Objective—To determine the percentage of pet cats still wearing collars and having functional microchips 6 months after application.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—538 client-owned cats.
Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to wear 1 of 3 types of collars: plastic buckle, breakaway plastic buckle safety, and elastic stretch safety. Each cat was fitted with the assigned collar, and a microchip was inserted SC between the scapulae. Owners completed questionnaires about their experiences and expectations of collars at enrollment and at the conclusion of the study.
Results—391 of the 538 (72.7%) cats successfully wore their collars for the entire 6-month study period. Owners' initial expectations of the cats' tolerance of the collar and the number of times the collar was reapplied on the cats' necks were the most important factors predicting success. Type of collar likely influenced how often collars needed to be reapplied. Eighteen (3.3%) cats caught a forelimb in their collar or caught their collar on an object or in their mouth. Of the 478 microchips that were scanned at the conclusion of the study, 477 (99.8%) were functional.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most cats successfully wore their collars. Because even house cats can become lost, veterinarians should recommend that all cats wear identification collars since they are the most obvious means of identifying an owned pet. For some cats, collars may frequently come off and become lost; therefore, microchips are an important form of backup identification. Owners should select a collar that their cat will tolerate and should check it often to ensure a proper fit.
Objective—To determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of apomorphine and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution used for emesis in dogs.
Design—Prospective observational study.
Animals—147 dogs that received apomorphine (IV or placed in the conjunctival sac) or 3% hydrogen peroxide solution (PO) to induce emesis after exposure to toxic agents.
Procedures—Data regarding signalment; agent information; type, dose, route, and number of emetic administrations; whether emesis was successful; number of times emesis occurred; percentage of ingested agent recovered; and adverse effects were collected via telephone during American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center operations and stored in a database for analysis. Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact tests were used to evaluate emetic success rates.
Results—Apomorphine and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution successfully induced emesis in 59 of 63 (94%) and 76 of 84 (90%) of dogs, respectively. Mean time to onset of emesis after the first dose of emetic was 14.5 and 18.6 minutes when hydrogen peroxide (n = 37) and apomorphine (31) were used, respectively, with mean durations of 42 and 27 minutes, respectively. Mean estimates for recovery of ingested agents were 48% for hydrogen peroxide and 52% for apomorphine. Adverse effects were reported in 16 of 112 (14%) dogs for which information was available.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—3% hydrogen peroxide solution and apomorphine effectively induced emesis in dogs when used as directed. Emesis occurred within minutes after administration and helped recover substantial amounts of ingested agents. Adverse effects of both emetics were considered mild and self-limiting.
Objective—To document blood nitric oxide concentrations
in the portal vein and systemic circulation in a rat
model of acute portal hypertension and compare values
with a control group and a sham surgical group.
Procedure—Following induction of anesthesia,
catheters were placed surgically in the carotid artery,
jugular, and portal veins of group 2 and 3 rats and in
the carotid artery and jugular vein of group 1 rats.
Baseline heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature,
and vascular pressure measurements were
obtained, and blood was drawn from all catheters for
baseline nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. Acute portal
hypertension was induced in the group 3 rats by tying
a partially occluding suture around the portal vein and
a 22-gauge catheter. The catheter was then removed,
resulting in a repeatable degree of portal vein impingement.
After catheter placement, all variables were
remeasured at 15-minute intervals for 3 hours.
Results—Blood nitric oxide concentrations were greater
in all vessels tested in group 3 than in group 2 rats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute portal
hypertension in this experimental model results in
increased concentrations of NO in the systemic and
portal circulation. On the basis of information in the
rat, it is possible that increased NO concentrations
may develop in dogs following surgical treatment of
congenital portosystemic shunts if acute life-threatening
portal hypertension develops. Increased NO
concentrations may contribute to the shock syndrome
that develops in these dogs. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine prevalence of FeLV infection
and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency
virus (FIV) in unowned free-roaming cats.
Design—Cross-sectional serologic survey.
