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To determine the outcome of horses after arthroscopic removal of abaxial fracture fragments of the proximal sesamoid bone and association of fracture grade with outcome.


Retrospective study.


47 horses.


Information obtained from dorsopalmar and dorsoplantar radiographic views of metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints was used to classify fractures as grade 1 (< 15 mm long), grade 2 (15 to 25 mm long), and grade 3 (> 25 mm long) and type 1 (abaxial) and type 2 (apical-abaxial). Outcome was determined by whether the horse returned to its intended use, raced in the same class or higher (racehorses), or performed satisfactorily (nonracehorses). Number of starts, performance index, and money earned were also used to evaluate performance of racehorses.


Follow-up information was obtained for 41 horses (35 racehorses, 6 nonracehorses). Twenty-five racehorses were able to return to racing (16 in the same class, 9 in a lower class). All 6 nonracehorses were able to return to performance at the same level. Horses with small fracture fragments or fractures involving the abaxial aspect of the proximal sesamoid bone only had a more favorable outcome, compared with horses with large or apical-abaxial fractures.

Clinical Implications—

Overall, horses with abaxial fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone have a favorable prognosis for return to racing, but only a fair prognosis for return to racing in the same class, after arthroscopic removal of fracture fragments. Successful results can be expected for nonracehorses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:1016-1021)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To obtain information from specialists in equine surgery as to prevalence of, predisposing factors for, and methods to prevent postoperative adhesion formation in horses undergoing abdominal surgery.




Surveys were mailed to 196 diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons involved in equine practice.


60 (31%) surveys were returned. Most respondents (55/60) routinely informed clients of the risk of postoperative adhesion formation in horses with small intestinal lesions. When asked after which procedures they routinely used measures to prevent adhesions, 56 of 60 (93%) indicated that they did after small intestinal resection and anastomosis and 56 of 60 (93%) indicated that they did after any abdominal surgery in foals. The 4 methods most frequently listed when respondents were asked which methods were effective at preventing adhesion formation were meticulous surgical technique, administration of antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, intraoperative peritoneal lavage, and methods that prevent abdominal contamination. Most respondents (50/60) thought that at least some horses with colic secondary to adhesion formation could be managed medically. Fifty-four (90%) respondents indicated that they were successful less than half of the time when treating horses with adhesions severe enough to require additional surgery.


In general, respondents thought that less than 15% of horses undergoing abdominal surgery would develop adhesions, but that horses with small intestinal disease and foals were most prone to develop adhesions. Meticulous surgical technique was thought to be the most important factor in preventing adhesions, and many prevention regimens reported to be effective in the literature were not commonly used in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1573–1576)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine current practices regarding use of antimicrobials in equine patients undergoing surgery because of colic at veterinary teaching hospitals.


Sample Population—Diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons performing equine surgery at veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States.

Procedure—A Web-based questionnaire was developed, and 85 surgeons were asked to participate. The first part of the survey requested demographic information and information about total number of colic surgeries performed at the hospital, number of colic surgeries performed by the respondent, and whether the hospital had written guidelines for antimicrobial drug use. The second part pertained to nosocomial infections. The third part provided several case scenarios and asked respondents whether they would use antimicrobial drugs in these instances.

Results—Thirty-four (40%) surgeons responded to the questionnaire. Respondents indicated that most equine patients undergoing surgery because of colic at veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States received antimicrobial drugs. Drugs that were used were similar for the various hospitals that were represented, and for the most part, the drugs that were used were fairly uniform irrespective of the type of colic, whereas the duration of treatment varied with the type of colic and the surgical findings. The combination of potassium penicillin and gentamicin was the most commonly used treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study document the implementation of recommendations by several authors in veterinary texts that antimicrobial drugs be administered perioperatively in equine patients with colic that are undergoing surgery. However, the need for long-term antimicrobial drug treatment in equine patients with colic is unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1359–1365)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize the fecal microbiota of horses and to investigate alterations in that microbiota on the basis of sample collection site (rectum vs stall floor), sample location within the fecal ball (center vs surface), and duration of environmental exposure (collection time).

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult mixed-breed mares.

PROCEDURES From each horse, feces were collected from the rectum and placed on a straw-bedded stall floor. A fecal ball was selected for analysis immediately after removal from the rectum and at 0 (immediately), 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours after placement on the stall floor. Approximately 250 mg of feces was extracted from the surface and center of each fecal ball, and genomic DNA was extracted, purified, amplified for the V1-V2 hypervariable region of the 16S rDNA gene, and analyzed with a bioinformatics pipeline.

