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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether detection of virusspecific serum antibodies correlates with resistance to challenge with virulent feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline parvovirus (FPV) in cats and to determine percentages of client-owned cats with serum antibodies to FHV-1, FCV, and FPV.

Design—Prospective experimental study.

Animals—72 laboratory-reared cats and 276 clientowned cats.

Procedures—Laboratory-reared cats were vaccinated against FHV-1, FCV, and FPV, using 1 of 3 commercial vaccines, or maintained as unvaccinated controls. Between 9 and 36 months after vaccination, cats were challenged with virulent virus. Recombinant-antigen ELISA for detection of FHV-1-, FCV-, and FPV-specific antibodies were developed, and results were compared with results of hemagglutination inhibition (FPV) and virus neutralization (FHV-1 and FCV) assays and with resistance to viral challenge.

Results—For vaccinated laboratory-reared cats, predictive values of positive results were 100% for the FPV and FCV ELISA and 90% for the FHV-1 ELISA. Results of the FHV-1, FCV, and FPV ELISA were positive for 195 (70.7%), 255 (92.4%), and 189 (68.5%), respectively, of the 276 client-owned cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that for cats that have been vaccinated, detection of FHV-1-, FCV-, and FPV-specific antibodies is predictive of whether cats are susceptible to disease, regardless of vaccine type or vaccination interval. Because most client-owned cats had detectable serum antibodies suggestive of resistance to infection, use of arbitrary booster vaccination intervals is likely to lead to unnecessary vaccination of some cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;219:38–42)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess efficacy of Giardia vaccination as a treatment for giardiasis in experimentally infected cats.

Design—Original study.

Animals—16 young-adult cats.

Procedure—Cats were experimentally infected by orogastric administration of Giardia cysts. On weeks 4, 6, and 10, cats in the treatment group (n = 8) were given Giardia vaccine SC. For the first 28 weeks after infection, 3 fecal samples from each cat were examined weekly for Giardia cysts, and cyst numbers were counted. Fecal consistency was scored daily for the duration of the study. Results from vaccinated and unvaccinated cats were compared by logistic regression.

Results—All cats became infected and were shedding Giardia cysts by the end of week 2. Throughout the study, diarrhea was rare and was mild and transient when it did occur. By week 28, 5 of 8 vaccinated cats and 7 of 8 control cats had patent Giardia infections. Magnitude of infection, based on number of fecal samples with cysts and number of cysts per sample, decreased progressively in both groups over time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of 3 doses of a Giardia vaccine did not completely eliminate the organism from experimentally infected cats in the study period. Since clinical signs were minimal in both groups of cats, it could not be determined whether vaccination lessened severity of clinical disease. Results may have been negatively influenced by the large inoculation dose. Whether Giardia vaccination is an effective treatment for giardiasis in naturally infected cats remains to be determined. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1548–1551)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare treatment with enrofloxacin and doxycycline with no treatment in cats experimentally infected with Haemobartonella felis.

Design—Prospective case-control study.

Animals—16 cats.

Procedure—Cats were inoculated with large-form H felis from a chronically infected donor. Cats were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: doxycycline (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h), low-dose enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), high-dose enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h), and an untreated control group. Clinical signs, Hct, blood smears, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were used to monitor progression of the infection.

Results—All cats were confirmed to be infected with H felis via blood smear evaluations and PCR assay results. Treatment had no effect on Hct during the intratreatment period, but Hct values were significantly greater in the low-dose enrofloxacin group, compared with the control group, during the posttreatment period. During the intratreatment period, H felis organism counts per 1,000 RBC in the doxycycline treatment and the high-dose enrofloxacin treatment groups decreased at a significantly faster rate than those in the control group. In the posttreatment period, organism counts in the doxycycline treatment group and the low- and high-dose enrofloxacin groups decreased at significantly faster rates than counts in the control group. There was no significant effect of treatment on the number of positive PCR assay results. Two cats treated with enrofloxacin and 1 cat treated with doxycycline completely cleared the H felis organism despite presumed immunosuppression caused by glucocorticoids.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results support the hypothesis that enrofloxacin has anti-H felis effects. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:250–253)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To develop Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for use with aqueous humor of cats, and to report PCR and antibody detection results in naturally exposed cats with and without uveitis.