Animals—733 unowned free-roaming cats in
Raleigh, NC, and 1,143 unowned free-roaming cats in
Results—In Raleigh, overall prevalence of FeLV infection
was 5.3%, and overall seroprevalence for FIV
was 2.3%. In Gainesville, overall prevalence of FeLV
infection was 3.7%, and overall seroprevalence for
FIV was 4.3%. Overall, FeLV prevalence was 4.3%,
and seroprevalence for FIV was 3.5%. Prevalence of
FeLV infection was not significantly different between
males (4.9%) and females (3.8%), although seroprevalence
for FIV was significantly higher in male
cats (6.3%) than in female cats (1.5%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prevalence of
FeLV infection and seroprevalence for FIV in unowned
free-roaming cats in Raleigh and Gainesville are similar
to prevalence rates reported for owned cats in the
United States. Male cats are at increased risk for
exposure to FIV, compared with female cats. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:620–622)
Objective—To evaluate a questionnaire for obtaining owner-perceived, weighted quality-oflife assessments for dogs with spinal cord injuries.
Animals—100 dogs with spinal cord injuries and 48 healthy control dogs.
Procedures—The questionnaire was adapted from a questionnaire (the schedule for the evaluation of individual quality of life–direct weighting) used for human patients. Specifically, owners were asked to identify 5 areas or activities they believed had the most influence on their dogs' quality of life, assess their dogs' current status in each of those areas, and provide a weighting for the importance of each area. Results were used to construct a weighted quality-of-life score ranging from 0 to 100 for each dog. Owners were also asked to provide a quality-of-life score with a visual analog scale (VAS).
Results—A good correlation was found between weighted and VAS quality-of-life scores. Dogs with spinal cord injuries had weighted quality-of-life scores that were significantly lower than scores for control dogs. Quality-of-life areas and activities provided by owners of dogs with spinal cord injuries were similar to areas and activities provided by owners of healthy control dogs and could mostly be encompassed by 5 broader domains: mobility, play or mental stimulation, health, companionship, and other.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the questionnaire could be used to obtain owner-perceived, weighted quality-of-life assessments for dogs with spinal cord injuries. Obtaining owner-perceived quality-of-life assessments for individual dogs should allow veterinarians to better address quality-of-life concerns and expectations of owners.
Objective—To evaluate changes over time in owner-perceived, weighted quality-of-life assessments in dogs with spinal cord injuries and determine whether scores were associated with underlying etiology or with veterinarian-assigned scores for severity of neurologic dysfunction.
Animals—100 dogs with spinal cord injury.
Procedures—Duration of dysfunction, modified Frankel neurologic injury score, and etiology were recorded. At initial and recheck (4- to 6-week) evaluations, owners were asked to identify 5 areas or activities they believed had the most influence on their dogs' quality of life, assess their dogs' current status in each area, and provide a weighting for the importance of each area; results were used to construct a weighted quality-of-life score. Owners were also asked to provide a quality-of-life score with a visual analog scale (VAS).
Results—At initial and recheck evaluations, weighted quality-of-life scores were higher for ambulatory than for nonambulatory dogs. However, scores did not differ among groups when dogs were grouped on the basis of underlying etiology or duration of injury. Dogs with an increase in Frankel score between the initial and recheck evaluations had a significant increase in weighted quality-of-life score, whereas for dogs that did not have any change in Frankel score, initial and recheck weighted quality-of-life scores were not significantly different.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that owner-assigned, weighted quality-of-life scores for dogs with spinal cord injuries did not vary significantly on the basis of underlying etiology or duration of injury but were higher for ambulatory than for nonambulatory dogs.
Objective—To examine associations between CSF biomarkers, initial neurologic dysfunction, and long-term ambulatory outcome in dogs with acute intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH).
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—54 dogs with acute thoracolumbar IVDH and 16 clinically normal dogs.
Procedures—For each dog, variables, including CSF myelin basic protein (MBP), lactate, calcium, glucose, and total protein concentrations; nucleated cell count; and creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase activities, were measured. For dogs with thoracolumbar IVDH, initial neurologic function was characterized by use of a modified Frankel score (MFS; determined on a scale of 0 to 5, where 0 represented paraplegia with no deep nociception and 5 represented paraspinal hyperesthesia only). Long-term follow-up was assessed.
