Objective—To describe the biological behavior, clinical outcome, and prognostic factors of osteosarcoma of the maxilla, mandible, or calvarium in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—183 client-owned dogs with osteosarcoma of the maxilla, mandible, or calvarium.
Procedures—Medical records for dogs treated for osteosarcoma of the maxilla, mandible, or calvarium from 1986 through 2012 were reviewed. Dogs with a histopathologic diagnosis of osteosarcoma and treated for a primary tumor arising from these bones of the head were included.
Results—Mean age was 9.3 years, and body weight was 31.8 kg (70.0 lb). Most dogs (124/183 [67.8%]) were purebred, and the most common primary tumor site was the maxilla (80 [43.7%]). Treatments included palliative medical treatment only (11/183 [6.0%]), coarsely fractionated radiation therapy (RT; 12 [6.6%]), fractionated or stereotactic RT (18 [9.8%]), surgery (135 [73.8%]), and both surgery and fractionated RT (7 [3.8%]). Eighty-three (45.4%) dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy. Local recurrence or progression occurred in 80 of 156 (51.3%) dogs, and 60 of 156 (38.5%) dogs developed distant metastases. Median survival time for all dogs was 239 days. Dogs that underwent surgery had a median survival time of 329 days. Histologically tumor-free surgical margins were associated with significantly decreased hazards of progression or recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 0.4) and death (HR, 0.5). Dogs with osteosarcoma of the calvarium had a significantly greater hazard of local recurrence or progression (HR, 2.0).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, tumor excision in dogs with histologically tumor-free margins resulted in better local control and longer survival time than did other treatment types.
Objective—To develop an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats as a model for evaluating the effects of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) on osteosarcoma cells.
Animals—26 athymic nude rats.
Procedures—3 experiments were performed. In the first 2 experiments, rats were injected with 1 × 106 Abrams canine osteosarcoma cells into the proximal aspect of the tibia (n = 12) or distal aspect of the femur (6). Tumor engraftment and progression were monitored weekly via radiography, luciferase imaging, and measurement of urine pyridinoline concentration for 5 weeks and histologic evaluation after euthanasia. In the third experiment, 8 rats underwent canine osteosarcoma cell injection into the distal aspect of the femur and SRT was administered to the affected area in three 12-Gy fractions delivered on consecutive days (total radiation dose, 36 Gy). Percentage tumor necrosis and urinary pyridinoline concentrations were used to assess local tumor control. The short-term effect of SRT on skin was also evaluated.
Results—Tumors developed in 10 of 12 tibial sites and all 14 femoral sites. Administration of SRT to rats with femoral osteosarcoma was feasible and successful. Mean tumor necrosis of 95% was achieved histologically, and minimal adverse skin effects were observed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in rats developed in this study was suitable for evaluating the effects of local tumor control and can be used in future studies to evaluate optimization of SRT duration, dose, and fractionation schemes. The model could also allow evaluation of other treatments in combination with SRT, such as chemotherapy or bisphosphonate, radioprotectant, or parathyroid hormone treatment.
Objective—To evaluate clinical characteristics, outcome, and prognostic variables in a cohort of dogs surviving > 1 year after an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—90 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records for an 11-year period from 1997 through 2008 were reviewed, and patients with appendicular osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year after initial histopathologic diagnosis were studied. Variables including signalment, weight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, tumor location, surgery, and adjuvant therapies were recorded. Median survival times were calculated by means of a Kaplan-Meier survival function. Univariate analysis was conducted to compare the survival function for categorical variables, and the Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the likelihood of death > 1 year after diagnosis on the basis of the selected risk factors.
Results—90 dogs met the inclusion criteria; clinical laboratory information was not available in all cases. Median age was 8.2 years (range, 2.7 to 13.3 years), and median weight was 38 kg (83.6 lb; range, 21 to 80 kg [46.2 to 176 lb]). Serum alkaline phosphatase activity was high in 29 of 60 (48%) dogs. The most common tumor location was the distal portion of the radius (54/90 [60%]). Eighty-nine of 90 (99%) dogs underwent surgery, and 78 (87%) received chemotherapy. Overall, 49 of 90 (54%) dogs developed metastatic disease. The median survival time beyond 1 year was 243 days (range, 1 to 1,899 days). Dogs that developed a surgical-site infection after limb-sparing surgery had a significantly improved prognosis > 1 year after osteosarcoma diagnosis, compared with dogs that did not develop infections.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study indicated that dogs with an initial diagnosis of osteosarcoma that lived > 1 year had a median survival time beyond the initial year of approximately 8 months. As reported previously, the development of a surgical-site infection in dogs undergoing a limb-sparing surgery significantly affected prognosis and warrants further study.
Objective—To describe the clinical characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and factors associated with survival time in a cohort of dogs with lingual neoplasia that underwent surgical excision.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—97 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a lingual tumor examined between 1995 and 2008 were reviewed. Records were included if a lingual tumor was confirmed by histologic examination and surgical excision of the mass was attempted. Data were recorded and analyzed to identify prognostic factors.
Results—Clinical signs were mostly related to the oral cavity. For 93 dogs, marginal excision, subtotal glossectomy, and near-total glossectomy were performed in 35 (38%), 55 (59%), and 3 (3%), respectively. Surgery-related complications were rare, but 27 (28%) dogs had tumor recurrence. The most common histopathologic diagnoses for the 97 dogs were squamous cell carcinoma (31 [32%]) and malignant melanoma (29 [30%]). Eighteen (19%) dogs developed metastatic disease, and the overall median survival time was 483 days. Median survival time was 216 days for dogs with squamous cell carcinoma and 241 days for dogs with malignant melanoma. Dogs with lingual tumors ≥ 2 cm in diameter at diagnosis had a significantly shorter survival time than did dogs with tumors < 2 cm.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Similar to previous studies, results indicated that lingual tumors are most commonly malignant, and squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma predominate. A thorough physical examination to identify lingual tumors at an early stage and surgical treatment after tumor identification are recommended because tumor size significantly affected survival time.