). Tumor-bearing dogs did not seem to have the same degree of myelosuppression (mean ± sem, 6,263 ± 1,230 cells/μl; range, 228 to 18,600 cells/μl).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association