Results—Among dogs with thoracolumbar IVDH, those with CSF CK activity ≤ 38 U/L had a 35-fold increase in the odds of long-term ambulation, compared with the odds in dogs with CSF CK activity > 38 U/L, adjusting for neurologic functioning at the evaluation. The CSF lactate, calcium, and glucose concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were not predictive of long-term ambulatory outcome. Data analysis revealed that long-term functional recovery was > 98% for affected dogs, regardless of their initial MFS, when CSF CK activity was ≤ 38 U/L and MBP concentration was ≤ 3 ng/mL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with acute thoracolumbar IVDH, CSF CK activity and MBP concentration appeared to be prognostic indicators and, along with initial MFS, can be used to predict long-term ambulatory outcome.
Objective—To determine long-term results and complications
of gonadectomy performed at an early age
(prepubertal) or at the traditional age in cats.
Animals—263 cats from animal shelters.
Procedure—Cats that underwent gonadectomy were
allotted to 2 groups on the basis of estimated age at
surgery (traditional age, ≥ 24 weeks old; prepubertal,
< 24 weeks old). Adoptive owner information was
obtained from shelter records, and telephone interviews
were conducted with owners to determine
physical or behavioral problems observed in the cats
after adoption. Follow-up information was obtained
from attending veterinarians for cats with complex
problems or when owners were uncertain regarding
the exact nature of their cat's problem.
Results—Compared with traditional-age gonadectomy,
prepubertal gonadectomy did not result in an
increased incidence of infectious disease, behavioral
problems, or problems associated with any body system
during a median follow-up period of 37 months.
Additionally, the rate of retention in the original adoptive
household was the same for cats that underwent
prepubertal gonadectomy as those that underwent
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prepubertal
gonadectomy may be performed safely in cats without
concern for increased incidence of physical or
behavioral problems for at least a 3-year period after
gonadectomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:
Objective—To determine long-term results and complications
of gonadectomy performed at an early age
(prepubertal) or at the traditional age in dogs.
Animals—269 dogs from animal shelters.
Procedure—Dogs that underwent gonadectomy
were allotted to 2 groups on the basis of estimated
age at surgery (traditional age, ≥ 24 weeks old; prepubertal,
< 24 weeks old). Adoptive owner information
was obtained from shelter records, and telephone
interviews were conducted with owners to
determine physical or behavioral problems observed
in the dogs since adoption. Follow-up information was
obtained from attending veterinarians for dogs with
complex problems or when owners were uncertain
regarding the exact nature of their dog's problem.
Results—Prepubertal gonadectomy did not result in
an increased incidence of behavioral problems or
problems associated with any body system, compared
with traditional-age gonadectomy, during a
median follow-up period of 48 months after gonadectomy.
Rate of retention in the original adoptive household
was the same for dogs that underwent prepubertal
gonadectomy as those that underwent traditional-
age gonadectomy. Infectious diseases, however,
were more common in dogs that underwent prepubertal
Conclusions and Clinical Implications—With the
exception of infectious diseases, prepubertal
gonadectomy may be safely performed in dogs without
concern for increased incidence of physical or
behavioral problems during at least a 4-year period
after gonadectomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:
Objective—To determine whether substantial interobserver
variation exists among diagnostic pathologists
for descriptions of intestinal mucosal cell populations
and whether histopathologic descriptions
accurately predict when a patient does not have clinically
evident intestinal disease.
Sample Population—14 histologic slides of duodenal,
ileal, or colonic tissue from 10 dogs and 3
Procedure—Each histologic slide was evaluated
independently by 5 pathologists at 4 institutions.
Pathologists, who had no knowledge of the tissues'
origin, indicated whether slides were adequate for
histologic evaluation and whether the tissue was normal
or abnormal. They also identified the main infiltrating
cell type in specimens that were considered
abnormal, and whether infiltrates were mild, moderate,
severe, or neoplastic.
Results—Quality of all slides was considered adequate
or superior by at least 4 of the 5 pathologists.
For intensity of mucosal cellular infiltrates, there was
uniformity of opinion for 1 slide, near-uniformity for 6
slides, and nonuniformity for 7 slides. Five dogs did
not have clinical evidence of intestinal disease, yet
the pathologists' descriptions indicated that their
intestinal tissue specimens were abnormal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substantial
interobserver variation was detected. Standardization
of pathologic descriptions of intestinal tissue is necessary
for meaningful comparisons with published
articles. Clinicians must be cautious about correlating
clinical signs and histopathologic descriptions of
intestinal biopsy specimens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc