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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features correlated with histologic diagnosis in dogs with nasal disease.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—78 dogs undergoing MRI for evaluation of nasal disease.

Procedures—Medical records and MRI reports of dogs were reviewed to identify MRI features associated with histologic diagnosis. Features evaluated were presence of a mass effect, frontal sinus involvement, sphenoid sinus involvement, maxillary recess involvement, nasopharyngeal infiltration by soft tissue, nasal turbinate destruction, vomer bone lysis, paranasal bone destruction, cribriform plate erosion, and lesion extent (ie, unilateral vs bilateral).

Results—33 dogs had neoplastic disease, 38 had inflammatory rhinitis, and 7 had fungal rhinitis. Lesion extent was not significantly associated with histologic diagnosis. Absence of a mass effect was significantly associated with inflammatory disease. However, presence of a mass was not specific for neoplasia. In dogs with evidence of a mass on magnetic resonance (MR) images, nasal turbinate destruction, frontal sinus invasion, and maxillary recess invasion were not useful in distinguishing neoplastic from nonneoplastic disease, but cribriform plate erosion, vomer bone lysis, paranasal bone destruction, sphenoid sinus invasion, and nasopharyngeal invasion were.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs with nasal disease, the lack of a mass effect on MR images was significantly associated with inflammatory disease. In dogs with a mass effect on MR images, vomer bone lysis, cribriform plate erosion, paranasal bone destruction, sphenoid sinus invasion by a mass, and nasopharyngeal invasion by a mass were significantly associated with a diagnosis of neoplasia.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Intracranial pressure and cardiovascular variables after iv administration of medetomidine (0.03 mg/kg of body weight) were evaluated in 6 healthy, mixed-breed dogs anesthetized with 1.3% end-tidal isoflurane concentration and mechanically ventilated to normocapnia (PaCO2 , 35 to 45 mm of Hg). Baseline values were determined for intracranial pressure, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, end-tidal CO2 tension and isoflurane concentration, arterial pH and CO2 and O2 tensions, and core body temperature. Cerebral perfusion pressure, cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances, plasma HCO3- concentration, and base excess were calculated. Intracranial pressure was measured, using a calibrated, fiberoptic transducer placed within the brain parenchyma and secured to the calvarium by means of a subarachnoid bolt. Cardiac output was determined by thermodilution. End-tidal CO2 tension and isoflurane concentration were determined, using an infrared gas analyzer. Administration of medetomidine did not change intracranial pressure, but was associated with significant (P < 0.05) decreases in values for heart rate, cardiac index, end-tidal CO2, and HCO3- and with significant increases in systolic, mean, and diastolic pressure; pulmonary artery pressure; systemic vascular resistance; central venous pressure; and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effect of craniectomy and durotomy on intracranial pressure (ICP) in clinically normal dogs.

Design

Two-part study (experiments A and B) involving craniectomy and durotomy, with and without treatments to lower ICP.

Animals

Six (experiment A) and 7 (experiment B) healthy dogs.

Procedure

In experiment A, craniectomy was performed in combination with durotomy, diuretic administration, methylprednisolone sodium succinate administration, and hyperventilation, and effect of these manipulations on ICP was determined. In experiment B, dogs had only craniectomy and durotomy without associated ICP-lowering treatments. During both experiments, ICP was monitored throughout the surgical procedure with a fiber optic ICP monitoring device.

Results

Intracranial pressure decreased after the combination of craniectomy, durotomy, and other ICP-lowering treatments in dogs of experiment A. Similar magnitude of decrease in ICP was observed in dogs of experiment B after craniectomy and durotomy.

Conclusions

Comparison of these experiments indicate that surgical removal of overlying skull and incision of the dura mater can significantly decrease ICP in clinically normal dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Craniectomy and durotomy may be useful as an adjunct treatment for increased ICP. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:116-119)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by West Nile virus (WNV) in horses in northern Indiana.

Design—Case series.

Animals—170 horses.

Procedure—Horses with clinical signs suggestive of encephalomyelitis caused by WNV were examined. Date, age, sex, breed, and survival status were recorded. Serum samples were tested for anti-WNV antibodies, and virus isolation was attempted from samples of brain tissue. Climate data from local weather recording stations were collected. An epidemic curve was constructed, and case fatality rate was calculated.

Results—The most common clinical signs were ataxia, hind limb paresis, and muscle tremors and fasciculations. Eight horses had been vaccinated against WNV from 2 to 21 days prior to the appearance of clinical signs. West Nile virus was isolated from brain tissue of 2 nonvaccinated horses, and anti-WNV IgM antibodies were detected in 132 nonvaccinated horses; in 2 other nonvaccinated horses, anti-WNV antibodies were detected and WNV was also isolated from brain tissue. Thirty-one (22.8%) horses died or were euthanatized. The peak of the outbreak occurred on September 6, 2002. Ambient temperatures were significantly lower after the peak of the outbreak, compared with prior to the peak.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The peak risk period for encephalomyelitis caused by WNV in northern Indiana was mid-August to mid-September. Reduction in cases coincided with decreasing ambient temperatures. Because of a substantial case fatality rate, owners of horses in northern Indiana should have their horses fully protected by vaccination against WNV before June. In other regions of the United States with a defined mosquito breeding season, vaccination of previously nonvaccinated horses should commence at least 4 months before the anticipated peak in seasonal mosquito numbers, and for previously vaccinated horses, vaccine should be administered no later than 2 months before this time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:84–89)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine incidence rates and potential risk factors for vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 3 days of administration in dogs.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—1,226,159 dogs vaccinated at 360 veterinary hospitals.

Procedure—Electronic records from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003, were searched for possible VAAEs (nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, or anaphylaxis) diagnosed within 3 days of vaccine administration. Information included age, weight, sex, neuter status, and breed. Specific clinical signs and treatments were reviewed in a random sample of 400 affected dogs. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE was estimated by use of multivariate logistic regression.

Results—4,678 adverse events (38.2/10,000 dogs vaccinated) were associated with administration of 3,439,576 doses of vaccine to 1,226,159 dogs. The VAAE rate decreased significantly as body weight increased. Risk was 27% to 38% greater for neutered versus sexually intact dogs and 35% to 64% greater for dogs approximately 1 to 3 years old versus 2 to 9 months old. The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccine doses administered per office visit increased; each additional vaccine significantly increased risk of an adverse event by 27% in dogs ≤ 10 kg (22 lb) and 12% in dogs > 10 kg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Young adult small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE within 72 hours after vaccination. These factors should be considered in risk assessment and risk communication with clients regarding vaccination. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1102–1108)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Quantitative electroencephalography was assessed in dogs under controlled, 2% end-tidal isoflurane anesthetic conditions, and each variable at each electrode site was tested for normal distribution. With the quantitative electroencephalographic system used, 16 values for each of 21 electrode sites were evaluated. Absolute power ratios also were evaluated. The methods for quantitative electroencephalographic recording and analysis appear to be readily adaptable to the dog. Most of the data do not conform to a normal distribution. Therefore, distribution- free nonparametric statistics should be used when looking for differences under experimental or clinical conditions. Quantitative electroencephalography appears to be a sensitive noninvasive method that could be used to evaluate brain function under anesthetic, clinical, and experimental settings.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research