Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 27 items for

  • Author or Editor: Lynelle R. Johnson x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To describe the clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic features, and outcome of tracheal collapse in American Miniature Horses at a referral institution.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—13 American Miniature Horses with tracheal collapse.

Procedures—Medical records of American Miniature Horses with tracheal collapse at a referral hospital were reviewed. Data extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory data, diagnostic procedures, outcome, and histologic findings.

Results—Tracheal collapse was documented in 5.6% of American Miniature Horses admitted to this referral hospital. Median age at onset of clinical signs was 11 years with a range of 2 to 15 years. Common complaints and clinical signs included respiratory distress, tachypnea, inspiratory honking noises, and increased abdominal expiratory effort, which were exacerbated by stressful events, pregnancy, exercise, a dusty environment, and eating. Tracheal collapse was confirmed by use of radiography, endoscopy, fluoroscopy, or postmortem examination. Dorsoventral flattening of the extra- or intrathoracic trachea, or both, was more common than lateral collapse. Tracheal chondromalacia was identified histologically in 4 cases, and mortality rate for affected horses was 10 of 13.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tracheal collapse was relatively common in this study of American Miniature Horses, and outcome was poor. The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe vertebral left atrial size (VLAS), a quantitative method to estimate left atrial (LA) size radiographically, and to determine its diagnostic value for prediction of echocardiographic LA enlargement in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) of varying severity.

DESIGN Prospective observational study.

ANIMALS 103 client-owned dogs with a left-sided systolic murmur.

PROCEDURES For each dog, 3-view thoracic radiographs were obtained within 24 hours of an echocardiographic examination. The VLAS was measured on right and left lateral thoracic radiographs and compared with the left atrium-to-aortic root ratio acquired from short-axis (LA:AoSx) and long-axis (LA:AoLx) echocardiographic images. Left atrial enlargement was defined as an LA:AoLx ≥ 2.6 or LA:AoSx ≥ 1.6. Dogs were allocated to 4 groups on the basis of MMVD severity.

RESULTS Of the 103 dogs, 15, 40, 26, and 22 were assigned to the control (no echocardiographic abnormalities), stage B1 (hemodynamically irrelevant MMVD), B2 (hemodynamically relevant MMVD), and C-D (MMVD with congestive heart failure) groups, respectively. Median VLAS, LA:AoSx, and LA:AoLx for the stage B2 and C-D groups were significantly greater than the corresponding medians for the control and stage B1 groups. There was a moderate positive correlation between VLAS and both LA:AoSx and LA:AoLx. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that a VLAS ≥ 2.3 vertebrae was a useful predictor of LA enlargement. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements for VLAS measurements were high.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated VLAS was a repeatable and useful radiographic measurement for prediction of LA enlargement in dogs with MMVD.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the degree of fluctuation in tracheal dimensions between forced inspiration and passive expiration in healthy dogs of various sizes.

Animals—10 client-owned dogs with no evidence of respiratory disease or tracheal collapse.

Procedures—Anesthetized dogs underwent a computed tomographic examination during forced inspiration and induced but passive expiration to assess tracheal dimensions. Tracheal height, width, and cross-sectional area were measured at inspiration and expiration, and percentage change in dimension was calculated for each variable.

Results—Measurements were acquired in 10 dogs that ranged in body weight from 3.5 to 47.8 kg. Tracheal cross-sectional area at inspiration and expiration was associated with body weight at all 3 tracheal regions. The percentage change in tracheal height and cross-sectional area was associated with body weight in the cervical but not the thoracic-inlet or thoracic regions. The tracheal cross-sectional area changed by as much as 24.2% (mean, 5.5%), 20.0% (mean, 6.0%), and 18.6% (mean, 6.0%) in the cervical, thoracic-inlet, and thoracic regions, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The change in tracheal cross-sectional area from inspiration to expiration was as great as 24% in healthy dogs, and the area was associated with body weight. Respiratory fluctuations appeared to result in changes in tracheal dimension during respiration similar to those reported for humans.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 1.5-year-old spayed female Bernese Mountain Dog was examined for a 6-month history of intermittent vomiting, regurgitation, wheezing, and coughing. Initially, a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease with secondary aspiration pneumonitis was made but clinical signs did not resolve with treatment.

Clinical Findings—Thoracic and cervical radiography and CT revealed a sessile, irregularly marginated soft tissue opacity at the level of the fourth rib. Results of a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were within reference limits. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were normal.

