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  • Author or Editor: Michael J. Murphy x
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Summary

A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit for measurement of human osteocalcin was validated for use in horses. For accurate measurement of equine serum osteocalcin, blood samples may be collected at a temperature between 20 and 25 C, then centrifuged within 90 minutes; serum may be stored at —20 C in plastic tubes for up to 26 weeks. Serum may be thawed and refrozen up to 5 times without significant change in measured equine serum osteocalcin concentration. Assay sensitivity was 0.16 ng/ml. Recovery of bovine osteocalcin standard added to equine serum was linear. Intra-assay coefficient of variation (X 100) for 2 equine serum pools was 6.9 (mean ± SD, 13.9 ± 1.0 ng/ml) and 7.5 (10.6 ± 0.8 ng/ml) %. Interassay coefficient of variation for 3 equine serum pools measured in 12 assays was 12.5 (16.1 ± 2.0 ng/ml), 12.7 (11.5 ± 1.5 ng/ml), and 24.6 (3.0 ± 0.7 ng/ml) %. Dilutional parallelism was documented by assaying pooled equine serum at 4 dilutions and correcting the mean result for dilution. Significant change was not observed in equine serum osteocalcin concentration for various time-of-day blood sample collections in horses housed under continuous lighting.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Animals—11 healthy parrots.

Procedures—Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg.

Results—Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog with a history of allergic skin disease was examined because of regurgitation, coughing, and dysphagia that began 15 days after abdominal surgery for correction of gastric dilatation and volvulus.

Clinical Findings—Severe diffuse esophagitis, esophageal dysmotility, and a benign esophageal stricture at the level of the base of the heart were identified via contrast videofluoroscopy and esophagoscopy. Severe diffuse eosinophilic ulcerative esophagitis was confirmed by histologic examination of esophageal biopsy specimens and cytologic evaluation of specimens obtained by use of a cytology brush. Esophageal eosinophils were evident (14% to 50% of the inflammatory cell population and > 25 eosinophils/hpf).

Treatment and Outcome—No clinical or endoscopic improvement was evident after treatment with antireflux medications, including a proton-pump inhibitor, following an initial esophageal bougienage procedure. An excellent response characterized by resolution of dysphagia and regurgitation with marked improvement of the esophageal mucosa was evident following intralesional and systemic administration of glucocorticoids, 2 additional esophageal bougienage procedures, and feeding of an elimination diet.

Clinical Relevance—To our knowledge, the information reported here is the first description of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) in a dog. Many similarities exist between the condition in the dog reported here and EE in humans. This clinical report highlights the need to consider EE as a differential diagnosis for esophagitis and esophageal strictures in dogs. When appropriate, esophageal biopsy or cytologic specimens should be obtained and examined to investigate the possibility of EE.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Fever, limb edema, and laminitis were observed in horses 18 to 36 hours after they consumed hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) under field and experimental conditions. Clinical signs were not observed in all horses that had ingested the plant. Diagnosis in the field cases was limited to observation of clinical signs and evidence of plant ingestion in hay or on pasture. In most cases, clinical remission was observed 2 to 4 days after empirical treatment, removal of the plant source, or both.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association