Objective—To compare fit and geometry of reconstruction
of femoral components of 4 canine cemented
total hip replacement implants and determine
which implants are most compatible with current principles
of cemented arthroplasty.
Sample Population—Paired femurs from 16 adult
Procedure—Femurs were prepared for femoral stem
implantation of either the Bardet, BioMedtrix,
Mathys, or Richards II implant. Mediolateral and craniocaudal
radiographs were obtained with femoral
components in situ. Cross-sectional analysis of
implant fit was performed on transected cemented
specimens. Computer-aided analyses of digitized
images were performed.
Results—The Bardet and Richards II implants
reconstructed the original femoral head position significantly
better than the other 2 implants. None of
the implants allowed neutralization of the implant
axis in the sagittal plane or were routinely centralized
in the femoral canal. The Bardet implant had the
smallest minimum distal tip offset in the sagittal
plane. Greatest tip to cortex distance was provided
by the Richards II implant in the transverse plane
and the Mathys implant in the sagittal plane. The
thinnest cement mantle regions for all implants
were in the central longitudinal third of the femoral
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The Bardet
and BioMedtrix implants had stem design characteristics
that were most compatible with principles of
cemented stem fixation. None of the implants completely
satisfied the theoretically optimal conditions of
centralization and neutralization of the femoral stem.
Innovative design modifications, therefore, may be
needed if these conditions are important to the longterm
success of canine total hip replacement. (Am J
Vet Res 2000;61:1113–1121)
Objective—To determine the diagnostic value of 2
intraoral bisecting angle radiographic views in comparison
with periodontal probing for the assessment
of periodontal attachment of the canine teeth in dogs.
Study Population—466 canine teeth from 117 dogs.
Procedure—Periodontal probing measurements
were recorded, and clinical attachment levels (CAL)
were calculated at the mesial, buccal, distal, and lingual
(or palatal) surfaces on each canine tooth.
Occlusal and lateral radiographs of the canine teeth
were obtained. Alveolar margin height (AMH) was
measured at the same 4 surfaces. Values for AMH
and CAL were compared on the basis of tooth surface,
dental arch, and radiographic view.
Results—The AMH at the mesial and distal surfaces of
the mandibular canine teeth was measurable on the
lateral view and was significantly correlated with CAL.
Similar results were found for the mesial and distal surfaces
of the maxillary canine teeth. Buccal and lingual
AMH were measured on the mandibular occlusal radiographic
view, and values were significantly correlated
with CAL, but only the buccal AMH could be assessed
on the occlusal radiographic view of the maxilla with
values that correlated significantly with CAL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The lateral
radiographic view is suitable for evaluating periodontal
attachment at the mesial and distal surfaces of the
canine teeth in dogs. The occlusal radiographic view is
suitable for assessing buccal surfaces as well as the
lingual surface of mandibular canine teeth but not the
palatal surface of maxillary canine teeth in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:255–261)
Objective—To evaluate areas of articular contact of
the proximal portions of the radius and ulna in normal
elbow joints of dogs and the effects of axial load on
size and location of these areas.
Sample Population—Forelimbs obtained from
cadavers of 5 adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedure—After forelimbs were removed, liquidphase
polymethyl methacrylate was applied to articular
surfaces of the elbow joint, and limbs were axially
loaded. Articular regions void of casting material were
stained with water-soluble paint. Relative articular contact
areas were determined by computer-assisted
image analyses of stained specimens. Repeatability of
the technique was evaluated by analyses of casts from
bilateral forelimbs of 1 cadaver. Incremental axial loads
were applied to left forelimbs from 4 cadavers to
determine effects of load on articular contact.
Results—Specific areas of articular contact were
identified on the radius, the craniolateral aspect of the
anconeus, and the medial coronoid process. The
medial coronoid and radial contact areas were continuous
across the radioulnar articulation. There was no
articular contact of the medial aspect of the anconeus
with the central trochlear notch. Coefficients of variation
of contact areas between repeated tests and
between contralateral limbs was < 20%. Significant
overall effects of axial load on contact area or location
were not identified.
Conclusions—Three distinct contact areas were evident
in the elbow joint of dogs. Two ulnar contact
areas were detected, suggesting there may be physiologic
incongruity of the humeroulnar joint. There
was no evidence of surface incongruity between the
medial edge of the radial head and the lateral edge of
the medial coronoid process. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:
Objective—To evaluate the in vivo response of α2-adrenoceptors to medetomidine administration in cats with feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) during periods of stress and after environmental enrichment.