Treatment and Outcome—Tracheoscopy revealed a firm, irregularly marginated mass apparently originating from the ventral aspect of the trachea, occluding approximately one-half of the tracheal lumen, and located 2 cm cranial to the carina. Cytologic and histopathologic examination of fine-needle aspirate and biopsy samples suggested a benign etiology; therefore, endoscopic minimally invasive laser and electrocautery resection of the mass was scheduled. A total IV anesthetic protocol was administered with an oxygen-air mixture used to decrease the risk of fire during tracheal surgery. The mass was successfully resected, and histopathologic examination confirmed a diagnosis of osteochondroma. Clinical signs resolved, and at follow-up 32 months later, no regrowth of the mass was evident.

Clinical Relevance—Tracheoscopy-guided electrocautery and surgical diode laser resection was successful in removing an obstructive tracheal mass that was not resectable by means of a conventional open surgical approach. Minimally invasive procedures may decrease morbidity and mortality and improve outcome in appropriately selected small animal patients.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the sensitivity and specificity of serologic evaluation and fungal culture of tissue for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—58 dogs with nasal discharge and 26 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs with nasal discharge were anesthetized and underwent computed tomography and rhinoscopy; nasal tissues were collected for histologic examination and fungal culture. Sera were assessed for antibodies against Aspergillus spp (healthy dog sera were used as negative control specimens). Nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed in dogs that had at least 2 of the following findings: computed tomographic characteristics consistent with aspergillosis, fungal plaques detected during rhinoscopy, and histologically detectable fungal hyphae in nasal tissue. Histologic characteristics of malignancy were diagnostic for neoplasia. Without evidence of neoplasia or fungal disease, nonfungal rhinitis was diagnosed.

Results—Among the 58 dogs, 21 had nasal aspergillosis, 25 had nonfungal rhinitis, and 12 had nasal neoplasia. Fourteen aspergillosis-affected dogs and 1 dog with nonfungal rhinitis had serum antibodies against Aspergillus spp. Fungal culture results were positive for Aspergillus spp only for 17 dogs with aspergillosis. With regard to aspergillosis diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 67%, 98%, 93%, and 84%, respectively, for serum anti-Aspergillus antibody determination and 81%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively, for fungal culture.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that seropositivity for Aspergillus spp and identification of Aspergillus spp in cultures of nasal tissue are highly suggestive of nasal aspergillosis in dogs; however, negative test results do not rule out nasal aspergillosis.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs and rhinoscopic, computed tomographic, and histologic abnormalities in dogs with idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—37 dogs.

Procedure—Clinical information was obtained from medical records. Nasal computed tomographic images and histologic slides of biopsy specimens were reviewed.

Results—Dogs ranged from 1.5 to 14 years old (mean, 8 years); most (28) were large-breed dogs. Nasal discharge was unilateral in 11 of 26 (42%) dogs and bilateral in 15 of 26 (58%) dogs. In dogs with unilateral disease, duration of clinical signs ranged from 1.5 to 36 months (mean, 8.25 months; median, 2 months), and in dogs with bilateral disease, duration of signs ranged from 1.25 to 30 months (mean, 6.5 months; median, 4 months). Computed tomography (n = 33) most often revealed fluid accumulation (27/33 [82%]), turbinate destruction (23/33 [70%]), and frontal sinus opacification (14/33 [42%]). Rhinoscopy (n = 37) commonly demonstrated increased mucus and epithelial inflammation; turbinate destruction was detected in 8 of 37 (22%) dogs. Bilateral biopsy specimens from all 37 dogs were examined. Four dogs had only unilateral inflammatory changes. The remaining 33 dogs had bilateral lesions; in 20, lesions were more severe on 1 side than the other.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis is a key contributor to chronic nasal disease in dogs and may be more common than previously believed. In addition, findings suggest that idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis is most often a bilateral disease, even among dogs with unilateral nasal discharge. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:1952–1957)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic abnormalities in dogs with coccidioidomycosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—24 dogs.

Procedure—Clinical information and results of clinicopathologic testing were obtained from medical records. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed to characterize abnormalities.

