To retrospectively assess the hospital prevalence and risk factors associated with iatrogenic lower urinary tear in cats with urethral obstruction (UO).
15 client-owned cats diagnosed with concurrent UO and lower urinary tears and year-matched control population of 45 cats diagnosed with UO.
University teaching hospital records were reviewed for cats presenting with UO between January 2010 and December 2022. Signalment, anatomic location of tear, experience of the individual passing the urinary catheter, difficulty level of catheter passage, history of previous UO, blood work parameters on presentation, presence of visible grit in urine, and survival to discharge were recorded. In addition, prevalence of lower urinary tears in cats presenting with UO was calculated.
The prevalence of lower urinary tears was 0.92% in UO cats. Cats with lower urinary tears were significantly less likely to survive to discharge and had a longer period of hospitalization than cats without tears. In addition, cats with tears were more likely to have a history of previous UO and had more difficult urinary catheter passage than cats in the control group. Cats with tears also had a higher Hct than the control UO cats.
Cats that develop lower urinary tears are more likely to have a history of previous UO and difficult catheter passage. This group of cats is also more likely to have a longer hospitalization period and lower survival to discharge rates.
Objective—To characterize the clinical, clinicopathologic,
and imaging findings in dogs with intestinal lymphangiectasia
and to compare the histologic grade of
lymphangiectasia with clinicopathologic and imaging
Animals—17 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with a histologic
diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia were
reviewed for signalment, history, clinical signs, results
of exploratory laparotomy, and clinicopathologic, radiographic,
ultrasonographic, and histologic findings.
Results—Mean age of dogs was 8.3 years; the most
common clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, lethargy,
vomiting, and weight loss. Abnormal physical examination
findings included dehydration, ascites, and signs of
pain on palpation of the abdomen. The most notable clinicopathologic
findings were low serum ionized calcium
concentration and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography
was performed in 12 dogs and revealed
intestinal abnormalities in 8 dogs and peritoneal effusion
in 7 dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed abnormalities
in 9 of 16 dogs including thickened small intestine, dilated
lacteals, lymphadenopathy, and adhesions. On histologic
examination of the small intestine, concurrent
inflammation was observed in 15 of 17 dogs, crypt ectasia
in 5 of 17, and lipogranulomas in 2 of 17.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intestinal lymphangiectasia
in dogs appears to be a heterogeneous
disorder characterized by various degrees of panhypoproteinemia,
and imaging abnormalities. In most dogs, the severity of
hypoalbuminemia appears to offer the best correlation
with severity of histologic lesions of lymphangiectasia.
Imaging abnormalities are common in dogs with intestinal
lymphangiectasia but are not specific enough to differentiate
this disorder from other gastrointestinal disorders,
nor are they predictive of histologic severity. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:197–202)
Animals—7 dogs with well-regulated naturally occurring
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Procedure—Dogs were fed 1 of 3 diets for 1 month
each in 1 of 6 randomized diet sequences. Diets
included a low-fiber diet (LF) and 2 high-fiber diets; 1
contained only insoluble fiber (HIF), and 1 contained
soluble fiber in addition to insoluble fiber (HSF).
Caloric intake was unchanged throughout the study.
Glycemic control was assessed after each feeding
trial by measuring serum fructosamine concentration
and performing 5 serial measurements of blood glucose
concentration every 2 hours after the morning
feeding and insulin injection.
Results—Significant differences were not detected in
body weight, required insulin dosage, or albumin concentration
among dogs fed the HIF, HSF, and LF diets.
Mean and maximum blood glucose concentrations
and area under the blood glucose curve were significantly
lower in dogs fed the HIF diet, compared with
values in the same dogs fed the HSF or LF diet.
Fructosamine concentration was significantly lower in
dogs fed the HIF or HSF diet, compared with values
in the same dogs fed the LF diet.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with
naturally occurring insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,
a dry, high insoluble-fiber diet may aid in glycemic
control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1076–1081)
Objective—To characterize concurrent disorders in
dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Animals—221 dogs with DM.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and
clinical signs, physical examination findings, and
results of clinicopathologic testing, urinalysis, aerobic
bacterial culture of urine samples, coagulation testing,
endocrine testing, histologic evaluation, diagnostic
imaging, and necropsy were recorded.
Results—For most dogs, CBC results were normal.
Common serum biochemical abnormalities included
hypochloremia (127 dogs, 60%) and high alanine
aminotransferase (163, 78%), aspartate aminotransferase
(78, 71%), and alkaline phosphatase (188,
90%) activities. Venous pH and serum ionized calcium
concentration were measured in 121 and 87 dogs,
respectively, and were low in 56 (46%) and 41 (47%)
dogs. Lipemia was observed in 92 (42%) dogs. Urine
samples from 159 (72%) dogs were submitted for
aerobic bacterial culture, and 34 (21%) yielded bacterial
growth. Escherichia coli was the most commonly
isolated organism. Thirty-six (16%) dogs had dermatitis
or otitis. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in
51 (23%) dogs on the basis of clinical signs and
results of a low-dose dexamethasone suppression
test (41 dogs), an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation
test (5), both tests (4), or histologic evaluation
of necropsy specimens (1). Acute pancreatitis was
diagnosed in 28 (13%) dogs. Eleven (5%) dogs had
tumors for which a histologic diagnosis was obtained.
Eight (4%) dogs were hypothyroid.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that dogs with diabetes mellitus may have many
concurrent disorders. The most commonly identified
concurrent disorders included hyperadrenocorticism,
urinary tract infection, dermatitis, otitis, acute pancreatitis,
neoplasia, and hypothyroidism. (J Am Vet Med