Animals—13 cats with FIC and 12 healthy cats.
Procedures—Cats were subjected to an acute-onset moderate stressor for 8 days. After stress, 20 μg of medetomidine/kg was administered IM on days 1, 3, and 8. Heart rate, blood pressure, pupil diameter, respiratory rate, and level of sedation were evaluated before and after administration of the drug. After day 8, cats were moved to an enriched environment, and tests were repeated on day 35.
Results—Heart rate decreased and pupil diameter increased significantly after medetomidine administration in healthy cats, compared with cats with FIC. Cats with FIC had significantly lower respiratory rates. No significant differences in blood pressure or sedation level were found.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased plasma catecholamine concentrations during the enrichment phase, which have been reported elsewhere, may have contributed to the differences in α2-adrenoceptor responses detected in cats with FIC.
Objective—To establish comprehensive reference ranges for plasma amino acid and whole blood taurine concentrations in healthy adult cats eating commercial diets and to evaluate the relationships of age, sex, body weight, body condition score (BCS), dietary protein concentration, and dietary ingredients with plasma amino acid and whole blood taurine concentrations.
Animals—120 healthy adult cats.
Procedures—Blood samples and a complete health and diet history were obtained for each cat, and reference intervals for plasma amino acid and whole blood taurine concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed for associations of age, breed, sex, body weight, BCS, use of heparin, sample hemolysis and lipemia, dietary protein concentrations, and dietary ingredients with amino acid concentrations.
Results—95% reference intervals were determined for plasma amino acid and whole blood taurine concentrations. A significant difference in amino acid concentrations on the basis of sex was apparent for multiple amino acids. There was no clear relationship between age, BCS, body weight, and dietary protein concentration and amino acid concentrations. Differences in amino acid concentrations were detected for various dietary ingredients, but the relationships were difficult to interpret.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided data on plasma amino acid and whole blood taurine concentrations for a large population of adult cats eating commercial diets. Plasma amino acid and whole blood taurine concentrations were not affected by age, BCS, or body weight but were affected by sex and neuter status. Dietary protein concentration and dietary ingredients were not directly associated with plasma amino acid or whole blood taurine concentrations.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum on cardiorespiratory variables and working space during experimental induction of 3 intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) in cats.
Animals—6 healthy young adult neutered male domestic shorthair cats.
Procedures—All cats were anesthetized through use of a standardized protocol. A catheter was placed in the right femoral artery for blood pressure and blood gas monitoring. A thermodilution catheter was placed in the right jugular vein via fluoroscopic guidance. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured before (baseline) and 2 and 30 minutes after initiation of pneumoperitoneum at IAPs of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg; these were created through the use of a mechanical insufflator. At each IAP, abdominal dimensions (height, width, and circumference) were measured at a standardized location.
Results—At 4 mm Hg and 8 mm Hg IAP, no clinically important changes were identified in cardiorespiratory values. Heart rate, cardiac index, and stroke volume index remained unchanged throughout the study at all IAPs. Mean arterial blood pressure began to increase at 8 mm Hg and was significantly higher, compared with baseline, at both time points at 15 mm Hg. At 15 mm Hg, Paco2 was significantly higher and cats were more acidotic than at baseline. Working space was subjectively greater at 8 mm Hg than at 4 mm Hg IAP; however, at 15 mm Hg, no clinically important enlargement of the working space was identified, compared with at 8 mm Hg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values of cardiopulmonary variables were largely unchanged by induction of pneumoperitoneum in healthy cats up to an IAP of 8 mm Hg, and no clinically important increases in working space were evident at an IAP of 15 versus 8 mm Hg. These findings provide little justification for use of IAPs > 8 mm Hg in healthy cats undergoing laparoscopic procedures; however, whether the situation is similar in diseased or elderly cats remains to be determined.
Objective—To compare clinical, microbiologic, and clinicopathologic findings among horses infected with Clostridium difficile that had toxin A in their feces, horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A in their feces, and horses with diarrhea that were negative for C difficile infection.
Animals—292 horses and foals with diarrhea.
Procedures—Feces were submitted for microbial culture and tested for the C difficile antigen glutamate dehydrogenase and for toxin A with a commercial ELISA.