Results—Dogs ranged from 1 to 10 years old at the time of diagnosis, with 12 dogs being between 1 and 3 years old. Historical complaints included cough, lameness, signs of head or neck pain, and difficulty breathing. Mild anemia, neutrophilia, and monocytosis were common. All dogs had hypoalbuminemia, and 8 of 15 had hyperglobulinemia. Thoracic radiographs of 19 dogs were reviewed. Pulmonary infiltrates were seen in 13 dogs, with an interstitial pattern of infiltration being most common. Hilar lymphadenopathy was seen radiographically in 10 dogs. Serum from 20 dogs was tested for antibodies against Coccidioides immitis. One dog was positive for IgM antibodies, 5 were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies, and 14 were positive for IgG antibodies. Quantitative IgG titers measured in 14 dogs ranged from 1:2 to 1:128 (median and mode, 1:32). In 6 dogs, histologic examination of biopsy samples revealed fungal spherules ranging from 8 to 70 μm in diameter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in dogs, coccidioidomycosis may be associated with a wide spectrum of nonspecific respiratory and musculoskeletal abnormalities. The chronic nature of the disease makes diagnosis difficult, even in regions in which the organism is endemic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:461–466)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the number and types of underlying disorders detected in dogs with aspiration pneumonia and determine the survival rate among affected dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—88 dogs with aspiration pneumonia.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify disease processes that could result in aspiration pneumonia. To assess outcome (ie, survival to discharge from the hospital or nonsurvival), dogs were grouped by the type and number of underlying disease processes. Duration of hospitalization and radiographic severity of disease were evaluated with regard to case outcome.

Results—As the cause of aspiration pneumonia, a single underlying disorder was identified in 60 of the 88 dogs; 2 or more diseases were identified in the remaining dogs. Esophageal disease (n = 35), vomiting (34), neurologic disorders (24), laryngeal disease (16), and postanesthetic aspiration (12) were identified most commonly. Overall, 68 dogs survived to discharge from the hospital (survival rate, 77%). Survival rates were comparable among dogs regardless of the underlying cause of aspiration pneumonia. Radiographic severity of disease and duration of hospitalization did not influence survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among these study dogs, aspiration pneumonia was associated with a high survival rate. The presence of more than 1 underlying disease associated with aspiration pneumonia did not adversely impact survival rate. Interestingly, radiographic severity of disease and duration of hospitalization were not associated with overall survival rate.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic findings in dogs with aspiration pneumonia.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—88 dogs with aspiration pneumonia.

Procedures—History, physical examination findings, and clinicopathologic data were obtained from medical records and analyzed for all 88 dogs. Thoracic radiographic findings for all dogs were reviewed to determine the type and location of pulmonary infiltrates.

Results—Aspiration pneumonia was evident at admission to the hospital in 65 (74%) dogs and developed during hospitalization in 23 (26%) dogs. Less than half of these affected dogs had high values for rectal temperature, heart rate, or respiratory rate; however, most (68%) affected dogs had increased, decreased, or adventitious lung sounds. Neutrophilia with a left shift was a common finding. Hypoalbuminemia was detected in 31 of 58 (53%) dogs. Hypoxemia and a high alveolar-arterial gradient in partial pressure of oxygen were detected in 22 of 28 (79%) dogs and 27 of 28 (96%) dogs, respectively. Among the 88 dogs, thoracic radiography revealed a predominantly alveolar infiltrate in 65 (74%) dogs and an interstitial pattern in 23 (26%) dogs; a single lung lobe was affected in 46 (52%) dogs, most commonly the right middle lung lobe (21/46 [46%] dogs).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, aspiration pneumonia was often associated with abnormalities in pulmonary auscultation in the absence of objective changes in physical examination findings. However, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoxemia were frequently detected, and radiographic evidence of infiltrates in the right middle lung lobe was common.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine cytologic and microbiologic findings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and SpO 2 values obtained during BAL in healthy rabbits.

Animals—9 rabbits.

Procedures—Bronchoscopic BAL of left and right caudal lobar bronchi (LB2 and RB4) was performed with 3 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution; SpO 2 was measured before, during, and after BAL. Percentage fluid recovered, total leukocyte counts, and differential cell counts were determined. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial, mycoplasmal, and fungal cultures were performed from combined LB2 and RB4 samples.

Results—Mean ± SD percentage fluid volumes recovered from LB2 and RB4 were 53 ± 13% and 63 ± 13%, respectively. Mean ± SD total leukocyte counts from LB2 and RB4 were 422 ± 199 cells/μL and 378 ± 97 cells/μL, respectively. Macrophages were most frequently identified. There were no significant differences in volumes retrieved, total leukocyte counts, or differential cell percentages between LB2 and RB4. Microbial culture results were negative for 3 rabbits and positive for mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth in 6 and 2 rabbits, respectively. The SpO 2 was ≥ 95% in 7 of 9 rabbits after anesthetic induction, < 95% in 5 of 6 rabbits 1 minute after BAL, and ≥ 95% in 5 of 9 rabbits and > 90% in 4 of 9 rabbits 3 minutes after BAL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bronchoscopic BAL with 3 mL of saline solution provided adequate fluid recovery for microbiologic and cytologic examination from the caudal lung lobes. Transient low SpO 2 was detected immediately after BAL.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research