Sample Population

Serum and aqueous humor samples from client-owned, healthy cats (n = 23) and client-owned cats with uveitis (n = 43).

Procedure

T gondii-specific IgM and IgG were measured in serum and aqueous humor from all cats. The Goldman-Witmer coefficient for ocular antibody production was calculated for cats positive for T gondii-specific IgM or IgG in aqueous humor. Aqueous humor from all cats was assessed by the B1 gene PCR.

Results

T gondii was detected in aqueous humor by PCR from 2 of 23 (8.7%) healthy cats and 8 of 43 (18.6%) cats with uveitis. T gondii-specific IgM in either serum or aqueous humor was detected in 5 of 8 (62.5%) cats with uveitis and T gondii in aqueous humor. All cats with uveitis and T gondii in aqueous humor had anterior segment disease. In 5 of 8 (62.5%) cats with uveitis and T gondii in aqueous humor, ocular production of T gondii antibodies was not detected. T gondii was not detected in aqueous humor from 14 of 17 (82.4%) cats with ocular production of T gondii-specific antibody.

Conclusions

The presence of T gondii in aqueous humor may correlate to clinical disease in some, but not all, cats.

Clinical Relevance

T gondii-specific aqueous humor antibody tests and PCR should be used together to aid in the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis in cats. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1589–1593)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records were reviewed for 93 dogs with bacterial pneumonia from which transtracheal aspiration samples were obtained for culturing of Mycoplasma spp and aerobic bacteria. On the basis of culture results, there were 65 Mycoplasma-positive dogs, including 7 dogs for which only Mycoplasma spp were isolated, and 28 Mycoplasma-negative dogs. Most dogs were > 5 years old, and differences in breed or gender distribution among the 3 groups of dogs were not detected. Hematologic and serum biochemical analysis results did not differ significantly between Mycoplasma-positive and Mycoplasma-negative dogs. Fifty-three of 93 (57%) dogs had a concurrent medical problem that may have predisposed them to developing bacterial pneumonia as a sequelae to aspiration or immunosuppression. Mycoplasma-positive dogs were significantly (P < 0.005) more likely to have > 1 species of bacteria isolated from their transtracheal aspiration samples. Clinical outcome was favorable when antimicrobials were selected on the basis of antimicrobial susceptibility results for the other bacterial isolates and not on results of the antimicrobial activity against Mycoplasma spp. It could not be determined whether Mycoplasma spp were primary pathogens or only opportunists.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cystometrographic studies and urethral pressure profiles were performed to objectively assess the functional status of the urinary bladder and urethra in 9 dogs with congenital ectopic ureters. Functional abnormalities of the urinary bladder or urethra were detected in 8 of 9 (89%) dogs. Cystometrographic evidence of reduced bladder capacity was detected in 4 (44%) dogs, and abnormalities in urethral pressure profiles were consistent with urethral incompetence in 6 (67%) dogs. Dogs with urethral pressure profile abnormalities were treated with phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, and the urethral pressure profile was reevaluated. Urethral pressure measurements obtained before surgery (3 dogs) and after phenylpropanolamine (6 dogs) were used to predict the likelihood of continence after surgery. Predicted outcomes included continence maintained without medication (3 dogs), continence maintained with phenylpropanolamine (2 dogs), and persistent incontinence despite phenylpropanolamine administration (4 dogs). After surgical repair of ectopic ureters, 2 of 9 (22%) dogs were continent without medication, and 2 (22%) maintained continence with phenylpropanolamine treatment. Various degrees of incontinence persisted in 5 of 9 (56%) dogs, 4 of which had urethral incompetence that had been documented as poorly responsive to phenylpropanolamine administration prior to surgery. Predicted outcomes were consistent with actual outcomes in 8 of 9 (89%) dogs, with predictions of incontinence proving accurate in 4 of 4 (100%) dogs and predictions of continence proving accurate in 4 of 5 (80%) dogs. Urodynamic assessment of dogs with ectopic ureters appears to be valuable for identifying concurrent functional abnormalities of the urinary bladder and urethra and for predicting postoperative outcome.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgA, IgM, and IgG were measured by ELISA in the serum and aqueous humor of 29 client-owned cats with endogenous uveitis and 7 specific-pathogen-free cats tested sequentially for 20 weeks after inoculation with T gondii. Local antibody production in aqueous humor was estimated by multiplying the aqueous humor-to-serum T gondii-specific antibody ratio by the serum-to- aqueous humor total IgG (C value) or calicivirus-spe- cific IgG (CTC value) ratio. Evidence for local production of antibody in aqueous humor was defined as C value greater than 8 or CTC value greater than 1. Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM CTC values, IgG CTC values, or IgA CTC values greater than 1 were detected in the aqueous humor of 18 of 29 (62.1%) client- owned cats with endogenous uveitis; 2 cats had IgA CTC values greater than 1 without detectable IgM or IgG in aqueous humor. Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM was not detected in the aqueous humor of experimentally inoculated cats before or after inoculation. Immunoglobulin G C values greater than 8 were detected in all 7 experimentally inoculated cats and ranged from 10.4 to 145.5.