Results—Horses with toxin A in their feces had higher band neutrophil count, rectal temperature, hospitalization time prior to the onset of diarrhea, and total hospitalization time than did horses without evidence of C difficile infection, and 32 of the 33 (97%) horses with toxin A in their feces had received antimicrobials prior to the onset of diarrhea. Horses with toxin A in their feces had a significantly higher mortality rate than did horses negative for toxin A in their feces. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for detection of C difficile antigen were 93% and 88%, when assay results were compared with results of microbial culture following direct plating, and 66% and 93%, when assay results were compared with results of microbial culture following broth enrichment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided some evidence that horses positive for toxin A had more severe clinical disease than did horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A and horses with diarrhea without evidence of C difficile infection.
Objective—To describe ultrasonographic landmarks for use in collection of CSF from the lumbosacral region in equids.
Animals—37 equids (27 with neurologic disease and 10 with nonneurologic disease).
Procedures—Standing equids (n = 17) were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.006 to 0.01 mg/kg [0.003 to 0.005 mg/lb], IV) followed by butorphanol tartrate (0.01 mg/kg, IV) and restrained with a nose twitch for collection of CSF. The CSF was collected from 20 laterally recumbent equids (10 sedated and 10 immediately after euthanasia). Anatomic landmarks were identified ultrasonographically. Height at the dorsal point of the shoulders, body weight, depth of the spinal needle, number of attempts to collect CSF, and cytologic evaluation of CSF were recorded.
Results—Lumbosacral puncture cranial to the cranial border of the most superficial location of both tuber sacrale along the midline was consistently successful for CSF collection (35/37 equids). Two horses had anatomic abnormalities that precluded CSF collection. Mean number of attempts to collect CSF per animal was 1.1. Height and body weight were strongly correlated with needle depth for CSF collection. Pelvic and sacral displacement was observed in several laterally recumbent animals, which resulted in discrepancies of the midline between the cranial and caudal aspects of the vertebral column. In most equids, the spinal needle was aligned on the midline of the caudal aspect of the vertebral column.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography was a useful aid for collection of CSF from the lumbosacral space and decreased the risk of repeated trauma and contamination in equids.
Objective—To determine the immediately antecedent cause of secondary glaucoma and the prevalence of secondary glaucoma with anterior uveitis or lens dislocation in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—156 dogs with secondary glaucoma.
Procedures—Cause of glaucoma was determined from records. Breed, age, sex, and neuter status of all dogs with secondary glaucoma were compared with the general hospital population. The prevalence of secondary glaucoma in dogs with a primary diagnosis of lens dislocation or anterior uveitis during the same period was determined.
Results—Secondary glaucoma was diagnosed in 156 of 2,257 (6.9%) dogs examined because of ophthalmic disease and was bilateral in 33 (21.2%) of those dogs. In 31 (94%) bilaterally affected dogs, the antecedent cause was the same in both eyes. Common causes of secondary glaucoma were non-surgical anterior uveitis (44.9%), anterior uveitis associated with prior phacoemulsification (15.8%), and lens dislocation (15.2%). Parson Russell Terriers, Poodles, Boston Terriers, Cocker Spaniels, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, and Australian Cattle Dogs had diagnoses of secondary glaucoma more often than expected, compared with the reference population. Age, sex, neuter status, and laterality were not associated with secondary glaucoma. The prevalence of secondary glaucoma in dogs with lens dislocation or uveitis was 15% or 17%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glaucoma develops secondary to many intraocular diseases, particularly uveitis and lens dislocation. Diagnosis of these diseases should prompt frequent monitoring of intraocular pressure, regardless of signalment.
Objective—To determine trends in urolith composition in cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Sample Population—5,230 uroliths.
Procedures—The laboratory database for the Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched for all urolith submissions from cats from 1985 through 2004. Submission forms were reviewed, and each cat's age, sex, breed, and stone location were recorded.
Results—Minerals identified included struvite, calcium oxalate, urates, dried solidified blood, apatite, brushite, cystine, silica, potassium magnesium pyrophosphate, xanthine, and newberyite. During the past 20 years, the ratio of calcium oxalate stones to struvite stones increased significantly. When only the last 3 years of the study period were included, the percentage of struvite stones (44%) was higher than the percentage of calcium oxa-late stones (40%). The most common location for both types of uroliths was the bladder. The number of calcium oxalate-containing calculi in the upper portion of the urinary tract increased significantly during the study period. The number of apatite uroliths declined sig-nificantly and that of dried solidified blood stones increased significantly, compared with all other stone types. No significant difference in the number of urate stones was detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The increasing proportion of calcium oxalate uroliths was in accordance with findings from other studies and could be a result of alterations in cats' diets. However, the decreased percentage of calcium oxalate calculi and increased percentage of struvite calculi observed in the last 3 years may portend a change in the fre-quency of this type of urolith.