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To describe and evaluate hemostatic function in critically ill dogs with clinical signs of diseases that predispose to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).


Prospective case series.


59 critically ill dogs (affected dogs) with clinical signs of diseases known to predispose to DIC and 52 clinically normal dogs (control dogs).


Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin clotting time (TCT), plasma fibrinogen concentration, serum concentration of fibrin and fibrinogen-related antigens (FRA), and plasma antithrombin III (AT III) activity were determined for all dogs. Results from affected dogs were compared with those of control dogs. In some affected dogs, postmortem tissue specimens were examined for evidence of microvascular thrombosis. A diagnosis of DIC was made by fulfilling at least 3 of the following criteria: 1) abnormal aPTT, PT, or TCT value, 2) low plasma fibrinogen concentration, 3) low plasma AT III activity, 4) high serum FRA concentration, or 5) low platelet count. To evaluate the severity of hemostatic dysfunction, 3 arbitrary categories (mild, moderate, and severe) were proposed.


A diagnostic strategy based on moderate hemostatic dysfunction identified DIC in 16 of 59 (27.1%) affected dogs. The AT III activity was < 70% in 15 of 16 dogs with DIC. Microvascular thrombosis was observed in tissue specimens from 7 of 8 affected dogs. Serum FRA and plasma fibrinogen concena did not contribute in establishing a diagnosis of DIC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

A diagnosis of DIC can be made when hemostatic dysfunction is moderate in dogs with clinical signs of diseases associated with DIC. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:798–804).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess selenium (Se) status of cats in 4 regions of the world and to compare results for Se status with reported incidence of hyperthyroidism in cats in those regions.

Animals—50 cats (30 from 2 regions with an allegedly high incidence of hyperthyroidism and 20 from 2 regions in which the disease is less commonly reported).

Procedure—Hematologic samples (heparinized whole blood, plasma, and RBC fractions) were obtained from 43 healthy euthyroid cats and 7 hyperthyroid cats. Plasma concentration of Se and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in whole blood and plasma were determined.

Results—Plasma concentration of Se and GPX activity in whole blood or plasma did not differ significantly among cats from the 4 regions. However, cats had a plasma concentration of Se that was approximately 10 times the concentration reported in rats and humans. The GPX activity in whole blood or plasma in cats generally was higher than values reported in rats or humans.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats have higher Se concentrations in plasma, compared with values for other species. However, Se status alone does not appear to affect the incidence of hyperthyroidism in cats. High Se concentrations may have implications for health of cats if such concentrations are influenced by the amount of that micronutrient included in diets. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:934–937)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in the lungs of cattle at various times after arrival at a feedlot, to measure the relationship between clinical disease status and the concentration and genotype of M bovis within the lungs, and to investigate changes in the genotype of M bovis over time.

Sample—Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 328 healthy or pneumonic beef cattle and 20 M bovis isolates obtained from postmortem samples.

Procedures—The concentration of M bovis in BALF was determined via real-time PCR assays, and M bovis isolates from BALF were genotyped via amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.

Results—Prevalence of M bovis in BALF was 1 of 60 (1.7%) at arrival to a feedlot and 26 of 36 (72.2%) and 36 of 42 (85.7%) at ≤ 15 days and 55 days after arrival, respectively. Neither the concentration nor the AFLP type of M bovis in BALF was correlated with clinical disease status. The M bovis AFLP type differed between early and later sampling periods in 14 of 17 cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The findings implied spread of M bovis among calves and suggested that host factors and copathogens may determine disease outcomes in infected calves. Chronic pulmonary infection with M bovis may represent a dynamic situation of bacterial clearance and reinfection with strains of different AFLP type, rather than continuous infection with a single clone. These findings impact our understanding of why cattle with chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome inadequately respond to antimicrobial treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research