Objective—To determine whether veterinarians perceive that theriogenology training at veterinary medical schools in North America and the Caribbean is adequate for achievement of theriogenology skills commonly used in private practice.
Procedures—A survey was mailed to members of the veterinary medical associations of Alabama, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and Washington. With regard to reproductive procedures in bovine, equine, porcine, small ruminant, camelid, and small animal species, veterinarians (predominantly practitioners) were asked to rate the importance of that procedure in their job and to assess their own degree of competency in that procedure at the time of their graduation from veterinary school.
Results—Procedures considered most valuable in practice were those that represent basic theriogenology education and training, such as transrectal palpation of cows and mares and interpretation of vaginal cytologic specimens in bitches. Dystocia management was a high priority in all species. Correlations between rankings for value in practice and competency at graduation were good, varying from 0.75 in cattle and 0.78 in horses to 0.98 in dogs and 1.0 in cats, small ruminants, and pigs.
Conclusions—Analysis of these data suggests that appropriate theriogenology procedures are being taught in veterinary medical schools but perhaps not to the extent required to achieve adequate competency immediately at graduation. Issues requiring further investigation include the effect of tracking in the veterinary curriculum on theriogenology training, methods by which more students could receive greater practical exposure during theriogenology training, and the apparent relative lack of theriogenology training (including contraception) in small animals and exotic animals.
Objective—To determine the effect of finasteride on
programmed cell death (apoptosis) of prostatic cells
during prostatic involution in dogs with benign prostatic
Animals—9 dogs with BPH.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to treatment
or control groups. Treatment dogs (n = 5) were
administered finasteride (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24
h) for 16 weeks, whereas the 4 control dogs were
administered an inert compound. Prostatic cells from
the prostatic fluid portion of the ejaculate of treatment
and control dogs were obtained before and 1, 2,
3, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after initiation of treatment.
Cells were concentrated by use of centrifugation.
Prostatic cells were examined for indications of apoptosis
by use of a terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-
mediated deoxyuracil triphosphate nick-end
labeling technique. After receiving the inert compound
for 16 weeks, the 4 control dogs were administered
finasteride for 16 weeks, and evaluations
Results—Percentage of apoptotic prostatic cells in
ejaculated prostatic fluid of treatment dogs increased
significantly (from 9% before treatment to 33, 31, 26,
and 27% after 1, 2, 3, and 8 weeks of treatment,
respectively). There was no significant change in percentage
of apoptotic prostatic cells in the ejaculated
prostatic fluid of control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Finasterideinduced
prostatic involution appears to be via apoptosis
in dogs with BPH. Finasteride treatment of dogs
with BPH causes prostatic involution by apoptosis
rather than necrosis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:495–498)
Objective—To determine the effect of the 5α-reductase
inhibitor finasteride on prostatic diameter and
volume, semen quality, and serum dihydrotestosterone
(DHT) and testosterone concentrations in dogs
with spontaneous benign prostatic hypertrophy
Design—Double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Animals—9 dogs with BPH.
Procedure—Five dogs were treated with finasteride
for 16 weeks (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg [0.05 to 0.23 mg/lb] of
body weight, PO, q 24 h); the other 4 received a
placebo. Prostatic diameter, measured radiographically,
prostatic volume, measured ultrasonographically,
semen quality, and serum DHT and testosterone concentrations
were evaluated before and during treatment.
After receiving the placebo for 16 weeks, the 4
control dogs were treated with finasteride for 16
weeks, and evaluations were repeated.
Results—Finasteride significantly decreased prostatic
diameter (mean percentage decrease, 20%), prostatic
volume (mean percentage decrease, 43%),
and serum DHT concentration (mean percentage
decrease, 58%). Finasteride decreased semen volume
but did not adversely effect semen quality or
serum testosterone concentration. No adverse
effects were reported by owners of dogs in the
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that finasteride can be used to reduce prostatic
size in dogs with BPH without adversely affecting
semen quality or serum testosterone concentration.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1275–1280)
Objective—To assess student awareness of the financial costs of pursuing a veterinary education, to determine student expectations for financial returns of a veterinary career, and to identify associations between student debt and factors such as future career plans or personality type.
Sample—First-year veterinary students at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine.
Procedures—In 2013, prior to the first day of class, all incoming first-year students received an email invitation to complete an online survey. The survey contained questions about demographics, current financial situation, current debt, expected debt at graduation, expected annual income following graduation, intent to pursue specialty training, and Myers-Briggs personality type.
Results—72 of 102 (71%) students completed the survey; 65 respondents answered all relevant questions and provided usable data. Student responses for expected debt at graduation were comparable to national averages for veterinary college graduates; responses for expected annual income following graduation were lower than averages for University of Minnesota veterinary college graduates and national averages. However, students predicted even lower annual income if they did not attend veterinary college. Expected debt and expected annual income were not correlated with factors such as personality type or future career plans.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that first-year veterinary students were aware of the financial costs of their veterinary education and had realistic expectations for future salaries. For typical veterinary students, attending veterinary college appeared to be financially worthwhile, given lower expected earnings otherwise. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:196–203)