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To determine the sequence of cardiovascular and blood gas changes induced by ingestion of fumonisin-containing culture material in swine and to examine the temporal relationship of these changes to plasma sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations.


12 healthy castrated pigs (38 to 50 kg).


Pigs were instrumented to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples. Baseline values were obtained, and pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Control pigs (n = 6) were fed a standard grower diet, whereas culture material that contained 20 mg of fumonisin B1/kg of body weight was added to the feed of treated pigs (n = 6) each day. Hemodynamic data, results of arterial and mixed venous blood gas analyses, and plasma sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations were recorded every 12 hours until treated pigs were euthanatized because of impending death from pulmonary edema.


Sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations were increased in plasma of treated pigs within 24 hours of initial fumonisin exposure and continued to increase dramatically until euthanasia. Fumonisin-treated pigs had increased respiratory rate, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary artery wedge pressure, along with decreased heart rate and cardiac output in the 12-hour period before euthanasia. Fumonisin-treated pigs also had systemic arterial hypotension, arterial and mixed venous hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis, decreased oxygen delivery, and increased oxygen consumption immediately before euthanasia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Fumonisin-induced pulmonary edema in swine is probably caused by acute left-sided heart failure. Onset of hemodynamic changes was associated with plasma sphinganine concentration ≥ 2.2 μM/L and plasma sphingosine concentration ≥ 1 µM/L (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1292–1300)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether cardiovascular dysfunction is evident in horses with leukoencephalomalacia experimentally induced by administration of fumonisin B1.

Animals—11 healthy horses of various breeds (body weight, 252 to 367 kg).

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 3 groups and administered fumonisin B1 daily. Horses received IV injections of 0 (control horses; n = 4), 0.01 (3), or 0.20 mg (4) of fumonisin B1/kg for 7 to 28 days. Horses were examined daily for evidence of neurologic disease. When neurologic signs consistent with leukoencephalomalacia were evident, horses were anesthetized, and catheters were inserted for evaluation of the cardiovascular system. After recovery from anesthesia, hemodynamic measurements were obtained.

Results—Fumonisin-treated horses with clinical signs of neurologic disease had evidence of cardiovascular dysfunction manifested as decreases in heart rate, cardiac output, right ventricular contractility (assessed by measuring the maximal rate of change of right ventricular pressure), coccygeal artery pulse pressure, and pH and base excess in venous blood as well as increases in systemic vascular resistance, compared with values for control horses. Fumonisin-treated horses with and without clinical signs of neurologic disease also had higher serum and right ventricular sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations than control horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An association was detected among fumonisin-induced neurologic disease, increased serum and myocardial sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations, and decreased cardiovascular function in horses. Fumonisin-induced decreases in cardiovascular function may contribute to the pathophysiologic development of leukoencephalomalacia in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:538–545).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association