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CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old spayed female Rottweiler with hind limb ataxia was examined because of anorexia and an acute onset of hind limb paresis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Neurologic evaluation revealed hind limb ataxia and symmetric paraparesis with bilaterally abnormal hind limb postural reactions including hopping, hemiwalking, hemistanding, and delayed proprioception, which were suggestive of a lesion somewhere in the T3-L3 segment of the spinal cord. Thoracolumbar radiography revealed an abnormal radiopacity suggestive of a mass at T11. Two 3.5-cm-long osseous core biopsy specimens of the mass were obtained by MRI guidance. Histologic appearance of the specimens was consistent with osteosarcoma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The owners of the dog declined further treatment owing to a poor prognosis. The dog was euthanized within 12 months after diagnosis because of a declining quality of life.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE The acquisition of biopsy specimens by MRI guidance is an emerging technique in veterinary medicine. As evidenced by the dog of this report, MRI-guided biopsy can be used to safely obtain diagnostic biopsy specimens from tissues at anatomic locations that are difficult to access. This technique can potentially be used to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of disease, which could improve patient outcome. The MRI guidance technique described may also be useful for local administration of chemotherapeutics or radiofrequency ablation or cryoablation of various neoplasms of the vertebral column.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the effect of craniectomy and durotomy on intracranial pressure (ICP) in clinically normal dogs.


Two-part study (experiments A and B) involving craniectomy and durotomy, with and without treatments to lower ICP.


Six (experiment A) and 7 (experiment B) healthy dogs.


In experiment A, craniectomy was performed in combination with durotomy, diuretic administration, methylprednisolone sodium succinate administration, and hyperventilation, and effect of these manipulations on ICP was determined. In experiment B, dogs had only craniectomy and durotomy without associated ICP-lowering treatments. During both experiments, ICP was monitored throughout the surgical procedure with a fiber optic ICP monitoring device.


Intracranial pressure decreased after the combination of craniectomy, durotomy, and other ICP-lowering treatments in dogs of experiment A. Similar magnitude of decrease in ICP was observed in dogs of experiment B after craniectomy and durotomy.


Comparison of these experiments indicate that surgical removal of overlying skull and incision of the dura mater can significantly decrease ICP in clinically normal dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Craniectomy and durotomy may be useful as an adjunct treatment for increased ICP. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:116-119)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Quantitative electroencephalography was assessed in dogs under controlled, 2% end-tidal isoflurane anesthetic conditions, and each variable at each electrode site was tested for normal distribution. With the quantitative electroencephalographic system used, 16 values for each of 21 electrode sites were evaluated. Absolute power ratios also were evaluated. The methods for quantitative electroencephalographic recording and analysis appear to be readily adaptable to the dog. Most of the data do not conform to a normal distribution. Therefore, distribution- free nonparametric statistics should be used when looking for differences under experimental or clinical conditions. Quantitative electroencephalography appears to be a sensitive noninvasive method that could be used to evaluate brain function under anesthetic, clinical, and experimental settings.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research