Immunoglobulin G C values greater than 8 were first detected 4 to 8 weeks after T gondii inoculation and were undetectable by week 16 after inoculation. Immunoglobulin A C values greater than 8 were detected in 4 of 7 cats and ranged from 12.7 to 264.3. Immunoglobulin A C values greater than 8 were first detected 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation, and were detected in 2 cats during week 20 after inoculation. It was concluded that some cats infected with T gondii develop detectable concentrations of T gondii-specific IgA in aqueous humor.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

An elisa for detection of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgA in feline serum was developed. A group of cats (n = 7) was inoculated orally with T gondii bradyzoites. Toxoplasma gondii-specific serum IgM, IgG, and IgA responses were followed sequentially by use of the ELISA for 34 weeks. Serum IgA was detected later than IgM or IgG, and was detected in most cats on week 34 after inoculation. None of the cats was seropositive for IgA during the oocyst-shedding period. A group of client-owned cats with suspected clinical toxoplasmosis and a group of healthy cats were tested for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgA in serum. A trend toward association of T gondii-specific IgA in serum of cats with ocular disease was observed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of dipstick, sulfosalicylic acid (SSA), and urine protein-tocreatinine ratio (UP:C) methods for use in detection of canine and feline albuminuria.

Design—Evaluation study.

Sample Population—599 canine and 347 feline urine samples.

Procedures—Urine was analyzed by use of dipstick, SSA, and UP:C methods; results were compared with those for a species-specific ELISA to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios.

Results—Positive results for dipstick and SSA tests (trace reaction or greater) in canine urine had moderate specificity (dipstick, 81.2%; SSA, 73.3%) and poor PPV (dipstick, 34.0%; SSA, 41.8%). Values improved when stronger positive results (≥ 2+) for the dipstick and SSA tests were compared with ELISA results (specificity, 98.9% and 99.0% for the urine dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 90.7% and 90.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). Data obtained for cats revealed poor specificity (dipstick, 11.0%; SSA, 25.4%) and PPV (dipstick, 55.6%; SSA, 46.9%). Values improved slightly when stronger positive test results (≥ 2+) were used (specificity, 80.0% and 94.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively; PPV, 63.5% and 65.2% for the dipstick and SSA tests, respectively). The UP:C had high specificity for albuminuria in dogs and cats (99.7% and 99.2%, respectively) but low sensitivity (28.7% and 2.0%, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caution should be used when interpreting a positive test result of a dipstick or SSA test for canine or feline albuminuria.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association