RESULTS The fecal microbiota was unique for each horse. Bacterial community composition varied significantly between center and surface fecal samples but was not affected by collection time. Bacterial community composition varied rapidly for surface fecal samples. Individual bacterial taxa were significantly associated with both sample location and collection time but remained fairly stable for up to 6 hours for center fecal samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, for horses, fecal samples for microbiota analysis should be extracted from the center of fecal balls collected within 6 hours after defecation. Samples obtained up to 24 hours after defecation can be analyzed with the realization that some bacterial populations may deviate from those immediately after defecation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors on the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by interferon-γ (IFN-γ)– and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of horses as an in vitro model of inflammation in horses.


1,440 samples of PBMCs from 6 healthy research horses.


From heparinized whole blood samples, PBMC cultures were obtained. An initial dose-response trial on 48 PBMC samples from 2 horses (24 samples each) was used to determine concentrations of IFN-γ and LPS for use as low- and high-level stimulation concentrations. Seventy-two PBMC samples from 6 horses were assigned equally to 1 of 4 PARP1 inhibition categories: no PARP1 inhibitor (PARP1 inhibition control); 2-((R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-4-carbozamide dihydrochloride (ABT888);4-(3-(1-(cyclopropanecarbonyl)piperazine-4-carbonyl)-4-fluorobenzyl)phthalazin-1(2H)-one (AZD2281); or N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl) -N,N-dimethylacetamide hydrochloride (PJ34). Samples of PBMCs from each horse and each PARP1 inhibition category were then assigned to 1 of 3 levels of IFN-γ and LPS stimulation: none (control), low stimulation, or high stimulation. After a 24-hour incubation period, a TNF-α ELISA was used to measure TNF-α concentration in the supernatant. Results were compared across treatments and for each horse. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA.


Median TNF-α concentration was significantly lower for PJ34-treated, high-level stimulated PBMCs than for PARP1 inhibition control, high-level stimulated PBMCs; however, no other meaningful differences in TNF-α concentration were detected among the inhibition and stimulation combinations.


Findings suggested that PJ34 PARP1 inhibition may reduce TNF-α production in horses, a potential benefit in reducing inflammation and endotoxin-induced damage in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate use of technetium Tc 99m disodium hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99m-Tc- HDP) for assessing fracture healing and 99m-Tc-HDP and technetium Tc 99m ciprofloxacin (99m-Tc-CIPRO) for early diagnosis of osteomyelitis in rabbits.

Animals—32 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedure—A femoral fracture defect stabilized with bone plates and cortical screws was used. Scintigraphy was performed 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after surgery. The 99m-Tc-CIPRO scan was performed 48 hours after the 99m-Tc-HDP scan. The uptake ratio of the experimental limb to the normal limb was calculated by use of multiple regions of interest. Results of radiography performed to determine external callus and lysis grade and percentage defect ossification at 16 weeks were compared with scintigraphy results.

Results—Infected fractures had a higher uptake ratio for 99m-Tc-HDP and 99m-Tc-CIPRO than noninfected fractures. Infected fractures could be differentiated from noninfected fractures late in healing by use of 99m-Tc-HDP. Although 99m-Tc-CIPRO was better than 99m-Tc-HDP for identifying infection, there was a high incidence of false positive and negative results with 99m-Tc-CIPRO. There was an association between 99m-Tc-HDP uptake ratio and callus formation and a good correlation between 99m-Tc-HDP uptake ratio and defect ossification after 4 weeks.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—99m-Tc-HDP and 99m-Tc-CIPRO may be useful for diagnosing osteomyelitis late in fracture healing; however, false positive and false negative results occur. Technetium Tc 99m disodium hydroxymethylene diphosphonate may be useful for evaluating fracture healing. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:736–745)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To document causes of colic in equine neonates, evaluate clinical features of neonates managed medically versus surgically, determine short- and long-term survival rates for neonates with specific medical and surgical lesions, and assess ability of patients to achieve intended use.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—137 client-owned equine neonates (< 30 days old) with a history of colic or signs of colic within 1 hour after hospital admission examined between 2000 and 2010.

Procedures—Signalment, history, results of physical examination, laboratory data, ancillary diagnostic tests, details of treatment, primary diagnosis, concurrent diseases and short-term survival rate were obtained from the medical records. Long-term follow-up information was obtained through phone survey.

Results—137 neonates with colic were included. The majority (122 [89%]) of neonates were managed medically. The 3 most common diagnoses associated with colic were enterocolitis (37 [27%]), meconium-associated colic (27 [20%]), and transient medical colic (26 [19%]). The most common reason for surgery was small intestinal strangulating obstruction, and these neonates were more likely to have severe, continuous pain and were less responsive to analgesics. Concurrent diseases were common (87 [64%]) but did not significantly impact survival rate. Short-term survival rate was not significantly different between medically (75%) and surgically (73%) managed neonates. Long-term survival rate was excellent (66/71 [93%]) for horses that survived to hospital discharge. Most neonates surviving to maturity were used as intended (49/59 [83%]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most neonates examined for signs of colic can be managed medically. Short-term survival rate in medically and surgically treated neonates was good. Long-term survival rate of foals discharged from the hospital was excellent, with most achieving intended use.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association